The Filson Historical Society (originally named the Filson Club) is a historical society located in the Old Louisville neighborhood of Louisville, Kentucky. The organization was founded in 1884 and named after early Kentucky explorer John Filson, who wrote The Discovery, Settlement, and Present State of Kentucke, which included one of the first maps of the state. The Filson's extensive collections focus on Kentucky, the Upper South, and the Ohio River Valley. Its research facilities include a manuscript collection as well as a library that includes rare books, periodicals, maps, and other published materials. The Filson also maintains a small museum. One distinctive possession of the museum is a section of American beech tree trunk, with the carved legend "D. Boon kilt a bar [killed a bear] 1803."
The Filson's primary founder was Col. Reuben T. Durrett. After retiring from his law practice, Durrett devoted his attention to collecting and preserving Kentucky history. With interests in manuscripts, published materials, portraiture, and artifacts, Durrett's collecting habits formed the basis for what the Filson collects to the present day. In 1884, Durrett and nine other prominent Louisvillians, including Gen. Basil W. Duke, Judge Alexander Pope Humphrey, and Richard H. Collins founded the Filson Club, as an organization to preserve Kentucky's past.
For almost thirty years, Reuben Durrett served as the president of the Filson. The Filson's collections were stored in Durrett's home along with his personal library. While this arrangement was convenient at first, it proved problematic as Durrett grew older. In the early 1910s, Durrett suffered from a series of strokes, and as his health declined, he became concerned about the fate of his collection. In 1912, he sold his collection to the University of Chicago. However, most of the Filson's holdings, which were not part of the purchase, went to Chicago as well. The Filson was forced to start again.
R. C. Ballard Thruston was another prominent Louisvillian with a strong interest in Kentucky history. An heir to the Ballard flour fortune, Thruston spent much of his time traveling the world and collecting manuscripts, portraits, and other material related to Kentucky. After becoming president of the Filson in 1923, Thruston worked diligently to revive the Filson and its collections. During his presidency, the Filson moved into a permanent location on Breckinridge Street and first published a scholarly journal, The History Quarterly (later The Filson Club History Quarterly, and presently, Ohio Valley History). When Thruston died in 1946, he left a strong historical society that no longer relied on one man to carry it.
Since 1946, the Filson has amassed a collection of over 1.5 million manuscript items and over 50,000 volumes in the library. Additionally, it has accumulated an impressive collection of Ohio Valley portraits and over ten thousand museum artifacts. The general public has access to the Filson's vast resources, which provide valuable source material for books, articles, dissertations, and other work. The Filson also presents a variety of programming, including public lectures and academic conferences. In 1986, the Filson moved to its current location on Third Street in Old Louisville.
Oxmoor Farm Center: When William Marshall Bullitt died in 1957 his large farm passed to his son Thomas Walker Bullitt under a trustee arrangement that prohibited him from selling the farm. In the 1960s the farm was split under the process of eminent domain to build Interstate 64. Due to the trustee arrangement of the land, the Bullitt family formed Beargrass Corporation to manage the leasing of the land for Oxmoor Center, Oxmoor Country Club, and other commercial uses. In 1991 Thomas Walker Bullitt willed the farmhouse and immediate historic properties to The Filson Historical Society.