Taiwanese Braille


Taiwanese Braille is the braille script used in Taiwan for Taiwanese Mandarin (Guoyu).[1] Although based marginally on international braille, most consonants have been reassigned;[2] also, like Chinese Braille, Taiwanese Braille is a semi-syllabary.

Taiwanese Braille
Script type
Print basis
LanguagesStandard Mandarin
Related scripts
Parent systems
Night writing
A quadriscriptal text in Chinese and Roman print and braille. In the lower right corner is the character 結 jié, written in braille as gyé; compare 西 at the center top, rendered in braille as syī.

An example is,

⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠒ (braille pattern dots-25) ⠂ (braille pattern dots-2) ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145) ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345) ⠈ (braille pattern dots-4) ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125) ⠱ (braille pattern dots-156) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠡ (braille pattern dots-16) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5) ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235) ⠩ (braille pattern dots-146) ⠐ (braille pattern dots-5)
ㄨㄛ ˊ ˇ ㄧㄢ ˇ ˋ ˋ ˋ
guó diǎn hào

Charts edit

Initials edit

Pinyin b p m f d t n l g k h j q x zh ch sh r z c s

The braille letters for zhuyin/pinyin ㄍ g (/k/), ㄘ c (/tsʰ/), and ㄙ s (/s/) double for the alveolo-palatal consonantsj (/tɕ/), ㄑ q (/tɕʰ/), and ㄒ x (/ɕ/).[3] The latter are followed by close front vowels, namely ㄧ i (/i/) and ㄩ ü (/y/), so the distinction between g, c, s (or z, k, h) and j, q, x in zhuyin and pinyin is redundant.

Medial + rime edit

Each medial + rime in zhuyin is written with a single letter in braille.

Zhuyin  /ㄦ
Pinyin -i/er a o e ê ai ei ao ou an en ang eng
Zhuyin ㄧㄚ ㄧㄛ ㄧㄝ ㄧㄞ ㄧㄠ ㄧㄡ ㄧㄢ ㄧㄣ ㄧㄤ ㄧㄥ
Pinyin i ia io ie iai iao iu ian in iang ing
Zhuyin ㄨㄚ ㄨㄛ ㄨㄞ ㄨㄟ ㄨㄢ ㄨㄣ ㄨㄤ ㄨㄥ
Pinyin u ua uo uai ui uan un uang ong
Zhuyin ㄩㄝ ㄩㄢ ㄩㄣ ㄩㄥ
Pinyin ü üe üan ün iong

is used for both the empty rime   -i ([ɨ]), which is not written in zhuyin, and the rime ㄦ er ([ɐɚ]). See for example 斯 () located above the word Daguerre in the image at right.

Tone Marks edit

Tone: 1 2 3 4 0
Zhuyin ˊ ˇ ˋ ˙
Pinyin ˉ ˊ ˇ ˋ

Tone is always marked.[4] This includes toneless syllables such as 了 le, rendered in the image above-right.

Punctuation marks edit


Print __ ﹏﹏ …… —— ——
Print 「 ... 」 『 ... 』 ( ... ) 〔 ... 〕 { ... }
Braille ... ... ... ... ...

References edit

  1. ^ Not for Taiwanese Hokkien, which commonly goes by the name "Taiwanese"
  2. ^ Only p m d n g c a e ê ü (from p m d n k j ä è dropped-e ü) approximate the French norm. Other letters have been reassigned so that the sets of letters in groups such as d t n l and g k h are similar in shape.
  3. ^ [sic] One might expect ㄐ j (/tɕ/) to pair with ㄗ z (/ts/), by analogy with the others. Compare here, where the character 學 xué is rendered "süé". Historically it could have been either. The principal behind the assignments seems to be that, of the historically appropriate pairs of letters g~z, k~c, and h~s, the letter with the fewer dots is used for j, q, x.
  4. ^ "JAPANESE BRAILLE. : languagehat.com". languagehat.com. Retrieved 2022-02-27.
  5. ^ 萬明美, 2001, 「視障教育」, 五南圖書出版股份有限公司, p. 74 ff

External links edit

  • 國語點字自學手冊, National Taiwan Library
    (a copy here)