Supreme Soviet


The Supreme Soviet (Russian: Верховный Совет, romanizedVerkhovny Sovet, lit.'Supreme Council') was the common name for the legislative bodies (parliaments) of the Soviet socialist republics (SSR) in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). These soviets were modeled after the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, established in 1938, and were nearly identical.[1]

State-approved delegates to the Supreme Soviets were periodically elected unopposed in show elections.[2] The first free or semi-free elections took place during perestroika in late 1980s, in which Supreme Soviets themselves were no longer directly elected. Instead, Supreme Soviets were appointed by directly-elected Congresses of People's Deputies based somewhat on the Congresses of Soviets that preceded the Supreme Soviets. The soviets until then were largely rubber-stamp institutions, approving decisions handed to them by the Communist Party of the USSR or of each SSR.[2]

The soviets met infrequently (often only twice a year for only several days) and elected the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, a permanent body, to act on their behalf while the soviet was not in session.[3] Under the 1936 and 1977 Soviet Constitutions, the Presidium of a Supreme Soviet served as the collective head of state of its republic.[4] The Supreme Soviets also elected Councils of Ministers (Councils of People's Commissars before 1946), an executive body.

After the dissolution of the USSR in late December 1991, most of these soviets remained the legislatures of independent countries until Armenia, Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan abandoned the system in 1995.

Supreme Soviets of the Soviet Republics

  Soviet Republics dissolved before the dissolution of the Soviet Union

Soviet Republic Supreme Soviet Established Disbanded Succeeded by
Emblem of the Armenian SSR.svg  Armenia Supreme Soviet of the Armenian SSR

Հայկական ՍՍՀ Գերագույն Խորհուրդ

1938 1995 Armenia National Assembly
Emblem of the Azerbaijan SSR.svg  Azerbaijan Supreme Soviet of the Azerbaijan SSR

Азәрбаjҹан ССР Али Совети

1938 1995 Azerbaijan National Assembly
Emblem of the Byelorussian SSR (1981-1991).svg  Byelorussia Supreme Soviet of the Byelorussian SSR

Вярхоўны Савет Беларускай ССР

1938 1991 BelarusBelarus Supreme Soviet
Emblem of the Estonian SSR.svg  Estonia Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR

Eesti NSV Ülemnõukogu

1940 1992 Estonia Riigikogu
Emblem of the Georgian SSR.svg  Georgia Supreme Soviet of the Georgian SSR

საქართველოს სსრ უმაღლესი საბჭო

1938 1992 Georgia (country)Georgia (country) Parliament
Emblem of the Karelo-Finnish SSR.svg  Karelo-Finnish SSR Supreme Soviet of the Karelo-Finnish SSR

Верховный Совет Карело-Финской ССР

1940 1956 Republic of Karelia Legislative Assembly
Emblem of Kazakh SSR.svg  Kazakhstan Supreme Soviet of the Kazakh SSR

Қазақ КСР-нiң Жоғарғы Кеңесi

1937 1995 Kazakhstan Parliament
Emblem of the Kirghiz SSR.svg  Kirghizia Supreme Soviet of the Kirghiz SSR

Кыргыз ССР Жогорку Совети

1938 1993 Kyrgyzstan Supreme Council
Emblem of the Latvian SSR.svg  Latvia Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR

Latvijas PSR Augstākā Padome

1940 1990 Latvia Saeima
Emblem of the Lithuanian SSR.svg  Lithuania Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR

Lietuvos TSR Aukščiausioji Taryba

1940 1990 Lithuania Seimas
Emblem of the Moldavian SSR (1981-1990).svg  Moldavia Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR

Совиетул Супрем ал РСС Молдовеняскэ

1941 1991 Moldova Parliament
Emblem of the Russian SFSR.svg  Russian SFSR Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR

Верховный Совет РСФСР

1938 1993 RussiaRussia Federal Assembly
Emblem of the Tajik SSR.svg  Tajikistan Supreme Soviet of the Tajik SSR

Совети Олӣ РСС Тоҷикистон

1937 1994 Tajikistan Supreme Assembly
Emblem of the Turkmen SSR.svg Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic Turkmenistan Supreme Soviet of the Turkmen SSR

Түркменистан ССР Ёкары Советы

1938 1992 Turkmenistan Assembly
Emblem of the Ukrainian SSR.svg  Ukraine Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR

Верховна Рада Української РСР

1937 1991 Ukraine Verkhovna Rada
Emblem of the Uzbek SSR.svg  Uzbekistan Supreme Soviet of the Uzbek SSR

Ўзбекистон ССР Олий Совети

1938 1991 Uzbekistan Supreme Council

Supreme Soviets of the Autonomous Soviet Republics

Soviet Republic Supreme Soviet Established Disbanded
Coat of arms of Bashkir ASSR.svg
Flag of Bashkir ASSR.svg
Bashkir ASSR
Supreme Soviet of the Bashkir ASSR

БАССР Юғары Советы

1938 1993
Coat of Arms of Tatarstan ASSR.png
Flag of Tatar ASSR.svg
Tatar ASSR
Supreme Soviet of the Tatar ASSR

ТАССР Югары Советы

1938 1990
Coat of arms of the Tuvan ASSR (1978-1992).svg
Flag of Tuvan ASSR (1978-1992).svg
Tuvan ASSR
Supreme Soviet of the Tuvan ASSR

Тыва АССР-ниң Дээди Соведи

1961 1993


  1. ^ Roeder, Philip G. (2007-08-05). Where Nation-States Come From: Institutional Change in the Age of Nationalism. Princeton University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0-691-13467-3.
  2. ^ a b Kelley, Larry D. (1990-12-31). Perestroika-era Politics: The New Soviet Legislature and Gorbachev's Political Reforms. M.E. Sharpe. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-87332-830-2.
  3. ^ Feldbrugge, Ferdinand Joseph Maria (1993-06-17). Russian Law: The End of the Soviet System and the Role of Law. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 192. ISBN 978-0-7923-2358-7.
  4. ^ Armstrong, John Alexander (January 1, 1978). Ideology, Politics, and Government in the Soviet Union: An Introduction– Google Knihy. p. 165. ISBN 9780819154057. Retrieved 2016-11-26.

See also