Structure of the United States Space Force

Summary

Organization of the United States Space Force within the Department of Defense.

The structure of the United States Space Force refers to the different types of organizational units in the service: the Space Staff, the field commands, and the space deltas.

The Space Force is organized as one of two coequal military service branches within the Department of the Air Force, the other being the United States Air Force. Both services are overseen by the secretary of the Air Force, who has overall responsibility for organizing, training, and equipping the Air Force and Space Force.[1]

The military head of the Space Force is the chief of space operations (CSO), who is an officer in the grade of general.

History

On 20 December 2019, Air Force Space Command's principal components were 14th Air Force (Air Forces Strategic) and the Space and Missile Systems Center. At the same time as the creation of the Space Force 14th Air Force was redesignated as Space Operations Command.[2]

Space Staff

Space Staff Badge

The Space Staff is the headquarters of the U.S. Space Force. Like the U.S. Air Force's Air Staff that is under the Department of the Air Force, it is overseen by the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force. It is responsible for developing doctrine, guidance, and plans in performing the Space Force's functions, cooperating with the Air Staff on support issues. It is composed of the military service's most senior leaders: the chief of space operations, the vice chief of space operations, and the chief master sergeant of the Space Force. Like the other services, there is a director of staff who oversees the synchronization of policies and plans of the headquarters staff and three deputy chiefs of space operations.[3]

The Space Staff was designed to be lean. Compared to the Air Force's nine headquarters directorates, the Space Force merged nine functional areas into three directorates.[3] Additionally, each of the three deputy chiefs of space operations has unofficial positional titles akin to that of corporate organizations: chief human capital officer, chief operations officer, and chief strategy and resourcing officer. The chief human capital officer position is held by a senior civilian official, while both the chief operations officer and chief strategy and resourcing officer positions are filled by two lieutenant generals.[4] Also, a chief technology and innovation officer position was most recently filled by now-retired Major General Kimberly Crider who was also the mobilization assistant to the chief of space operations,[5] a post whose current holder serves as Acting CTIO.[6]

Field organization

The Space Force field organization consist of three different echelons of command: field commands, deltas, and squadrons.[9]

Field command

Field commands align with specific mission focuses and are led by officers in the grade of lieutenant general or major general, comparable to the United States Air Force's major command. The Space Force's three field commands will be Space Operations Command (SpOC), Space Systems Command (SSC), and Space Training and Readiness Command (STARCOM).

Field Command Headquarters Current commander
Space Operations Command emblem.png Space Operations Command (SpOC) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado Lt Gen Stephen Whiting
Space Systems Command emblem.png Space Systems Command (SSC) Los Angeles Air Force Base, California Lt Gen Michael Guetlein
Space Training and Readiness Command emblem.png Space Training and Readiness Command (STARCOM) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado Brig Gen Shawn Bratton, USAF

Space Operations Command

Space Operations Command (SpOC) structure.

The Space Operations Command (SpOC) will be the primary force provider of space forces and capabilities. It is responsible for the organization, training, equipping, command and control, and employment of space forces to support operational plans and missions for U.S. combatant commanders. It is headquartered at Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado.[10]

Established on 21 October 2020, SpOC was the first field command activated. It was established by the redesignation of the headquarters of the former Air Force Space Command to Space Operations Command. It was composed of the 10 deltas and two garrisons activated on 24 July 2020. This included the Space Training and Readiness Delta (Provisional) which served as the interim unit for space training and education until the August 2021 stand-up of a full field command. SpOC also maintained command of the two launch wings, which were later redesignated as launch deltas in 2021, previously under the Air Force Space Command until the establishment of the Space Systems Command.[11]

The 14th Air Force in Vandenberg Space Force Base, California that was temporarily redesignated Space Operations Command upon the creation of the Space Force was inactivated. A new unit, Space Operations Command West (SpOC West), was activated to serve as headquarters of the Combined Force Space Component Command (CFSCC), a subordinate command of the United States Space Command. The SpOC West commander also served as the commander of CFSCC and as the deputy commander of SpOC.

Space Systems Command

Planned organizational structure of the Space Systems Command.

The Space Systems Command (SSC) is becoming responsible for developing, acquiring, and fielding space systems, as well as launch, developmental testing, on-orbit checkout, and sustainment and maintenance of space systems. It also runs Space Force science and technology activities.

