The Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) at the Daresbury Laboratory in Cheshire, England was the first second-generation synchrotron radiation source to produce X-rays. The research facility provided synchrotron radiation to a large number of experimental stations and had an operating cost of approximately £20 million per annum.
In 1986 the storage was upgraded with additional focusing to increase the output brightness, the new 'lattice' being termed the HBL (High Brightness Lattice).
Like all second-generation sources, the SRS was designed to produce synchrotron radiation principally from its dipole magnets, but the initial design foresaw the use of a high-field insertion device to provide shorter-wavelength electromagnetic radiation to particular users.
The first storage ring design was a 2 GeV FODO lattice consisting of alternating focussing and defocussing quadrupoles, with one dipole following every quadrupole (i.e. two dipoles per repeating cell), giving a natural beam emittance of around 1000 nm-rad with 16 cells.
The HBL upgrade implemented in 1986 increased the total number of quadrupoles to 32, whilst retaining the same number of cells and geometry, and reduced the operating emittance to around 100 nm-rad in the so-called 'HIQ' (high tune) configuration. A 'LOQ' (low tune) configuration was also provided, to allow the efficient storage of one intense bunch of electrons (instead of up to 160), to provide radiation bursts at 3.123 MHz (the revolution frequency of the electrons, corresponding to the 96 m circumference).
The SRS supported a broad range of science, including pioneering work on X-ray diffraction, structural molecular biology, surface physics and chemistry, materials science and upper atmosphere physics. Following its closure, a detailed study of the economic impact of the SRS was made.
Two Nobel Prizes in Chemistry have been received by scientists who performed part of their prize-winning research using the SRS: Sir John E. Walker in 1997 for his contribution to the understanding of the synthesis of ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate), a key component of the body’s energy transport, and Sir Venki Ramakrishnan for his work on the structure and function of the Ribosome, the molecular machine that constructs proteins from ‘instructions’ coded in mRNA. Over 5000 academic papers were produced.