Table of nuclides

Summary

A table or chart of nuclides is a two-dimensional graph of isotopes of the elements, in which one axis represents the number of neutrons (symbol N) and the other represents the number of protons (atomic number, symbol Z) in the atomic nucleus. Each point plotted on the graph thus represents a nuclide of a known or hypothetical chemical element. This system of ordering nuclides can offer a greater insight into the characteristics of isotopes than the better-known periodic table, which shows only elements and not their isotopes. The chart of the nuclides is also known as the Segrè chart, after the Italian physicist Emilio Segrè.[1]

Description and utility edit

A chart or table of nuclides maps the nuclear, or radioactive, behavior of nuclides, as it distinguishes the isotopes of an element. It contrasts with a periodic table, which only maps their chemical behavior, since isotopes (nuclides which are variants of the same element) do not differ chemically to any significant degree, with the exception of hydrogen. Nuclide charts organize nuclides along the X axis by their numbers of neutrons and along the Y axis by their numbers of protons, out to the limits of the neutron and proton drip lines. This representation was first published by Kurt Guggenheimer in 1934[2] and expanded by Giorgio Fea in 1935,[3] Emilio Segrè in 1945 or Glenn Seaborg. In 1958, Walter Seelmann-Eggebert and Gerda Pfennig published the first edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart. Its 7th edition was made available in 2006. Today, there are several nuclide charts, four of which have a wide distribution: the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart, the Strasbourg Universal Nuclide Chart, the Chart of the Nuclides from the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), and the Nuclide Chart from Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory in the United States.[4] It has become a basic tool of the nuclear community.

 
A chart of nuclides. Above, cut into three parts for better presentation; below, combined.
 
  •   None (stable)
  •   Positron emission or electron capture (decay moves atom one place diagonally down and to right)
  •   Proton emission (decay moves atom one place down)
  •   Neutron emission (decay moves atom one place to left)
  •   Alpha decay (decay moves atom two places diagonally down and to left)
  •   Spontaneous fission
  •   Beta decay (decay moves atom one place diagonally up and to left)

Trends in the chart of nuclides edit

The trends in this section refer to the following chart, which shows Z increasing to the right and N increasing downward, a 90° clockwise rotation of the above landscape-orientation charts.

5 6H 7He 8Li 9Be 10B 11C 12N 13O 14F 15Ne Na Mg
6 7H 8He 9Li 10Be 11B 12C 13N 14O 15F 16Ne 17Na 18Mg 13 14
7 9He
10Li
11Be 12B 13C 14N 15O 16F 17Ne 18Na 19Mg Al Si
8 10He 11Li 12Be 13B 14C 15N 16O 17F 18Ne 19Na 20Mg 22Si
9 12Li 13Be 14B 15C 16N 17O 19Ne 20Na 21Mg 22Al 23Si
 
Isotope half-lives. The darker more stable isotope region departs from the line of protons (Z) = neutrons (N), as the element number Z becomes larger
  • Isotopes are nuclides with the same number of protons but differing numbers of neutrons; that is, they have the same atomic number and are therefore the same chemical element. Isotopes neighbor each other vertically. Examples include carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14 in the table above.
  • Isotones are nuclides with the same number of neutrons but differing numbers of protons. Isotones neighbor each other horizontally. Examples include carbon-14, nitrogen-15, and oxygen-16 in the table above.
  • Isobars are nuclides with the same number of nucleons (i.e. mass number) but different numbers of protons and neutrons. Isobars neighbor each other diagonally from lower-left to upper-right. Examples include carbon-14, nitrogen-14, and oxygen-14 in the table above.
  • Isodiaphers are nuclides with the same difference between their numbers of neutrons and protons (N − Z). Like isobars, they follow diagonal lines, but at right angles to the isobar lines (from upper-left to lower-right). Examples include boron-10, carbon-12, and nitrogen-14 (as N − Z = 0 for each pair), or boron-12, carbon-14, and nitrogen-16 (as N − Z = 2 for each pair).
  • Beyond the neutron drip line along the lower left, nuclides decay by neutron emission.
  • Beyond the proton drip line along the upper right, nuclides decay by proton emission. Drip lines have only been established for some elements.
  • The island of stability is a hypothetical region in the top right cluster of nuclides that contains isotopes far more stable than other transuranic elements.
  • There are no stable nuclides having an equal number of protons and neutrons in their nuclei with atomic number greater than 20 (i.e. calcium) as can be readily observed from the chart. Nuclei of greater atomic number require an excess of neutrons for stability.
  • The only stable nuclides having an odd number of protons and an odd number of neutrons are hydrogen-2, lithium-6, boron-10, nitrogen-14 and (observationally) tantalum-180m. This is because the mass–energy of such atoms is usually higher than that of their neighbors on the same isobaric chain, so most of them are unstable to beta decay.
  • There are no stable nuclides with mass numbers 5 or 8. There are stable nuclides with all other mass numbers up to 208 with the exceptions of 147 and 151, which are represented by the very long-lived samarium-147 and europium-151. (Bismuth-209 was found to be radioactive in 2003, but with a half-life of 1.9×1019 years.)
  • With the exception of the pair tellurium-123 and antimony-123, odd mass numbers are never represented by more than one stable nuclide. This is because the mass–energy is a convex function of atomic number, so all nuclides on an odd isobaric chain except one have a lower-energy neighbor to which they can decay by beta decay. See Mattauch isobar rule. (123Te is expected to decay to 123Sb, but the half-life appears to be so long that the decay has never been observed.)
  • There are no stable nuclides having atomic number greater than Z = 82 (lead),[5] although bismuth (Z = 83) is stable for all practical human purposes and thorium (Z = 90) and uranium (Z = 92) are sufficiently long-lived to occur on Earth in large quantities. Elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 82 all have stable isotopes, with the exceptions of technetium (Z = 43) and promethium (Z = 61).

