Squamous-cell carcinomas (SCCs), also known as epidermoid carcinomas, comprise a number of different types of cancer that begin in squamous cells. These cells form on the surface of the skin, on the lining of hollow organs in the body, and on the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts.
Bowenoid papulosis, which histologically resembles Bowen disease, presents as reddish papules.
When associated with the prostate, squamous-cell carcinoma is very aggressive in nature. It is difficult to detect as no increase in prostate-specific antigen levels is seen, meaning that the cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage.
Vagina and cervixEdit
Vaginal SCC spreads slowly and usually stays near the vagina, but may spread to the lungs and liver. This is the most common type of vaginal cancer.
Most bladder cancer is transitional cell, but bladder cancer associated with schistosomiasis is often SCC.
Biopsy of a highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. Typical squamous-cell carcinoma cells are large with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and large, often vesicular, nuclei.Haematoxylin & eosin stain
Squamous Cell Carcinoma, well differentiated, left upper paraspinal back marked for biopsy with adjacent actinic keratosis
Squamous Cell Carcinoma, left lateral canthus marked for biopsy
Squamous Cell Carcinoma, left ventral forearm
Cancer can be considered a very large and exceptionally heterogeneous family of malignant diseases, with squamous cell carcinomas comprising one of the largest subsets. All SCC lesions are thought to begin via the repeated, uncontrolled division of cancer stem cells of epithelial lineage or characteristics. SCCs arise from squamous cells, which are flat cells that line many areas of the body. Some of which are keratinocytes. Accumulation of these cancer cells causes a microscopic focus of abnormal cells that are, at least initially, locally confined within the specific tissue in which the progenitor cell resided. This condition is called squamous cell carcinoma in situ, and it is diagnosed when the tumor has not yet penetrated the basement membrane or other delimiting structure to invade adjacent tissues. Once the lesion has grown and progressed to the point where it has breached, penetrated, and infiltrated adjacent structures, it is referred to as "invasive" squamous cell carcinoma. Once a carcinoma becomes invasive, it is able to spread to other organs and cause the formation of a metastasis, or "secondary tumor".
Marjolin's ulcer is a type of SCC that arises from a nonhealing ulcer or burn wound. More recent evidence, however, suggests that genetic differences exist between SCC and Marjolin's ulcer, which were previously underappreciated.
Adenoid squamous cell carcinoma (also known as pseudoglandular squamous cell carcinoma) is characterized by a tubular microscopic pattern and keratinocyteacantholysis.
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is characterized by a predilection for the tongue base.
Clear-cell squamous cell carcinoma (also known as clear-cell carcinoma of the skin) is characterized by keratinocytes that appear clear as a result of hydropic swelling.
Signet ring-cell squamous cell carcinoma (occasionally rendered as signet ring-cell squamous cell carcinoma) is a histological variant characterized by concentric rings composed of keratin and large vacuoles corresponding to markedly dilated endoplasmic reticulum. These vacuoles grow to such an extent that they radically displace the cellnucleus toward the cell membrane, giving the cell a distinctive superficial resemblance to a "signet ring" when viewed under a microscope.
Adenoid squamous-cell carcinoma
Basaloid squamous-cell carcinoma
Clear-cell squamous-cell carcinoma
Spindle-cell squamous-cell carcinoma
Studies have found evidences for an association between diet and skin cancers, including SCC. The consumption of high-fat dairy foods increases SCC tumor risk in people with previous skin cancer. Green leafy vegetables may help prevent development of subsequent SCC and multiple studies found that raw vegetables and fruits are significantly protective against SCC risk. On the other hand, consumption of whole milk, yogurt, and cheese may increase SCC risk in susceptible people. In addition, meat and fat dietary pattern can increase the risk of SCC in people without a history of SCC, but the association is again more prominent in people with a history of skin cancer. Tobacco smoking and a dietary pattern characterized by high beer and liquor intake also increase the risk of SCC significantly.
^ ab"NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms". National Cancer Institute. 2011-02-02. Retrieved 9 November 2016.
^Yu Y, Yang A, Hu S, Yan H (June 2009). "Correlation of HPV-16/18 infection of human papillomavirus with lung squamous cell carcinomas in Western China". Oncology Reports. 21 (6): 1627–32. doi:10.3892/or_00000397. PMID19424646.
^"Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Situ of the Finger". Retrieved 2010-09-22.
