Coordinates: 30°56′19″N 31°30′59″E / 30.93861°N 31.51639°E / 30.93861; 31.51639

Thmuis (/ˈθmjɪs/; Greek: Θμοῦις; Arabic: Tell El-Timai) was a city in Lower Egypt, located on the canal east of the Nile, between its Tanitic and Mendesian branches. Its ruins are near the modern city of Timayy al-Imdid.

Thmuis is located in Egypt
Location in Egypt
Coordinates: 30°56′19″N 31°30′59″E / 30.93861°N 31.51639°E / 30.93861; 31.51639
Country Egypt
Time zoneUTC+2 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)+3


A mosaic from Thmuis, Egypt, created by the Hellenistic artist Sophilos (signature) in about 200 BC, now in the Greco-Roman Museum in Alexandria, Egypt; the woman depicted is the Ptolemaic Queen Berenike II (who ruled jointly with her husband Ptolemy III) as the personification of Alexandria, with her crown showing a ship's prow, while she sports an anchor-shaped brooch for her robes, symbols of the Ptolemaic Empire's naval prowess and successes in the Mediterranean Sea.[1]

During the Ptolemaic period, Thmuis succeeded Djedet as the capital of Lower Egypt's 16th nome of Kha (Herodotus (II, 166)). The two cities are only several hundred meters apart. Ptolemy also states that the city was the capital of the Mendesian nome. From the Ptolemaic-Roman period are preserved the foundations of a temple.[2]

Thmuis was an episcopal see in the Roman province of Augustamnica Prima, suffragan of Pelusium. Today it is part of the Coptic Holy Metropolitanate of Beheira (Thmuis & Hermopolis Parva), Mariout (Mariotis), Marsa Matruh (Antiphrae & Paractorium), Libya (Livis) and Pentapolis (Cyrenaica).

In the fourth century it was still an important Roman city, having its own administration and being exempt from the jurisdiction of the Prefect of Alexandria. It was in existence at the time of the Muslim invasion of Egypt in 642 AD, and was later called Al-Mourad or "Al-Mouradeh"; it must have disappeared after the Ottoman conquest of Egypt.[why?]

Its ruins are at Tell El-Timai, about five miles north-west of Sinbellawein, a station on the railway from Zagazig to Mansourah in the central Delta.


Le Quien (Oriens christianus, II, 537) names nine bishops of Thmuis, the last three being Monophysites of the Middle Ages. The others are:

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Fletcher, Joann (2008). Cleopatra the Great: The Woman Behind the Legend. New York: Harper. ISBN 978-0-06-058558-7, image plates and captions between pp. 246-247.
  2. ^ James E. Bennettː A Ptolemai-Roman Temple Foundation at Tell Timaai, inː Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 105 issue 2, December 2019, pp. 217-225
  3. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: The Church of Alexandria". Retrieved 2018-02-26.
  4. ^ Photius, P.G., CIV, 1229.


  • Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Thmuis" . Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  • Baines & Malek "Cultural Atlas of Ancient Egypt", 2000. ISBN 0-8160-4036-2
  • M.I. Bakr & H. Brandl, "Various Sites in the Eastern Nile Delta: Thmuis", in: M.I. Bakr and H. Brandl, with F. Kalloniatis (eds.), Egyptian Antiquities from the Eastern Nile Delta. Museums in the Nile Delta, vol. 2. Cairo/Berlin 2014, pp. 79, 294-301. ISBN 9783000453182.

  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Thmuis". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.