Tables edit

Half-lives (example: Gd)
145Gd < 1 day
149Gd 1–10 days
146Gd 10–100 days
153Gd 100 days–10 a
148Gd 10–10,000 a
150Gd 10 ka–700 Ma
152Gd > 700 Ma
158Gd Stable
94Nb
Border: Isomer is < 1 day
198Au
Border: Isomer is 1–10 days
91Nb
Border: Isomer is 10–100 days
102Rh
Border: Isomer is 100 days – 10 years
93Nb
Border: Isomer is 10–10,000 years
204Pb
Border: Isomer is 10k–103M years
180Ta
Border: Isomer is Stable

For convenience, three different views of the data are available on Wikipedia: two sets of "segmented tables", and a single "unitized table (all elements)". The unitized table allows easy visualizion of proton/neutron-count trends but requires simultaneous horizontal and vertical scrolling. The segmented tables permit easier examination of a particular chemical element with much less scrolling. Links are provided to quickly jump between the different sections.

Segmented tables edit

Full table edit

The nuclide table below shows nuclides (often loosely called "isotopes", but this term properly refers to nuclides with the same atomic number, see above), including all with half-life of at least one day.[6] They are arranged with increasing atomic numbers from left to right and increasing neutron numbers from top to bottom.

Cell color denotes the half-life of each nuclide; if a border is present, its color indicates the half-life of the most stable nuclear isomer. In graphical browsers, each nuclide also has a tool tip indicating its half-life. Each color represents a certain range of length of half-life, and the color of the border indicates the half-life of its nuclear isomer state. Some nuclides have multiple nuclear isomers, and this table notes the one with the longest half-life. Dotted borders mean that a nuclide has a nuclear isomer with a half-life in the same range as the ground state nuclide. The dashed lines between several nuclides of the first few elements are the experimentally determined proton and neutron drip lines.

