Suraj Mal
Maharaja of Bharatpur
Bahadur Jung
Suraj Mal
Suraj Mal
Reignr. 1755 – 1763 AD
CoronationDeeg, 22 May 1755
PredecessorBadan Singh
SuccessorJawahar Singh
BornFebruary 1707
Died25 December 1763(1763-12-25) (aged 56)
near Delhi
SpouseMaharani Kishori
IssueJawahar Singh
Nahar Singh
Ratan Singh
Nawal Singh
Ranjit Singh
HouseSinsinwar Jat Dynasty[citation needed]

Maharaja Suraj Mal (February 1707 – 25 December 1763) or Sujan Singh was a Jat ruler of Bharatpur in Rajasthan, India.

A contemporary historian has described him as "the Plato of the Jat people" and by a modern writer as the "Jat Odysseus", because of his political sagacity, steady intellect and clear vision.[1] The Jats, under Suraj Mal, overran the Mughal garrison at Agra and plundered the city taking with them the two great silver doors of the entrance of the famous Taj Mahal which were then melted down by Suraj Mal in 1763. Suraj Mal was killed in an ambush by the Mughal Army on the night of 25 December 1763 near Hindon River, Shahadra, Delhi.[citation needed]

Suraj Mal's Cenotaph at Govardhan, a photo by William Henry Baker, c.1860.

Battle of Kumher

Mughal Emperor Alamgir II and his rebellious courtier Siraj ud-Daulah were having a factional feud. Suraj Mal had sided with Siraj. Alamgir sought the help of the Holkar Marathas of Indore. Khanderao Holkar, son of the Maharaja of Indore, Malhar Rao Holkar, laid a siege on Suraj Mal's Kumher in 1754. While inspecting the troops on an open palanquin in the battle of Kumher, Khanderao was hit and killed by a cannonball from the Bharatpur army. The siege was lifted and a treaty was signed between Jats and Marathas, which later proved helpful for Suraj Mal in consolidating his rule.[2][3]

Commemoration

His large cenotaph is at Kusum Sarovar, Govardhan, Uttar Pradesh.[4] His imposing chattri is flanked on either side by two smaller chattris of his two wives, "Maharani Hansiya" and "Maharani Kishori".[5] These memorial chattris were built by his son and successor Maharaja Jawahar Singh.[citation needed] The architecture and carving is in the pierced stone style and the ceiling of cenotaphs are adorned with paintings of the life of Krishna and Suraj Mal.[5]

Notable institutes named after him include Maharaja Surajmal Institute of Technology and Maharaja Surajmal Brij University, Bharatpur.

References

  1. ^ R.C.Majumdar, H.C.Raychaudhury, Kalikaranjan Datta: An Advanced History of India, fourth edition, 1978, ISBN 0-333-90298-X, Page-535
  2. ^ Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707-1813, by Jaswant Lal Mehta, pp606
  3. ^ Images of Women in Maharashtrian Literature and Religion, edited by Anne Feldhaus, pp185-186
  4. ^ Cenotaph of Raja Sooruj Mull, Govurdhun. 97140, British Library online collection
  5. ^ a b D. Anand, 1992, Krishna: The Living God of Braj, Page 56.
Suraj Mal
Sinsiniwar Jat Dynasty
Born: 1707 Died: 1763
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Badan Singh
Maharaja of Bharatpur
1755–1763 AD
Succeeded by
Maharaja Jawahar Singh