The Space Force on 8 April 2021 announced the planned structure of the SSC. Led by a lieutenant general, SSC was to be formed by redesignating the Space and Missile Systems Center, Commercial Satellite Communications Office, and other space systems programs offices transferred into the Space Force, being stood up in summer 2021. On July 29, Michael Guetlein was confirmed as its first commander by the United States Senate.[12][13] The ceremony installing him in command of the new SSC was held August 13, 2021.[14]

Under the new structure, the two launch deltas previously under SpOC were reassigned to SSC under the oversight of the SSC deputy commander. The commander of the Space Launch Delta 45 will take on additional duties as the field command's director of operations.[12]

Space Training and Readiness Command

STARCOM emblem

The Space Training and Readiness Command was planned to train and educate space professionals, and develop combat-ready space forces. Initially, before the activation of the command, a Space Training and Readiness Delta was established in July 2020 at Peterson SFB.[9] STARCOM was activated on 23 August 2021, led by a major general.[15] Five subordinate deltas then began being establsihed: one each for training, doctrine and lessons learned, range and aggressor, test and evaluation, and education.[16]

Delta

Deltas are organized around a specific function, such as operations, installation support, and training, and are led by an officer in the grade of colonel. Below deltas are squadrons, which are focused on specific tactics and are led by an officer in the grade of lieutenant colonel.[9] The first 11 deltas in the Space Force were initially assigned to the Space Operations Command. Among those 11, two are realigned under the Space Systems Command, and the Space Training and Readiness Delta (Provisional) has become a separate field command.

Anthony Mastalir, the former commander of Space Launch Delta 30, indicated in a farewell article the creation of Space Delta 1.[17]

Delta Headquarters Current commander
Space Operations Command
Emblem of Space Delta 2.png Space Delta 2 (Space Domain Awareness) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado Col Marc A. Brock
Emblem of Space Delta 3.png Space Delta 3 (Space Electronic Warfare) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado Col Christopher A. Fernengel
Emblem of Space Delta 4.png Space Delta 4 (Missile Warning) Buckley Space Force Base, Colorado Col Miguel A. Cruz
Emblem of Space Delta 5.png Space Delta 5 (Command and Control) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California Col Monique C. DeLauter
Emblem of Space Delta 6.png Space Delta 6 (Cyberspace Operations) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado Col Roy V. Rockwell
Emblem of Space Delta 7.png Space Delta 7 (Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado Col Chandler P. Atwood
Emblem of Space Delta 8.png Space Delta 8 (Satellite Communication/Navigation Warfare) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado Col Matthew E. Holston
Emblem of Space Delta 9.png Space Delta 9 (Orbital Warfare) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado Col Casey M. Beard
Space Systems Command
Space Launch Delta 30 emblem.png Space Launch Delta 30 (SLD 30) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California Col Robert A. Long
Space Launch Delta 45 emblem.png Space Launch Delta 45 (SLD 45) Patrick Space Force Base, Florida Brig Gen Stephen G. Purdy
Space Training and Readiness Command
Space Delta 1 emblem.png Space Delta 1 (Training) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California Col Jason N. Schramm
Space Delta 10 emblem.png Space Delta 10 (Doctrine and Wargaming) United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Col Jack D. Fulmer II
Space Delta 11 emblem.png Space Delta 11 (Range and Aggressor) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado Col Kyle J. Pumroy
Space Delta 12 emblem.png Space Delta 12 (Test and Evaluation) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado Col Peter J. Flores
Space Delta 13 emblem.png Space Delta 13 (Education) Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama Col Niki J. Lindhorst

Garrison

Garrisons are installation commands that oversee mission support like the U.S Air Force's air base wings. There are currently three garrisons in the Space Force. The 61st Air Base Group at Los Angeles Air Force Base, California is redesignated as Los Angeles Garrison following the stand-up of the Space Systems Command.[18]

Delta Headquarters Current commander
Space Operations Command
Emblem of the Peterson-Schriever Garrison.svg Peterson-Schriever Garrison (P-S GAR) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado Col Zachary S. Warakomski
Emblem of the Buckley Garrison.svg Buckley Garrison (B GAR) Buckley Space Force Base, Colorado Col Marcus L. Jackson
Space Systems Command
Los Angeles Garrison emblem.png Los Angeles Garrison (LA GAR) Los Angeles Air Force Base, California Col Ann M. Igl