Z → 0 1 2 3
n ↓ n  H  He Li 4 5
0 1H Be B 6 7
1 1n 2H 3He 4Li C N 8
2 3H 4He 5Li 6Be 7B 8C 9N O 9
3 4H 5He 6Li 7Be 8B 9C 10N 11O F 10
4 5H 6He 7Li 8Be 9B 10C 12O 13F Ne 11 12
5 6H 7He 8Li 9Be 10B 11C 12N 13O 14F 15Ne Na Mg
6 7H 8He 9Li 10Be 11B 12C 13N 14O 15F 16Ne 17Na 18Mg 13 14
7 9He
10Li
11Be 12B 13C 14N 15O 16F 17Ne 18Na 19Mg Al Si 15
8 10He 11Li 12Be 13B 14C 15N 16O 17F 18Ne 19Na 20Mg 22Si P 16
9 12Li 13Be 14B 15C 16N 17O 19Ne 20Na 21Mg 22Al 23Si S 17 18
10 13Li 14Be 15B 16C 17N 18O 19F 20Ne 21Na 22Mg
23Al
24Si Cl Ar 19
11 15Be 16B 17C 18N 19O 20F 21Ne
22Na
23Mg
24Al
25Si 26P 27S 28Cl 29Ar K 20
12 16Be 17B 18C 19N 20O 21F 22Ne 23Na 24Mg 25Al 26Si 27P 28S 29Cl 30Ar 31K Ca 21
13 18B 19C 20N 21O 22F 23Ne
24Na
25Mg
26Al
27Si 28P 29S 30Cl 31Ar Sc 22
14 19B 20C 21N 22O 23F 24Ne 25Na 26Mg 27Al 28Si 29P 30S 31Cl
32Ar
33K Ti 23
15 20B 22N 23O 24F 25Ne 26Na 27Mg 28Al 29Si 30P 31S 32Cl 33Ar 34K 35Ca V 24
16 21B 22C 23N 24O 25F 26Ne 27Na 28Mg 29Al 30Si 31P 32S 33Cl 34Ar 35K 36Ca Cr 25
17 25O 26F 27Ne 28Na 29Mg 30Al 31Si 32P 33S
34Cl
35Ar 36K 37Ca 39Ti Mn 26
18 26O 27F 28Ne 29Na 30Mg 31Al 32Si 33P 34S 35Cl 36Ar 37K 38Ca 39Sc 40Ti 42Cr Fe 27 28
19 27O 28F 29Ne 30Na 31Mg
32Al
33Si 34P 35S 36Cl 37Ar 38K 39Ca 40Sc 41Ti 43Cr 45Fe Co Ni
20 28O 29F 30Ne 31Na 32Mg 33Al 34Si 35P 36S 37Cl 38Ar 39K 40Ca 41Sc 42Ti 43V 44Cr 46Fe 48Ni
21 31Ne 32Na 33Mg 34Al 35Si 36P 37S
38Cl
39Ar 41Ca
42Sc
43Ti
44V
45Cr
46Mn
47Fe 49Ni 29
22 31F 32Ne 33Na 34Mg 35Al 36Si 37P 38S 39Cl 40Ar 41K 42Ca
43Sc
44Ti 45V 46Cr 47Mn 48Fe 50Ni Cu 30
23 34Na 35Mg 36Al 37Si 38P 39S 40Cl 41Ar 42K 43Ca
44Sc
45Ti
46V
47Cr 48Mn 49Fe 50Co 51Ni Zn 31
24 34Ne 35Na 36Mg 37Al 38Si 39P 40S 41Cl 42Ar 43K 44Ca
45Sc
46Ti 47V 48Cr 49Mn 50Fe 51Co 52Ni 54Zn Ga 32
25 37Mg 38Al 39Si 40P 41S 42Cl 43Ar 44K 45Ca
46Sc
47Ti 48V 49Cr
50Mn
51Fe 52Co 53Ni 55Zn Ge 33
26 37Na 38Mg 39Al 40Si 41P 42S 43Cl 44Ar 45K 46Ca
47Sc
48Ti 49V 50Cr 51Mn
52Fe
53Co 54Ni 55Cu 56Zn As
27 40Al 41Si 42P
43S
44Cl 45Ar 46K 47Ca 48Sc 49Ti 50V 51Cr
52Mn
53Fe
54Co 55Ni 56Cu 57Zn 59Ge 34
28 39Na 40Mg 41Al 42Si 43P 44S 45Cl 46Ar 47K 48Ca 49Sc 50Ti 51V 52Cr 53Mn
54Fe
55Co 56Ni 57Cu 58Zn 60Ge Se 35
29 42Al 43Si 44P 45S 46Cl 47Ar 48K 49Ca
50Sc
51Ti 52V 53Cr 54Mn 55Fe 56Co 57Ni 58Cu 59Zn 60Ga 61Ge 63Se Br 36
30 43Al 44Si 45P 46S 47Cl 48Ar 49K 50Ca 51Sc 52Ti 53V 54Cr 55Mn 56Fe 57Co 58Ni 59Cu 60Zn 61Ga 62Ge 64Se Kr
31 46P 47S 48Cl 49Ar 50K 51Ca 52Sc 53Ti
54V
55Cr 56Mn 57Fe
58Co
59Ni 60Cu
61Zn
62Ga 63Ge 64As 65Se 67Kr
32 47P 48S 49Cl 50Ar 51K 52Ca 53Sc 54Ti 55V 56Cr 57Mn 58Fe 59Co 60Ni 61Cu 62Zn 63Ga 64Ge 65As 66Se 68Kr 37
33 49S 50Cl 51Ar 52K 53Ca
54Sc
55Ti 56V 57Cr
58Mn
59Fe
60Co
61Ni 62Cu 63Zn
64Ga
65Ge
66As
67Se 68Br 69Kr Rb 38
34 51Cl 52Ar 53K 54Ca 55Sc 56Ti 57V 58Cr 59Mn 60Fe 61Co 62Ni 63Cu 64Zn 65Ga 66Ge 67As 68Se 69Br 70Kr Sr 39
35 52Cl 53Ar 54K 55Ca 56Sc 57Ti 58V
59Cr
60Mn
61Fe
62Co
63Ni
64Cu
65Zn
66Ga
67Ge
68As
69Se
70Br
71Kr
72Rb
73Sr Y 40
36 54Ar 55K 56Ca 57Sc 58Ti 59V 60Cr 61Mn 62Fe 63Co 64Ni 65Cu 66Zn 67Ga 68Ge 69As 70Se 71Br 72Kr 73Rb 74Sr Zr 41
37 56K 57Ca 58Sc 59Ti
60V
61Cr
62Mn
63Fe 64Co
65Ni
66Cu 67Zn 68Ga
69Ge
70As
71Se
72Br
73Kr
74Rb 75Sr 76Y 77Zr Nb 42
38 57K 58Ca 59Sc 60Ti 61V 62Cr 63Mn 64Fe 65Co 66Ni 67Cu 68Zn 69Ga 70Ge 71As 72Se 73Br 74Kr 75Rb 76Sr 77Y 78Zr Mo 43
39 59Ca 60Sc 61Ti 62V 63Cr
64Mn
65Fe
66Co
67Ni
68Cu
69Zn
70Ga
71Ge
72As 73Se
74Br
75Kr
76Rb
77Sr 78Y 79Zr 81Mo Tc 44
40 59K 60Ca 61Sc 62Ti 63V 64Cr 65Mn 66Fe 67Co
68Ni
69Cu 70Zn 71Ga
72Ge
73As
74Se
75Br 76Kr 77Rb 78Sr 79Y 80Zr 82Mo Ru
41 62Sc 63Ti 64V 65Cr 66Mn
67Fe
68Co
69Ni
70Cu
71Zn
72Ga
73Ge
74As 75Se
76Br
77Kr
78Rb
79Sr 80Y 81Zr 82Nb 83Mo 85Ru 45
42 64Ti 65V 66Cr 67Mn 68Fe 69Co
70Ni
71Cu 72Zn 73Ga 74Ge
75As
76Se
77Br
78Kr 79Rb 80Sr 81Y 82Zr 83Nb 84Mo 86Ru Rh 46
43 66V 67Cr 68Mn 69Fe 70Co 71Ni 72Cu
73Zn
74Ga
75Ge
76As
77Se
78Br
79Kr
80Rb
81Sr 82Y 83Zr 84Nb 85Mo 86Tc 87Ru Pd 47
44 67V 68Cr 69Mn 70Fe 71Co 72Ni 73Cu 74Zn 75Ga 76Ge
77As
78Se
79Br
80Kr
81Rb
82Sr 83Y 84Zr 85Nb 86Mo 87Tc 88Ru 89Rh 90Pd Ag 48
45 69Cr 70Mn 71Fe 72Co 73Ni 74Cu 75Zn 76Ga
77Ge
78As
79Se
80Br
81Kr
82Rb
83Sr
