Teide 1


Teide 1
relative sizes
Estimated relative size of the planet Jupiter and the brown dwarfs WISE 1828+2650, Gliese 229B, and Teide 1 compared to the Sun and a red dwarf.
Credit: MPIA/V. Joergens.
Observation data
Epoch J2000      Equinox J2000
Constellation Taurus
Right ascension 3h 47m 17.925s[1]
Declination +24° 22′ 31.71″[1]
Spectral type M8[2]
Apparent magnitude (J) 16.215[1]
Apparent magnitude (H) 15.591[1]
Apparent magnitude (K) 15.096[1]
Proper motion (μ) RA: 21.681±2.695[3] mas/yr
Dec.: −43.254±1.485[3] mas/yr
Parallax (π)7.5777 ± 1.7015[3] mas
Distanceapprox. 430 ly
(approx. 130 pc)
Mass57 ± 15[4] MJup
Radius0.9078[4] RJup
Luminosity0.0008–0.0005[5] L
Surface gravity (log g)6.6[citation needed] cgs
Temperature2,584 ± 150[6] K
Age0.12[citation needed] Gyr
Other designations
Melotte 22 Teide 1, Melotte 22 BPL 137, Melotte 22 NPL 39, EPIC 211088076, 2MASS J03471792+2422317, Gaia DR2 66734514652754688[2]
Database references

Teide 1 was the first brown dwarf to be verified, in 1995.[7] It is located in the Pleiades open star cluster, approximately 400 light-years (120 pc) from Earth.

This object is more massive than a planet (57 ± 15 MJ),[6] but less massive than a star (0.0544 MSun). The radius of the brown dwarf is four times that of Jupiter. Its surface temperature is 2,600 ± 150 K,[6] which is about half that of the Sun. Its luminosity is 0.08–0.05% of that of the Sun.[5] Its age is only 120 million years compared to the Sun's age of 4.68 billion years.


Teide 1 is detected by Rafael Rebolo López, María R. Zapatero-Osorio and Eduardo L. Martín on optical images obtained, in January 1994, with the 0.80 meter diameter telescope (IAC-80) from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias located at the Teide Observatory on the island of Tenerife. Its cold nature was confirmed in December 1994 with the William Herschel telescope (WHT) of the Roque de los Muchachos observatory in La Palma. It is then the coldest of the known objects. On May 22, 1995, the article reporting his discovery was submitted to the journal Nature, which published it on September 14, 1995. Meanwhile, a similar object, Calar 3, was discovered. The brown dwarf nature of Teide 1 and Calar 3 was confirmed in 1996 following spectroscopic observations with the 10-meter diameter telescope of the W. M. Keck observatory of Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii.


Teide 1 is a brown dwarf of spectral type M8 whose luminosity (log L / L☉) is approximately -3.24 ± 0.04 dex and the effective temperature is approximately 2 584 ± 100 K. Its mass is approximately 0.052 solar mass.

It is barely 120 million years old, and its surface temperature is estimated at around 2,600 Kelvin.



  1. ^ a b c d e Cutri, Roc M.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Beichman, Charles A.; Carpenter, John M.; Chester, Thomas; Cambresy, Laurent; Evans, Tracey E.; Fowler, John W.; Gizis, John E.; Howard, Elizabeth V.; Huchra, John P.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Kopan, Eugene L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Light, Robert M.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; McCallon, Howard L.; Schneider, Stephen E.; Stiening, Rae; Sykes, Matthew J.; Weinberg, Martin D.; Wheaton, William A.; Wheelock, Sherry L.; Zacarias, N. (2003). "VizieR Online Data Catalog: 2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources (Cutri+ 2003)". CDS/ADC Collection of Electronic Catalogues. 2246: II/246. Bibcode:2003yCat.2246....0C.
  2. ^ a b "2MASS J03471792+2422317". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg.
  3. ^ a b c Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (2021). "Gaia Early Data Release 3: Summary of the contents and survey properties". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 649: A1. arXiv:2012.01533. Bibcode:2021A&A...649A...1G. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202039657. S2CID 227254300. Gaia EDR3 record for this source at VizieR.
  4. ^ a b "All Exoplanets". Exoplanet Kyoto.
  5. ^ a b Brown dwarfs in the Pleiades cluster confirmed by the lithium test
  6. ^ a b c Mid-IR Observations of the Pleiades Brown Dwarfs Teide 1 & Calar 3 (Leech 2000)
  7. ^ Rebolo, Rafael (2014), "Teide 1 and the Discovery of Brown Dwarfs", in Joergens, Viki (ed.), 50 Years of Brown Dwarfs - From Prediction to Discovery to Forefront of Research, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, vol. 401, Springer, pp. 25–50, doi:10.1007/978-3-319-01162-2_4, ISBN 978-3-319-01162-2

External links

  • Walter Myers (1995). "Teide 1". Archived from the original on 2009-05-02.
  • http://www.astro-tom.com/technical_data/magnitude_scale.htm