Supercomputing in India

Summary

Supercomputing in India has a history going back to the 1980s.[1] The Government of India created an indigenous development programme as they had difficulty purchasing foreign supercomputers.[1] As of November 2020 when ranking by number of supercomputer systems in the TOP500 list, India is ranked 63rd in the world, with the PARAM Siddhi-AI being the fastest supercomputer in India.[2]

History

Early years

India had faced difficulties in the 1980s when trying to purchase supercomputers for academic and weather forecasting purposes.[1] In 1986 the National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) started the Flosolver project to develop a computer for computational fluid dynamics and aerospace engineering.[3][4] The Flosolver MK1, described as a parallel processing system, started operations in December 1986.[3][5][4]

Indigenous development programme

In 1987 the Indian Government had requested to purchase a Cray X-MP supercomputer; this request was denied by the United States government as the machine could have a dual use in weapons development.[6] After this problem, in the same year, the Government of India decided to promote an indigenous supercomputer development programme.[7][8][9] Multiple projects were commissioned from different groups including the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), the Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT), the National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), and the Advanced Numerical Research and Analysis Group (ANURAG).[8][9] C-DOT created "CHIPPS": the C-DOT High-Performance Parallel Processing System. NAL had started to develop the Flosolver in 1986.[3][10] BARC created the Anupam series of supercomputers. ANURAG created the PACE series of supercomputers.[9]

C-DAC First Mission

The Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) was created at some point between November 1987 and August 1988.[7][9][8] C-DAC was given an initial 3 year budget of Rs375 million to create a 1000MFLOPS (1GFLOPS) supercomputer by 1991.[9] C-DAC unveiled the PARAM 8000 supercomputer in 1991.[1] This was followed by the PARAM 8600 in 1992/1993.[9][8] These machines demonstrated Indian technological prowess to the world and led to export success.[9][8]

C-DAC Second Mission

The PARAM 8000 was considered a success for C-DAC in delivering a gigaFLOPS range parallel computer.[9] From 1992 C-DAC undertook its "Second Mission" to deliver a 100 GFLOPS range computer by 1997/1998.[1] The plan was to allow the computer to scale to 1 teraFLOPS.[9][11] In 1993 the PARAM 9000 series of supercomputers was released, which had a peak computing power of 5 GFLOPS.[1] In 1998 the PARAM 10000 was released; this had a sustained performance of 38 GFLOPS on the LINPACK benchmark.[1]

C-DAC Third Mission

The C-DAC's third mission was to develop a teraFLOPS range computer.[1] The PARAM Padma was delivered in December 2002.[1] This was the first Indian supercomputer to feature on a list of the world's fastest supercomputers, in June 2003.[1]

Development by other groups in the early 2000s

By the early 2000s it was noted that only ANURAG, BARC, C-DAC and NAL were continuing development of their supercomputers.[5] NAL's Flosolver had 4 subsequent machines built in its series.[5] At the same time ANURAG continued to develop PACE, primarily based on SPARC processors.[5]

12th Five Year Plan

The Indian Government has proposed to commit 2.5 billion USD to supercomputing research during the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2012–2017). The project will be handled by Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore.[12] Additionally, it was later revealed that India plans to develop a supercomputer with processing power in the exaflops range.[13] It will be developed by C-DAC within the subsequent five years of approval.[14]

National Supercomputing Mission

In 2015 the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology announced a "National Supercomputing Mission" (NSM) to install 73 indigenous supercomputers throughout the country by 2022.[15][16][17][18] This is a seven-year program worth $730 million (Rs. 4,500 crore).[citation needed] Whilst previously computer were assembled in India, the NSM aims to produce the components within the country.[19] The NSM is being implemented by C-DAC and the Indian Institute of Science.[18]

The aim is to create a cluster of geographically-distributed high-performance computing centers linked over a high-speed network, connecting various academic and research institutions across India.[16] This has been dubbed the "National Knowledge Network" (NKN).[19] The mission involves both capacity and capability machines and includes standing up three petascale supercomputers.[20][21]

The first phase involved deployment of supercomputers which have 60% Indian components.[18] The second phase machines are intended to have an Indian designed processor,[18] with a completion date of April 2021.[19] The third and final phase intends to deploy fully indigenous supercomputers,[18] with an aimed speed of 45 petaFLOPS within the NKN.[19]

By October 2020, the first assembled in India supercomputer had been installed.[19] The NSM hopes to have the manufacturing capability for indigenous production by December 2020.[19]

Rankings

Current TOP500

As of June 2021 there are 3 systems based in India on the TOP500 supercomputer list.[22]

Rank Site Name Rmax
(TFlop/s)
Rpeak
(TFlop/s)
89 Centre for Development of Advanced Computing PARAM Siddhi-AI 4,619.0 5,267.1
107 Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology Pratyush (Cray XC40) 3,763.9 4,006.2
187 National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting Mihir (Cray XC40) 2,570.4 2,808.7