84Y 85Zr 86Nb 87Mo 88Tc 89Ru 90Rh 91Pd 92Ag Cd 49
46 70Cr 71Mn 72Fe 73Co 74Ni 75Cu 76Zn 77Ga 78Ge
79As
80Se
81Br
82Kr
83Rb
84Sr 85Y 86Zr 87Nb 88Mo 89Tc 90Ru 91Rh 92Pd 93Ag 94Cd In
47 72Mn 73Fe 74Co 75Ni 76Cu
77Zn
78Ga
79Ge
80As
81Se
82Br
83Kr
84Rb
85Sr
86Y 87Zr 88Nb 89Mo 90Tc 91Ru 92Rh 93Pd 94Ag 95Cd 96In 50
48 73Mn 74Fe 75Co 76Ni 77Cu
78Zn
79Ga 80Ge 81As 82Se
83Br
84Kr
85Rb 86Sr
87Y
88Zr 89Nb 90Mo 91Tc 92Ru 93Rh 94Pd 95Ag 96Cd 97In Sn
49 75Fe 76Co 77Ni 78Cu 79Zn 80Ga
81Ge
82As
83Se
84Br
85Kr
86Rb
87Sr
88Y
89Zr
90Nb 91Mo 92Tc 93Ru 94Rh 95Pd 96Ag 97Cd 98In 99Sn 51
50 76Fe 77Co 78Ni 79Cu 80Zn 81Ga 82Ge 83As 84Se 85Br 86Kr 87Rb 88Sr
89Y
90Zr
91Nb
92Mo 93Tc 94Ru 95Rh 96Pd 97Ag 98Cd 99In 100Sn Sb 52
51 78Co 79Ni 80Cu 81Zn 82Ga 83Ge
84As
85Se 86Br 87Kr 88Rb 89Sr
90Y
91Zr
92Nb
93Mo
94Tc 95Ru 96Rh 97Pd 98Ag 99Cd 100In 101Sn Te 53
52 80Ni 81Cu 82Zn 83Ga 84Ge 85As 86Se 87Br 88Kr 89Rb 90Sr
91Y
92Zr
93Nb
94Mo
95Tc
96Ru 97Rh 98Pd 99Ag 100Cd 101In 102Sn 103Sb 104Te I 54
53 81Ni 82Cu 83Zn 84Ga 85Ge 86As 87Se
88Br
89Kr
90Rb
91Sr 92Y 93Zr
94Nb
95Mo
96Tc
97Ru 98Rh 99Pd 100Ag 101Cd 102In 103Sn 104Sb 105Te Xe
54 82Ni 83Cu 84Zn 85Ga 86Ge 87As 88Se 89Br 90Kr 91Rb 92Sr 93Y 94Zr
95Nb
96Mo
97Tc
98Ru
99Rh
100Pd 101Ag 102Cd 103In 104Sn 105Sb 106Te 108Xe 55
55 85Zn 86Ga 87Ge 88As 89Se 90Br 91Kr 92Rb 93Sr 94Y 95Zr 96Nb 97Mo 98Tc 99Ru 100Rh 101Pd 102Ag 103Cd 104In 105Sn 106Sb 107Te 108I 109Xe Cs 56
56 87Ga 88Ge 89As 90Se 91Br 92Kr
93Rb
94Sr
95Y 96Zr 97Nb 98Mo
99Tc
100Ru
101Rh
102Pd 103Ag 104Cd 105In 106Sn 107Sb 108Te 109I 110Xe Ba
57 89Ge 90As 91Se 92Br 93Kr 94Rb 95Sr 96Y 97Zr 98Nb 99Mo 100Tc 101Ru
102Rh
103Pd 104Ag 105Cd 106In 107Sn 108Sb 109Te 110I 111Xe 112Cs 57
58 90Ge 91As 92Se 93Br 94Kr 95Rb 96Sr 97Y 98Zr 99Nb 100Mo 101Tc 102Ru
103Rh
104Pd
105Ag
106Cd 107In 108Sn 109Sb 110Te 111I 112Xe 113Cs 114Ba La
59 92As 93Se 94Br 95Kr
96Rb
97Sr
98Y 99Zr 100Nb 101Mo 102Tc 103Ru 104Rh 105Pd
106Ag
107Cd 108In 109Sn 110Sb 111Te 112I 113Xe 114Cs 115Ba 58
60 94Se 95Br 96Kr 97Rb 98Sr 99Y 100Zr 101Nb 102Mo 103Tc 104Ru
105Rh
106Pd
107Ag
108Cd 109In 110Sn 111Sb 112Te 113I 114Xe 115Cs 116Ba 117La Ce 59
61 95Se 96Br 97Kr
98Rb
99Sr 100Y 101Zr 102Nb 103Mo 104Tc
105Ru
106Rh
107Pd
108Ag
109Cd 110In 111Sn 112Sb 113Te 114I 115Xe 116Cs 117Ba 118La Pr
62 97Br 98Kr 99Rb 100Sr 101Y 102Zr 103Nb 104Mo 105Tc 106Ru 107Rh 108Pd
109Ag
110Cd
111In
112Sn 113Sb 114Te 115I 116Xe 117Cs 118Ba 119La 121Pr 60
63 98Br 99Kr 100Rb 101Sr
102Y
103Zr 104Nb 105Mo 106Tc 107Ru 108Rh 109Pd
110Ag
111Cd
112In
113Sn
114Sb 115Te 116I 117Xe 118Cs 119Ba 120La 121Ce 122Pr Nd 61
64 100Kr 101Rb 102Sr 103Y 104Zr 105Nb 106Mo 107Tc 108Ru 109Rh 110Pd
111Ag
112Cd
113In
114Sn 115Sb 116Te 117I 118Xe 119Cs 120Ba 121La 122Ce 123Pr Pm 62
65 101Kr 102Rb 103Sr 104Y 105Zr
106Nb
107Mo
108Tc 109Ru 110Rh 111Pd 112Ag
113Cd
114In
115Sn 116Sb 117Te 118I 119Xe 120Cs 121Ba 122La 123Ce 124Pr 125Nd Sm 63
66 101Br 102Kr 103Rb 104Sr 105Y 106Zr 107Nb 108Mo 109Tc 110Ru 111Rh 112Pd 113Ag 114Cd
115In
116Sn 117Sb 118Te 119I 120Xe 121Cs 122Ba 123La 124Ce 125Pr 126Nd Eu
67 104Rb 105Sr 106Y 107Zr
108Nb
109Mo
110Tc 111Ru 112Rh 113Pd 114Ag
115Cd
116In
117Sn
118Sb
119Te
120I 121Xe 122Cs 123Ba 124La 125Ce 126Pr 127Nd 128Pm 129Sm 130Eu 64
68 105Rb 106Sr 107Y
108Zr
109Nb
110Mo 111Tc 112Ru 113Rh 114Pd 115Ag 116Cd 117In 118Sn 119Sb 120Te 121I 122Xe 123Cs 124Ba 125La 126Ce 127Pr 128Nd 129Pm 130Sm 131Eu Gd 65
69 106Rb 107Sr 108Y 109Zr 110Nb
111Mo
112Tc
113Ru
114Rh 115Pd 116Ag 117Cd 118In
119Sn
120Sb
121Te
122I 123Xe 124Cs 125Ba 126La 127Ce 128Pr 129Nd 130Pm 131Sm Tb
70 108Sr 109Y 110Zr 111Nb 112Mo
113Tc
114Ru 115Rh 116Pd 117Ag 118Cd 119In 120Sn 121Sb 122Te 123I 124Xe 125Cs 126Ba 127La 128Ce 129Pr 130Nd 131Pm 132Sm 135Tb 66
71 110Y 111Zr 112Nb 113Mo
114Tc
115Ru
116Rh 117Pd 118Ag 119Cd 120In
121Sn
122Sb
123Te
124I 125Xe 126Cs 127Ba 128La 129Ce 130Pr 131Nd 132Pm 133Sm 134Eu 135Gd Dy 67
72 111Y 112Zr 113Nb 114Mo 115Tc 116Ru 117Rh 118Pd 119Ag 120Cd 121In 122Sn 123Sb 124Te 125I 126Xe 127Cs 128Ba 129La 130Ce 131Pr 132Nd 133Pm 134Sm 135Eu 136Gd Ho 68
73 113Zr 114Nb 115Mo 116Tc
117Ru
118Rh 119Pd 120Ag 121Cd 122In
