Strain 121


Strain 121
Scientific classification
Geogemma barossii

Strain 121 (Geogemma barossii) is a single-celled microbe of the domain Archaea. First discovered 320 km (200 mi) off Puget Sound near a hydrothermal vent, it is a hyperthermophile, able to reproduce at 121 °C (250 °F), hence its name. It was (at the time of its discovery) the only known form of life that could tolerate such high temperatures. A temperature of 130 °C (266 °F) is biostatic for Strain 121, meaning that although growth is halted, the archaeon remains viable, and can resume reproducing once it has been transferred to a cooler medium.

The ability to grow at 121 °C (250 °F) is significant because medical equipment is exposed to this temperature for sterilization in an autoclave. Prior to the 2003 discovery of Strain 121, a fifteen-minute exposure to autoclave temperatures was believed to kill all living organisms. However, Strain 121 is not infectious in humans, because it cannot grow at temperatures near 37 °C (99 °F).

Strain 121 metabolizes by reducing iron oxide.

See also


  • Kashefi, Kazem; Lovley, Derek R. (2003). "Extending the upper temperature limit for life". Science. 301 (5635): 934. doi:10.1126/science.1086823. PMID 12920290.

External links

  • Guardian News
  • Pulse of the Planet
  • New Scientist article
  • Science Daily article
  • NSF "Microbe from Depths Takes Life to Hottest Known Limit"
  • How Hot is Too Hot for Earth-Style Life?