India's historical rank in TOP500

Rank of Indian supercomputers in TOP500 list[23]
List Number of systems
in TOP500
System Share (%) Total Rmax
(Gflops)
Total Rpeak
(Gflops)
Cores
2020 June 2 0.4 6,334,340 6,814,886 202,824
2019 November 2 0.4 6,334,340 6,814,886 202,824
2019 June 3 0.6 7,457,490 8,228,006 241,224
2018 November 4 0.8 8,358,996 9,472,166 272,328
2018 June 5 1 9,078,216 10,262,899 310,344
2017 November 4 0.8 2,794,753 3,759,153 107,544
2017 June 4 0.8 2,703,926 3,935,693 103,116
2016 November 5 1 3,092,368 4,456,051 133,172
2016 June 9 1.8 4,406,352 5,901,043 204,052
2015 November 11 2.2 4,933,698 6,662,387 236,692
2015 June 11 2.2 4,597,998 5,887,007 226,652
2014 November 9 1.8 3,137,692 3,912,187 184,124
2014 June 9 1.8 2,898,745 3,521,915 169,324
2013 November 12 2.4 3,040,297 3,812,719 188,252
2013 June 11 2.2 2,690,461 3,517,536 173,580
2012 November 9 1.8 1,291,739 1,890,914 90,548
2012 June 5 1 787,652 1,242,746 56,460
2011 November 2 0.4 187,910 242,995 18,128
2011 June 2 0.4 187,910 242,995 18,128
2010 November 4 0.8 257,243 333,005 25,808
2010 June 5 1 283,380 384,593 30,104
2009 November 3 0.6 199,257 279,702 23,416
2009 June 6 1.2 247,285 333,519 33,456
2008 November 8 1.6 259,394 368,501 37,488
2008 June 6 1.2 189,854 275,617 32,432
2007 November 9 1.8 194,524 303,651 34,932
2007 June 8 1.6 45,697 86,642 10,336
2006 November 10 2 34,162 61,520 10,908
2006 June 11 2.2 36,839 66,776 11,638
2005 November 4 0.8 11,379 21,691 3,354
2005 June 8 1.6 13,995 24,726 4,212
2004 November 7 1.4 6,945 11,873 2,126
2004 June 6 1.2 5,652 9,557 1,750
2003 November 3 0.6 2,099 5,098 1,106
2003 June 2 0.4 1,158 3,747 822

See also

Computers

General

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sinha, P. K.; Dixit, S. P.; Mohanram, N.; Purohit, S. C.; Arora, R. K.; Ramakrishnan, S. (2004). "Current state and future trends in high performance computing and communications (HPCC) research in India". Proceedings. 10th IEEE International Workshop on Future Trends of Distributed Computing Systems, 2004: 217–220. doi:10.1109/FTDCS.2004.1316619. ISBN 0-7695-2118-5. S2CID 47348115. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  2. ^ "TOP500, List statistics-Countries". Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  3. ^ a b c Sinha, U. N. (November 1998). "On parallel computing — Indian trends". Resonance. 3 (11): 2–5. doi:10.1007/BF02838704. S2CID 119381130. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  4. ^ a b Sinha, UN (1997). "A Decade of Parallel Meteorological Computing on the Flosolver". In Hoffmann, Geerd-R (ed.). Making its mark : proceedings of the Seventh ECMWF Workshop on the Use of Parallel Processors in Meteorology, Reading, UK, November 2-6, 1996. World Scientific. pp. 449–460. OCLC 246121972. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d Prasad, Ss; Nayak, Kd (March 2003). "R & D in High Performance Computing Systems in India". IETE Technical Review. 20 (2): 151–155. doi:10.1080/02564602.2003.11417079. S2CID 62175182. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  6. ^ Beary, Habib (1 April 2003). "India unveils huge supercomputer". BBC News. India began developing supercomputers in the late 1980s after being refused one by the US.
  7. ^ a b Delapierre, Michel; Zimmermann, Jean-Benoît (1989). "La nouvelle politique industrielle : le cas de l'informatique". Tiers-Monde. 30 (119): 559–576. doi:10.3406/tiers.1989.3862. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e Kahaner, D.K. (1996). "Parallel computing in India". IEEE Parallel & Distributed Technology: Systems & Applications. 4 (3): 7–11. doi:10.1109/88.532134. Retrieved 20 July 2020. L.M. Patnaik developed a significant amount of the factual material for this report.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i Patnaik, LM. "High Performance Computing in India and Far-East". United Nations Industrial Development Organisation. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  10. ^ Bhatkar, Vijay P. (1990). "Parallel computing : An Indian perspective". Conpar 90 — Vapp Iv. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 457: 10–25. doi:10.1007/3-540-53065-7_84. ISBN 978-3-540-53065-7. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  11. ^ Bhatkar, V.P. (April 1994). "PARAM parallel supercomputer: architecture, programming environment, and applications". Proceedings of 8th International Parallel Processing Symposium: 388–389. doi:10.1109/IPPS.1994.288273. ISBN 0-8186-5602-6. S2CID 9917838. Retrieved 23 July 2020.
  12. ^ "India Aims to Double R&D Spending for Science". HPC Wire. 4 January 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  13. ^ C-DAC and Supercomputers in India
  14. ^ "India plans 61 times faster supercomputer by 2017". The Times of India. 27 September 2012. Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  15. ^ Prashanth, GN (3 August 2015). "IISC all set to launch supercomputing mission". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  16. ^ a b "Govt to launch Rs 4,500 cr National Supercomputing Mission". cdac.in. Centre for Development of Advanced Computing. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  17. ^ "National Supercomputing Mission". pib.gov.in. Press Information Bureau, Government of India, Ministry of Science & Technology. 29 April 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  18. ^ a b c d e Basu, Mohana (22 December 2019). "India to build 11 new supercomputers, with indigenous processors developed by C-DAC". ThePrint. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  19. ^ a b c d e f Gill, Prabhjote (23 October 2020). "Made in India supercomputers likely by the end of the year, says National Supercomputing Mission". Business Insider. Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  20. ^ "India Greenlights $730 Million Supercomputing Grid". HPC Wire. 26 March 2015.
  21. ^ "Govt to install 73 supercomputers across the country". Zee News. 25 March 2015.
  22. ^ "TOP500 List - June 2021". TOP500. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  23. ^ "TOP500 List, Country - India". Retrieved 23 June 2020.

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