123Sn
124Sb
125Te
126I
127Xe
128Cs 129Ba 130La 131Ce 132Pr 133Nd 134Pm 135Sm 136Eu 137Gd 138Tb 139Dy 140Ho Er 69
74 115Nb 116Mo 117Tc 118Ru 119Rh 120Pd 121Ag 122Cd 123In 124Sn 125Sb 126Te 127I 128Xe 129Cs 130Ba 131La 132Ce 133Pr 134Nd 135Pm 136Sm 137Eu 138Gd 139Tb 140Dy 141Ho Tm
75 116Nb 117Mo 118Tc
119Ru
120Rh 121Pd 122Ag 123Cd 124In
125Sn
126Sb
127Te
128I
129Xe
130Cs
131Ba
132La 133Ce 134Pr 135Nd 136Pm 137Sm 138Eu 139Gd 140Tb 141Dy 142Ho 143Er 144Tm
76 117Nb 118Mo 119Tc 120Ru 121Rh 122Pd 123Ag 124Cd 125In 126Sn 127Sb 128Te 129I 130Xe 131Cs 132Ba 133La 134Ce 135Pr 136Nd 137Pm 138Sm 139Eu 140Gd 141Tb 142Dy 143Ho 144Er 145Tm 70
77 119Mo 120Tc 121Ru 122Rh 123Pd 124Ag 125Cd 126In 127Sn 128Sb
129Te
130I
131Xe
132Cs
133Ba
134La 135Ce 136Pr 137Nd 138Pm 139Sm 140Eu 141Gd 142Tb 143Dy 144Ho 145Er 146Tm Yb 71
78 121Tc 122Ru 123Rh 124Pd 125Ag 126Cd 127In 128Sn 129Sb 130Te 131I 132Xe 133Cs 134Ba 135La 136Ce 137Pr 138Nd 139Pm 140Sm 141Eu 142Gd 143Tb 144Dy 145Ho 146Er 147Tm Lu
79 122Tc 123Ru 124Rh 125Pd 126Ag 127Cd 128In 129Sn 130Sb
131Te
132I
133Xe
134Cs
135Ba
136La
137Ce
138Pr 139Nd 140Pm 141Sm 142Eu 143Gd 144Tb 145Dy 146Ho 147Er 148Tm 149Yb 150Lu 72
80 124Ru 125Rh 126Pd 127Ag 128Cd 129In 130Sn 131Sb 132Te 133I 134Xe
135Cs
136Ba
137La 138Ce 139Pr 140Nd 141Pm 142Sm 143Eu 144Gd 145Tb 146Dy 147Ho 148Er 149Tm 150Yb 151Lu Hf 73 74
81 125Ru 126Rh 127Pd 128Ag 129Cd 130In 131Sn 132Sb 133Te 134I 135Xe
136Cs
137Ba
138La
139Ce
140Pr 141Nd 142Pm 143Sm 144Eu 145Gd 146Tb 147Dy 148Ho 149Er 150Tm 151Yb 152Lu 153Hf Ta W
82 127Rh 128Pd 129Ag 130Cd 131In 132Sn 133Sb 134Te 135I 136Xe 137Cs 138Ba 139La 140Ce 141Pr 142Nd 143Pm 144Sm 145Eu 146Gd 147Tb 148Dy 149Ho 150Er 151Tm 152Yb 153Lu 154Hf 155Ta 156W 75 76
83 128Rh 129Pd 130Ag 131Cd 132In 133Sn 134Sb 135Te 136I 137Xe 138Cs 139Ba 140La 141Ce 142Pr 143Nd 144Pm 145Sm 146Eu 147Gd 148Tb 149Dy 150Ho 151Er 152Tm 153Yb 154Lu 155Hf 156Ta 157W Re Os
84 130Pd 131Ag 132Cd 133In 134Sn 135Sb 136Te 137I 138Xe 139Cs 140Ba 141La 142Ce 143Pr 144Nd 145Pm 146Sm 147Eu 148Gd 149Tb 150Dy 151Ho 152Er 153Tm 154Yb 155Lu 156Hf 157Ta 158W 159Re 160Os 77
85 131Pd 132Ag 133Cd 134In 135Sn 136Sb 137Te 138I 139Xe 140Cs 141Ba 142La 143Ce 144Pr 145Nd 146Pm 147Sm 148Eu 149Gd 150Tb 151Dy 152Ho 153Er 154Tm 155Yb 156Lu 157Hf 158Ta 159W 160Re 161Os Ir 78
86 134Cd 135In 136Sn 137Sb 138Te 139I 140Xe 141Cs 142Ba 143La 144Ce 145Pr 146Nd 147Pm 148Sm 149Eu 150Gd 151Tb 152Dy 153Ho 154Er 155Tm 156Yb 157Lu 158Hf 159Ta 160W 161Re 162Os Pt
87 136In 137Sn 138Sb 139Te 140I 141Xe 142Cs 143Ba 144La 145Ce 146Pr 147Nd
148Pm
149Sm
150Eu
151Gd 152Tb 153Dy 154Ho 155Er 156Tm 157Yb 158Lu 159Hf 160Ta 161W 162Re 163Os 165Pt 79
88 137In 138Sn 139Sb 140Te 141I 142Xe 143Cs 144Ba 145La 146Ce 147Pr 148Nd 149Pm 150Sm 151Eu 152Gd 153Tb 154Dy 155Ho 156Er 157Tm 158Yb 159Lu 160Hf 161Ta 162W 163Re 164Os 165Ir 166Pt Au 80
89 139Sn 140Sb 141Te 142I 143Xe 144Cs 145Ba 146La 147Ce 148Pr 149Nd 150Pm 151Sm
152Eu
153Gd 154Tb 155Dy 156Ho 157Er 158Tm 159Yb 160Lu 161Hf 162Ta 163W 164Re 165Os 166Ir 167Pt Hg
90 140Sn 141Sb 142Te 143I 144Xe 145Cs 146Ba 147La 148Ce 149Pr 150Nd 151Pm 152Sm 153Eu 154Gd 155Tb 156Dy 157Ho 158Er 159Tm 160Yb 161Lu 162Hf 163Ta 164W 165Re 166Os 167Ir 168Pt 170Hg
91 142Sb 143Te 144I 145Xe 146Cs 147Ba 148La 149Ce 150Pr 151Nd 152Pm 153Sm
154Eu
155Gd
156Tb
157Dy 158Ho 159Er 160Tm 161Yb 162Lu 163Hf 164Ta 165W 166Re 167Os 168Ir 169Pt 170Au 171Hg
92 144Te 145I 146Xe 147Cs 148Ba 149La 150Ce 151Pr 152Nd 153Pm 154Sm 155Eu 156Gd 157Tb 158Dy 159Ho 160Er 161Tm 162Yb 163Lu 164Hf 165Ta 166W 167Re 168Os 169Ir 170Pt 171Au 172Hg
93 145Te 146I 147Xe 148Cs 149Ba 150La 151Ce 152Pr 153Nd 154Pm 155Sm 156Eu 157Gd
158Tb
159Dy 160Ho 161Er 162Tm 163Yb 164Lu 165Hf 166Ta 167W 168Re 169Os 170Ir 171Pt 172Au 173Hg 81
94 147I 148Xe 149Cs 150Ba 151La 152Ce 153Pr 154Nd 155Pm 156Sm 157Eu 158Gd 159Tb 160Dy 161Ho 162Er 163Tm 164Yb 165Lu 166Hf 167Ta 168W 169Re 170Os 171Ir 172Pt 173Au 174Hg Tl 82
95 149Xe 150Cs 151Ba 152La 153Ce 154Pr 155Nd 156Pm 157Sm 158Eu 159Gd 160Tb 161Dy 162Ho 163Er 164Tm 165Yb 166Lu 167Hf 168Ta 169W 170Re 171Os 172Ir 173Pt 174Au 175Hg 176Tl Pb