Squadron

Squadron Headquarters
Space Delta 1
STARCOM squadron template.png 1st Delta Operations Squadron (1st DOS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
319th Combat Training Squadron emblem.png 319th Combat Training Squadron (319th CTS) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado
328th Weapons Squadron emblem.png 328th Weapons Squadron (328th WPS) Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada
Emblem of the 533rd Training Squadron.png 533rd Training Squadron (533rd TRS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
Space Delta 2
21st Operations Support Squadron emblem.png 21st Operations Support Squadron (21st OSS) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado
18th Space Control Squadron emblem.png 18th Space Control Squadron (18th SPCS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
20th Space Control Squadron emblem.png 20th Space Control Squadron (20th SPCS) Eglin Air Force Base, Florida
Space Delta 3
721st Operations Support Squadron emblem.png 721st Operations Support Squadron (721st OSS) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado
4th Space Control Squadron emblem.png 4th Space Control Squadron (4th SPCS) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado
5th Space Control Squadron emblem.png 5th Space Control Squadron (5th SPCS) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado
16th Space Control Squadron emblem.png 16th Space Control Squadron (16th SPCS) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado
Space Delta 4
460th Operations Support Squadron emblem.png 460th Operations Support Squadron (460th OSS) Buckley Space Force Base, Colorado
2nd Space Warning Squadron emblem.png 2nd Space Warning Squadron (2nd SWS) Buckley Space Force Base, Colorado
6th Space Warning Squadron emblem.png 6th Space Warning Squadron (6th SWS) Cape Cod Space Force Station, Massachusetts
7th Space Warning Squadron.PNG 7th Space Warning Squadron (7th SWS) Beale Air Force Base, California
10th Space Warning Squadron emblem.png 10th Space Warning Squadron (10th SWS) Cavalier Space Force Station, North Dakota
11th Space Warning Squadron emblem.png 11th Space Warning Squadron (11th SWS) Buckley Space Force Base, Colorado
12th Space Warning Squadron emblem.png 12th Space Warning Squadron (12th SWS) Thule Air Base, Greenland
13th Space Warning Squadron emblem.png 13th Space Warning Squadron (13th SWS) Clear Space Force Station, Alaska
Space Delta 5
614th Combat Training Squadron emblem.png 614th Combat Training Squadron (614th CTS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
9 COS.png 9th Combat Operations Squadron (9th COS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
Space Delta 6
21st Space Operations Squadron emblem.png 21st Space Operations Squadron (21st SOPS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
22nd Space Operations Squadron emblem.png 22nd Space Operations Squadron (22nd SOPS) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
23rd Space Operations Squadron emblem.png 23rd Space Operations Squadron (23rd SOPS) New Boston Space Force Station, New Hampshire
61st Cyber Squadron emblem.png 61st Cyber Squadron (61st CYS) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
62nd Cyber Squadron emblem.png 62nd Cyber Squadron (62nd CYS) Buckley Space Force Base, Colorado
614 AIR & SPACE COMM SQ 2011 REWORK.png 62th Cyber Squadron (65th CYS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
Space Delta 7
71st Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Squadron emblem.png 71st Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Squadron (71st ISRS) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado
72nd Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Squadron emblem.png 72nd Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Squadron (72nd ISRS) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado
73rd Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Squadron emblem.png 73rd Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Squadron (73rd ISRS) Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio
Space Delta 8
50th Operations Support Squadron emblem.png 50th Operations Support Squadron (50th OSS) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
2nd Space Operations Squadron emblem.jpg 2nd Space Operations Squadron (2nd SOPS) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
4th Space Operations Squadron emblem.png 4th Space Control Squadron (4th SOPS) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
Space Delta 9
750th Operations Support Squadron emblem.png 750th Operations Support Squadron (50th OSS) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
1st Space Operations Squadron emblem.gif 1st Space Operations Squadron (1st SOPS) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
3rd Space Operations Squadron emblem.png 3rd Space Operations Squadron (3rd SOPS) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
Space Delta 9, Detachment 1 emblem.png Detachment 1 (DET 1) Schreiver Space Force Base, Colorado
Space Delta 10
10th Delta Operations Squadron emblem.png 10th Doctrine Support Squadron (10 DOS)
Space Delta 11
25th Space Range Squadron.png 25th Space Range Squadron (25th SRS) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
527th Space Aggressor Squadron emblem.png 527th Space Aggressor Squadron (527th SAS) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
Space Delta 12
1st Test and Evaluation Squadron emblem.png 1st Test and Evaluation Squadron (1st TES) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
3rd Test and Evaluation Squadron emblem.png 3rd Test and Evaluation Squadron (3rd TES) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
4th Test and Evaluation Squadron emblem.png 4th Test and Evaluation Squadron (4th TES) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
12th Delta Operations Squadron emblem.png 12th Delta Operations Squadron (12th DOS) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
17th Test and Evaluation Squadron emblem.png 17th Test and Evaluation Squadron (17th TES) Schriever Space Force Base, Colorado
Space Delta 13
STARCOM squadron template.png 13th Delta Operations Squadron (13th DOS) Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama
Emblem of the National Security Space Institute.png National Security Space Institute (NSSI) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado
Emblem of the Forrest L. Vosler Noncommissioned Officer Academy.png Forrest L. Vosler Noncommissioned Officer Academy (Vossler NCOA) Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado
Space Launch Delta 30
2 Range Operations Sq emblem.png 2nd Range Operations Squadron (2nd ROPS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
2d Space Launch Squadron Emblem.png 2nd Space Launch Squadron (2nd SLS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
30th Operations Support Squadron.PNG 30th Operations Support Squadron (30th OSS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
30 Space Communications Squadron.PNG 30th Space Communications Squadron (30th SCS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
30 Civil Engineer Sq emblem.png 30th Civil Engineer Squadron (30th CES) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
30 Contracting Sq emblem.png 30th Contracting Squadron (30th CONS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
SSC squadron template.png 30th Force Support Squadron (30th FSS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
30 Logistics Readiness Sq emblem.png 30th Logistics Readiness Squadron (30th LRS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
30 Security Forces Sq emblem.png 30th Security Forces Squadron (30th SFS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
SSC squadron template.png 30th Healthcare Operations Squadron (30th HCOS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
SSC squadron template.png 30th Operational Medical Readiness Squadron (30th OMRS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
30th Comptroller Squadron.PNG 30th Comptroller Squadron (30th CPTS) Vandenberg Space Force Base, California
Space Launch Delta 45
5th Space Launch Squadron.jpg 5th Space Launch Squadron (5th SLS) Patrick Space Force Base, Florida
45 Range Squadron.jpg 45th Range Squadron (5th RANS) Patrick Space Force Base, Florida
45 Communications Squadron emblem.png 45th Space Communications Squadron (45th SCS) Patrick Space Force Base, Florida
45th Weather Squadron.PNG 45th Weather Squadron (45th WS) Patrick Space Force Base, Florida
45 Civil Engineer Sq emblem.png 45th Civil Engineer Squadron (45th CES) Patrick Space Force Base, Florida
45 Contracting Sq emblem.png 45th Contracting Squadron (45th CONS) Patrick Space Force Base, Florida
SSC squadron template.png 45th Force Support Squadron (45th FSS) Patrick Space Force Base, Florida
45 Logistics Readiness Sq emblem.png 45th Logistics Readiness Squadron (45th LRS) Patrick Space Force Base, Florida
45th Security Forces Squadron.gif 45th Security Forces Squadron (45th SFS) Patrick Space Force Base, Florida
45th Healthcare Operations Squadron.jpg 45th Healthcare Operations Squadron (45th HCONS) Patrick Space Force Base, Florida
45th Operational Medical Readiness Squadron.jpg 45th Operational Medical Readiness Squadron (45th OMRS) Patrick Space Force Base, Florida
SSC squadron template.png 45th Comptroller Squadron (45th CPTS) Patrick Space Force Base, Florida