^"Types of head and neck cancer - Understanding - Macmillan Cancer Support". Retrieved 15 March 2017.
^Howell, Jesse Y.; Ramsey, Michael L. (2022), "Squamous Cell Skin Cancer", StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, PMID28722968, retrieved 2022-03-09
^Syed MI, Stewart M, Syed S, Dahill S, Adams C, McLellan DR, Clark LJ (January 2011). "Squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland: primary or secondary disease?". The Journal of Laryngology and Otology. 125 (1): 3–9. doi:10.1017/S0022215110002070. PMID20950510. S2CID 28225556.
^"Esophageal Cancer". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. 26 October 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2021.
^Pooler C, Hannon RA, Porth C, Matfin G (2010). Porth pathophysiology: concepts of altered health states (1st Canadian ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 660. ISBN 978-1-60547-781-7.
^Robbins S, Kumar V, Abbas A, Fausto N (2007). Robbins Basic Pathology (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier. p. 688. ISBN 978-1-4160-2973-1.
^"Squamous-cell Carcinoma of the Vagina". www.dynamed.com. Retrieved 2018-02-20.
^Dr Nicholas Turnbull, A/Prof Patrick Emanual (2014-05-03). "Squamous cell carcinoma pathology". DermNetz.
^Prieto-Garcia C, Hartmann O, Reissland M, Braun F, Fischer T, Walz S, et al. (April 2020). "Maintaining protein stability of ∆Np63 via USP28 is required by squamous cancer cells". EMBO Molecular Medicine. 12 (4): e11101. doi:10.15252/emmm.201911101. PMC7136964. PMID32128997.
^Berman JJ (November 2004). "Tumor taxonomy for the developmental lineage classification of neoplasms". BMC Cancer. 4 (1): 88. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-4-88. PMC535937. PMID15571625.
^Travis WD, Brambilla E, Muller-Hermelink HK, Harris CC, eds. (2004). Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Lung, Pleura, Thymus and Heart(PDF). World Health Organization Classification of Tumours. Lyon: IARC Press. ISBN 978-92-832-2418-1. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
^Van Holten, Valerie; World Health Organization (1990). Muir, C.S.; Percy, C.L.; Van Holten, V. (eds.). International Classification of Diseases for Oncology: ICD-0 (2nd ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. ISBN 9789241544146.
^Rapini RP, Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1.
^ abcdeFitzpatrick TB, Freedberg IM, eds. (2003). Fitzpatrick's dermatology in general medicine (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. p. 743. ISBN 978-0-07-138076-8.
^Sinha S, Su S, Workentine M, Agabalyan N, Cheng M, Gabriel V, Biernaskie J (January 2017). "Transcriptional Analysis Reveals Evidence of Chronically Impeded ECM Turnover and Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition in Scar Tissue Giving Rise to Marjolin's Ulcer". Journal of Burn Care & Research. 38 (1): e14–e22. doi:10.1097/BCR.0000000000000432. PMID27679957. S2CID 3702018.
^ abDe Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Ronco AL, Boffetta P, Brennan P, Muñoz N, Castellsagué X, Correa P, Mendilaharsu M (October 2003). "Food groups and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus: a case-control study in Uruguay". British Journal of Cancer. 89 (7): 1209–14. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6601239. PMC2394307. PMID14520448.
^Chen YK, Lee CH, Wu IC, Liu JS, Wu DC, Lee JM, Goan YG, Chou SH, Huang CT, Lee CY, Hung HC, Yang JF, Wu MT (July 2009). "Food intake and the occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in different sections of the esophagus in Taiwanese men". Nutrition. 25 (7–8): 753–61. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2009.02.002. PMID19394796.
^Hughes MC, van der Pols JC, Marks GC, Green AC (October 2006). "Food intake and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in a community: the Nambour skin cancer cohort study". International Journal of Cancer. 119 (8): 1953–60. doi:10.1002/ijc.22061. PMID16721782.
^Ibiebele TI, van der Pols JC, Hughes MC, Marks GC, Williams GM, Green AC (May 2007). "Dietary pattern in association with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin: a prospective study". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 85 (5): 1401–8. doi:10.1093/ajcn/85.5.1401. PMID17490979.
^Bahmanyar S, Ye W (2006). "Dietary patterns and risk of squamous-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia: a population-based case-control study in Sweden". Nutrition and Cancer. 54 (2): 171–8. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5402_3. PMID16898861. S2CID 1959103.