96 150Xe 151Cs 152Ba 153La 154Ce 155Pr 156Nd 157Pm 158Sm 159Eu 160Gd 161Tb 162Dy
163Ho
164Er 165Tm 166Yb 167Lu 168Hf 169Ta 170W 171Re 172Os 173Ir 174Pt 175Au 176Hg 177Tl 178Pb
97 152Cs 153Ba 154La 155Ce 156Pr 157Nd 158Pm 159Sm 160Eu 161Gd 162Tb 163Dy 164Ho 165Er 166Tm 167Yb 168Lu 169Hf 170Ta 171W 172Re 173Os 174Ir 175Pt 176Au 177Hg 178Tl 179Pb
98 154Ba 155La 156Ce 157Pr 158Nd 159Pm 160Sm 161Eu 162Gd 163Tb 164Dy 165Ho 166Er 167Tm 168Yb
169Lu
170Hf 171Ta 172W 173Re 174Os 175Ir 176Pt 177Au 178Hg 179Tl 180Pb
99 156La 157Ce 158Pr 159Nd 160Pm 161Sm 162Eu 163Gd 164Tb 165Dy
166Ho
167Er
168Tm
169Yb
170Lu 171Hf 172Ta 173W 174Re 175Os 176Ir 177Pt 178Au 179Hg 180Tl 181Pb 83
100 157La 158Ce 159Pr 160Nd 161Pm 162Sm 163Eu 164Gd 165Tb 166Dy 167Ho 168Er 169Tm 170Yb
171Lu
172Hf 173Ta 174W 175Re 176Os 177Ir 178Pt 179Au 180Hg 181Tl 182Pb Bi 84
101 160Pr 161Nd 162Pm 163Sm 164Eu 165Gd 166Tb 167Dy 168Ho 169Er 170Tm 171Yb
172Lu
173Hf 174Ta 175W 176Re 177Os 178Ir 179Pt 180Au 181Hg 182Tl 183Pb 184Bi Po 85
102 161Pr 162Nd 163Pm 164Sm 165Eu 166Gd 167Tb 168Dy 169Ho 170Er 171Tm 172Yb 173Lu 174Hf 175Ta 176W 177Re 178Os 179Ir 180Pt 181Au 182Hg 183Tl 184Pb 185Bi 186Po At
103 163Nd 164Pm 165Sm 166Eu 167Gd 168Tb 169Dy 170Ho 171Er 172Tm 173Yb
174Lu
175Hf 176Ta 177W 178Re 179Os 180Ir 181Pt 182Au 183Hg 184Tl 185Pb 186Bi 187Po 188At
104 165Pm 166Sm 167Eu 168Gd 169Tb 170Dy 171Ho 172Er 173Tm 174Yb 175Lu 176Hf 177Ta 178W 179Re 180Os 181Ir 182Pt 183Au 184Hg 185Tl 186Pb 187Bi 188Po
105 166Pm 167Sm 168Eu 169Gd 170Tb 171Dy 172Ho 173Er 174Tm
175Yb
176Lu
177Hf
178Ta 179W 180Re 181Os 182Ir 183Pt 184Au 185Hg 186Tl 187Pb 188Bi 189Po 190At 86
106 168Sm 169Eu 170Gd 171Tb 172Dy 173Ho 174Er 175Tm
176Yb
177Lu
178Hf
179Ta 180W 181Re 182Os 183Ir 184Pt 185Au 186Hg 187Tl 188Pb 189Bi 190Po 191At Rn
107 170Eu 171Gd 172Tb 173Dy 174Ho 175Er 176Tm 177Yb 178Lu
179Hf
180Ta
181W
182Re
183Os 184Ir 185Pt 186Au 187Hg 188Tl 189Pb 190Bi 191Po 192At 193Rn
108 172Gd 173Tb 174Dy 175Ho 176Er 177Tm 178Yb 179Lu
180Hf
181Ta 182W 183Re 184Os 185Ir 186Pt 187Au 188Hg 189Tl 190Pb 191Bi 192Po 193At 194Rn 87
109 174Tb 175Dy 176Ho 177Er 178Tm 179Yb 180Lu 181Hf
182Ta
183W
184Re
185Os 186Ir 187Pt 188Au 189Hg 190Tl 191Pb 192Bi 193Po 194At 195Rn Fr
110 176Dy 177Ho 178Er 179Tm 180Yb 181Lu
182Hf
183Ta 184W 185Re 186Os 187Ir 188Pt 189Au 190Hg 191Tl 192Pb 193Bi 194Po 195At 196Rn 197Fr
111 178Ho 179Er 180Tm 181Yb 182Lu 183Hf 184Ta
185W
186Re
187Os 188Ir 189Pt 190Au 191Hg 192Tl 193Pb 194Bi 195Po 196At 197Rn 198Fr 88
112 180Er 181Tm 182Yb 183Lu 184Hf 185Ta 186W 187Re 188Os 189Ir 190Pt 191Au 192Hg 193Tl 194Pb 195Bi 196Po 197At 198Rn 199Fr Ra 89
113 182Tm 183Yb 184Lu 185Hf 186Ta 187W 188Re
189Os
190Ir
191Pt 192Au 193Hg 194Tl 195Pb 196Bi 197Po 198At 199Rn 200Fr 201Ra Ac
114 183Tm 184Yb 185Lu 186Hf 187Ta 188W 189Re
190Os
191Ir
192Pt 193Au 194Hg 195Tl 196Pb 197Bi 198Po 199At 200Rn 201Fr 202Ra 203Ac
115 185Yb 186Lu 187Hf 188Ta 189W 190Re
191Os
192Ir
193Pt
194Au
195Hg
196Tl 197Pb 198Bi 199Po 200At 201Rn 202Fr 203Ra 204Ac 90
116 186Yb 187Lu 188Hf 189Ta 190W 191Re
192Os
193Ir
194Pt
195Au
196Hg 197Tl 198Pb 199Bi 200Po 201At 202Rn 203Fr 204Ra 205Ac Th
117 187Yb 188Lu 189Hf 190Ta 191W 192Re 193Os 194Ir
195Pt
196Au
197Hg
198Tl 199Pb 200Bi 201Po 202At 203Rn 204Fr 205Ra 206Ac 207Th
118 189Lu 190Hf 191Ta 192W 193Re 194Os 195Ir 196Pt
197Au
198Hg
199Tl 200Pb 201Bi 202Po 203At 204Rn 205Fr 206Ra 207Ac 208Th 91
119 190Lu 191Hf 192Ta 193W 194Re 195Os 196Ir 197Pt
198Au
199Hg 200Tl
201Pb
202Bi 203Po 204At 205Rn 206Fr 207Ra 208Ac 209Th Pa
120 192Hf 193Ta 194W 195Re 196Os 197Ir 198Pt 199Au 200Hg 201Tl
202Pb
203Bi 204Po 205At 206Rn 207Fr 208Ra 209Ac 210Th 211Pa 92
121 194Ta 195W 196Re 197Os 198Ir 199Pt 200Au 201Hg 202Tl
203Pb
204Bi 205Po 206At 207Rn 208Fr 209Ra 210Ac 211Th 212Pa U
122 196W 197Re 198Os 199Ir 200Pt 201Au 202Hg 203Tl
204Pb
205Bi 206Po 207At 208Rn 209Fr 210Ra 211Ac 212Th 213Pa 214U
123 197W 198Re 199Os 200Ir 201Pt 202Au 203Hg 204Tl
205Pb
206Bi 207Po 208At 209Rn 210Fr 211Ra 212Ac 213Th 214Pa 215U
124 199Re 200Os 201Ir 202Pt 203Au 204Hg 205Tl