Planned transfers

On 12 March 2019, the Space Development Agency (SDA), a new space-focused development agency, additional to the Space and Missile Systems Center and the Space Rapid Capabilities Office, was established.[19] It was established under the authority of the under secretary of defense for research and engineering.[20] As of January 2020, the SDA is planned to become part of the U.S. Space Force in October 2022.[21]

In early April 2020, a list of twenty-three units to be transferred from the Air Force to the Space Force was publicly reported.[22] Those units included the 17th Test Squadron, Peterson Space Force Base, Colorado; 18th Intelligence Squadron, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH; the 25th Space Range Squadron, Schriever AFB, CO; the 328th Weapons Squadron, Nellis AFB, NV; the 527th Space Aggressor Squadron, Schriever AFB, CO; the 7th Intelligence Squadron, 659th Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Group, 70th ISR Wing, Ft. Meade, Maryland*; Sixteenth Air Force/Advanced Programs*, Schriever AFB, Colorado; the 32nd Intelligence Squadron, Ft. Meade, Maryland*; the 566th Intelligence Squadron, Buckley AFB, Colorado*; the 544th Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Group, Group Staff & Detachment 5, Peterson AFB, Colorado; D the 533d Training Squadron, 381st Training Group, Vandenberg AFB, CA (initial training); the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Research Lab Mission Execution, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio*; the AFRL Space Vehicles Directorate, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico*; the AFRL Rocket Propulsion Division, Edwards AFB, CA; the AFRL Electro-Optical Division, Maui, Hawaii & Kirtland AFB, New Mexico*; the AFRL Sensors Directorate, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio*; the Counter-Space Analysis Squadron and the Space Analysis Squadron, collectively half of the Space and Missiles Analysis Group, National Air and Space Intelligence Center, both at Wright-Patterson AFB; the Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center Detachment 4, Peterson AFB, CO; and the Air Force Safety Center – Space Safety Division, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico.