206Pb
207Bi 208Po 209At 210Rn 211Fr 212Ra 213Ac 214Th 215Pa 216U 93
125 201Os 202Ir 203Pt 204Au 205Hg 206Tl
207Pb
208Bi 209Po 210At 211Rn 212Fr 213Ra 214Ac 215Th 216Pa 217U Np 94
126 202Os 203Ir 204Pt 205Au 206Hg 207Tl
208Pb
209Bi 210Po 211At 212Rn 213Fr 214Ra 215Ac 216Th 217Pa 218U 219Np Pu 95
127 203Os 204Ir 205Pt 206Au 207Hg 208Tl 209Pb
210Bi
211Po 212At 213Rn 214Fr 215Ra 216Ac 217Th 218Pa 219U 220Np Am
128 205Ir 206Pt 207Au 208Hg 209Tl
210Pb
211Bi 212Po 213At 214Rn 215Fr 216Ra 217Ac 218Th 219Pa 223Am
129 207Pt 208Au 209Hg 210Tl 211Pb 212Bi 213Po 214At 215Rn 216Fr 217Ra 218Ac 219Th 220Pa 221U 222Np
130 208Pt 209Au 210Hg 211Tl
212Pb
213Bi 214Po 215At 216Rn 217Fr 218Ra 219Ac 220Th 221Pa 222U 223Np
131 210Au 211Hg 212Tl 213Pb 214Bi 215Po 216At 217Rn 218Fr 219Ra 220Ac 221Th 222Pa 223U 224Np 226Am 96 97
132 212Hg 213Tl
214Pb
215Bi 216Po 217At 218Rn 219Fr 220Ra 221Ac 222Th 223Pa 224U 225Np Cm Bk
133 213Hg 214Tl 215Pb 216Bi 217Po 218At 219Rn 220Fr 221Ra 222Ac 223Th 224Pa 225U 226Np 230Bk
134 214Hg 215Tl 216Pb 217Bi 218Po 219At 220Rn 221Fr 222Ra 223Ac 224Th 225Pa 226U 227Np 228Pu 229Am
135 215Hg 216Tl 217Pb 218Bi 219Po 220At 221Rn 222Fr 223Ra 224Ac 225Th 226Pa 227U 228Np 229Pu 230Am
136 216Hg 217Tl 218Pb 219Bi 220Po 221At 222Rn 223Fr 224Ra 225Ac 226Th 227Pa 228U 229Np 230Pu 233Bk
137 219Pb 220Bi 221Po 222At 223Rn 224Fr 225Ra 226Ac 227Th 228Pa 229U 230Np 231Pu 232Am 233Cm 234Bk 98
138 220Pb 221Bi 222Po 223At 224Rn 225Fr 226Ra 227Ac 228Th 229Pa 230U 231Np 232Pu 233Am 234Cm Cf 99
139 222Bi 223Po 224At 225Rn 226Fr 227Ra 228Ac 229Th 230Pa 231U 232Np 233Pu 234Am 235Cm 236Bk 237Cf Es 100
140 223Bi 224Po 225At 226Rn 227Fr 228Ra 229Ac 230Th 231Pa 232U 233Np 234Pu 235Am 236Cm 238Cf Fm
141 224Bi 225Po 226At 227Rn 228Fr 229Ra 230Ac 231Th 232Pa 233U 234Np 235Pu 236Am 237Cm 238Bk 239Cf 240Es 241Fm 101
142 226Po 227At 228Rn 229Fr 230Ra 231Ac 232Th 233Pa 234U 235Np 236Pu 237Am 238Cm 240Cf 241Es 242Fm Md
143 227Po 228At 229Rn 230Fr 231Ra 232Ac 233Th 234Pa
236Np
237Pu 238Am 239Cm 240Bk 241Cf 242Es 243Fm 244Md
144 229At 230Rn 231Fr 232Ra 233Ac 234Th 235Pa 236U 237Np 238Pu 239Am 240Cm 241Bk 242Cf 243Es 244Fm 245Md 102
145 230At 231Rn 232Fr 233Ra 234Ac 235Th 236Pa 237U 238Np 239Pu 240Am 241Cm 242Bk 243Cf 244Es 245Fm 246Md No
146 232Rn 233Fr 234Ra 235Ac 236Th 237Pa 238U 239Np 240Pu 241Am 242Cm 243Bk 244Cf 245Es 246Fm 247Md 103
147 236Ac 237Th 238Pa 239U 240Np 241Pu
242Am
243Cm 244Bk 245Cf 246Es 247Fm 248Md 249No Lr 104
148 238Th 239Pa 240U 241Np 242Pu 243Am 244Cm 245Bk 246Cf 247Es 248Fm 249Md 250No 251Lr Rf 105
149 241U 242Np 243Pu 244Am 245Cm 246Bk 247Cf 248Es 249Fm 250Md 251No 252Lr 253Rf Db
150 242U 243Np 244Pu 245Am 246Cm 247Bk 248Cf 249Es 250Fm 251Md 252No 253Lr 254Rf 255Db 106
151 244Np 245Pu 246Am 247Cm
248Bk
249Cf 250Es 251Fm 252Md 253No 254Lr 255Rf 256Db Sg 107
152 246Pu 247Am 248Cm 249Bk 250Cf 251Es 252Fm 253Md 254No 255Lr 256Rf 257Db 258Sg Bh
153 247Pu 249Cm 250Bk 251Cf 252Es 253Fm 254Md 255No 256Lr 257Rf 258Db 259Sg 260Bh 108
154 250Cm 251Bk 252Cf 253Es 254Fm 255Md 256No 257Lr 258Rf 259Db 260Sg 261Bh Hs 109
155 251Cm 252Bk 253Cf
254Es
255Fm 256Md 257No 258Lr 259Rf 260Db 261Sg 262Bh 263Hs Mt 110
156 253Bk 254Cf 255Es 256Fm 257Md 258No 259Lr 260Rf 261Db 262Sg 264Hs Ds
157 255Cf 256Es 257Fm 258Md 259No 260Lr 261Rf 262Db 263Sg 264Bh 265Hs 266Mt 267Ds
158 256Cf 257Es 258Fm 259Md 260No 261Lr 262Rf 263Db 264Sg 265Bh 266Hs
159 259Fm 260Md 262Lr 263Rf 265Sg 266Bh 267Hs 268Mt 269Ds 111
160 260Fm 262No 266Sg 267Bh 268Hs 270Ds Rg
161 264Lr 265Rf 266Db 267Sg 269Hs 270Mt 271Ds 272Rg
162 267Db 268Sg 270Hs 112
163 266Lr 267Rf 268Db 269Sg 270Bh 271Hs 273Ds 274Rg Cn 113
164 271Bh 272Hs Nh
165 270Db 271Sg 272Bh 273Hs 274Mt 275Ds 277Cn 278Nh
166 275Mt 276Ds
167 274Bh 275Hs 276Mt 277Ds 278Rg
168 277Mt 279Rg 114
169 277Hs 278Mt 279Ds 280Rg 281Cn 282Nh Fl 115
170 280Ds 281Rg 282Cn 283Nh 284Fl Mc 116
171 281Ds 282Rg 283Cn 284Nh 285Fl 286Mc Lv
172 284Cn 285Nh 286Fl 287Mc 288Lv 117
173 285Cn 286Nh 287Fl 288Mc Ts 118
174 288Fl 289Mc 290Lv Og
175 289Fl 290Mc 291Lv
176 292Lv 293Ts 294Og
177 293Lv 294Ts
 
Fragment of table of nuclides as seen on a monument in front of University of Warsaw's Centre of New Technologies, with the four elements named by or for Polish scientists shown in the title ("including Po, Ra, Cm, Cn") and below the table:
polonium (84Po) discovered in 1898
radium (88Ra) discovered in 1898
curium (96Cm) discovered in 1944
copernicium (112Cn) discovered in 1996

References edit

  1. ^ J. Byrne (2011). Neutrons, Nuclei and Matter: An Exploration of the Physics of Slow Neutrons. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0486482385.
  2. ^ Kurt Guggenheimer. Journal de Physique et le Radium 5 (1934) 253
  3. ^ Giorgio Fea. Il Nuovo Cimento 2 (1935) 368
  4. ^ "What We Do: The Chart of Nuclides". Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
  5. ^ Holden,CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 90th Edition §11
  6. ^ The data for these tables came from Brookhaven National Laboratory which has an interactive Table of Nuclides with data on ~3000 nuclides.

External links edit

  • Chart of the Nuclides 2014 (Japan Atomic Energy Agency)
  • Interactive Chart of Nuclides (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
  • Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart – New 10th edition 2018
  • Nucleonica web driven nuclear science
  • IAEA Live Chart of Nuclides
  •   app for mobiles: Android or Apple - for PC use The Live Chart of Nuclides - IAEA
  • The Colourful Nuclide Chart, by Edward Simpson of Australian National University
  • Nuclide chart (EnergyEducation.ca)
  • Another example of a Chart of Nuclides from Korea Data up to Jan 1999 only