Detachment 1, USAF Warfare Center, Schriever AFB, Colorado; Operating Location A, 705th Combat Training Squadron, Schriever AFB, Colorado (ultimately part of the 505th Command and Control Wing), and the National Security Space Institute, Peterson AFB, CO National Security Space Institute, a place for space education became eventually part of the STAR Delta.

Heraldry

Each unit in the Space Force has an emblem in a shape depending on the unit type.[23] Each of the three field commands also have a distinctive color: Platinum Grey for SpOC, Gold for SSC, and Cannes Blue for STARCOM. Unit emblems are trimmed with the color of the field command to which they report. Space Force personnel assigned to National Reconnaissance Office roles will wear insignia trimmed in Black.

Unit SpOC
(Platinum)
SSC
(Gold)
STARCOM
(Cannes Blue)
Field Command Space Operations Command emblem.png Space Systems Command emblem.png Space Training and Readiness Command emblem.png
Delta SpOC delta template.png SSC delta template.png STARCOM delta template.png
Garrison
(hexagon)
SpOC garrison template.png SSC garrison template.png N/A
Squadron/Detachment
(ellipse)
SpOC squadron template.png SSC squadron template.png STARCOM squadron template.png

References

  1. ^ U.S. Department of Defense (February 2019). "United States Space Force Strategic Overview" (PDF). defense.gov. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 31, 2019. Retrieved May 11, 2019.
  2. ^ Chiles, Cody (December 27, 2019). "14th Air Force Redesignated as Space Operations Command". United States Space Force. Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  3. ^ a b "Comprehensive Plan for the Organizational Structure of the U.S. Space Force" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 5, 2020. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
  4. ^ "Space Force proposes headquarters staff led by generals and civilians". SpaceNews. July 7, 2020. Archived from the original on July 7, 2020. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  5. ^ "Space Force technology roadmap to emphasize partnerships with private sector". SpaceNews. August 19, 2020. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
  6. ^ @SpaceForceDoD (August 25, 2021). "Brig. Gen. John Olson, #SpaceForce Chief Technology and Innovation Officer, shared his thoughts during the "Buildin…" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  7. ^ "WADE S. YAMADA". www.af.mil. Archived from the original on June 21, 2021. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
  8. ^ https://www.spaceforce.mil/SFB/Display/Article/2794420/dr-lisa-a-costa/
  9. ^ a b c Kirby, Lynn (June 30, 2020). "USSF field command structure reduces command layers, focuses on space warfighter needs". United States Space Force. Archived from the original on April 8, 2021. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  10. ^ "About Space Operations Command". www.spoc.spaceforce.mil. Archived from the original on October 26, 2020. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  11. ^ "Space Force activates first field command". United States Space Force.
  12. ^ a b "Space Systems Command geared to deliver swift, responsive space capabilities". United States Space Force.
  13. ^ PN823 - 1 nominee for Space Force
  14. ^ Space Force Puvlic Affairs, "Space Force establishes 2nd Field Command, Guetlein assumes command"
  15. ^ "Space Force activates Space Training and Readiness Command". United States Space Force. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
  16. ^ https://www.facebook.com/STARDeltaUSSF/posts/199665078584129
  17. ^ "Space Force, COVID, and Space Launch Delta 30 – Reflecting on Col Mastalir's legacy at the". Vandenberg Space Force Base. Archived from the original on June 21, 2021. Retrieved June 21, 2021.
  18. ^ "Space Systems Command geared to deliver swift, responsive space capabilities". United States Space Force. Archived from the original on May 22, 2021. Retrieved June 21, 2021.
  19. ^ Browne, Ryan (March 13, 2019). "Pentagon launches development agency seen as key to future Space Force". CNN. Archived from the original on December 29, 2019. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
  20. ^ See https://www.cto.mil/ Archived 2020-08-17 at the Wayback Machine (accessed May 2020).
  21. ^ Valerie Insinna (January 21, 2020). "Space Development Agency on track to become part of Space Force in 2022, director says". Defense News. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  22. ^ Erwin, Sandra (March 31, 2020). "U.S. Air Force to transfer 23 units to the Space Force". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on April 1, 2020. Retrieved June 30, 2020.
  23. ^ https://www.reddit.com/r/SpaceForce/comments/i4x4ii/approved_ussf_patch_shapes_5_aug_2020/

See also