Thomas the Apostle (Biblical Hebrew: תוֹמָאס הקדוש; Ancient Greek: Θωμᾶς; Coptic: ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ; Classical Syriac: ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ Tʾōmā šliḥā (Thoma Sheliha)), also called Didymus ("twin"), was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament. Thomas is commonly known as "Doubting Thomas" because he doubted Jesus' resurrection when first told of it (as related in the Gospel of John alone); later, he confessed his faith, "My Lord and my God," on seeing Jesus' crucifixion wounds.
According to traditional accounts of the Saint Thomas Christians of modern-day Kerala in India, Thomas is believed to have travelled outside the Roman Empire to preach the Gospel, travelling as far as the Malabar Coast which is in modern-day Kerala. According to their tradition, Thomas reached Muziris (modern-day North Paravur and Kodungalloor in the state of Kerala, India) in AD 52. In 1258, some of the relics were brought to Ortona, in Abruzzo, Italy, where they have been held in the Church of Saint Thomas the Apostle. He is often regarded as the patron saint of India, and the name Thomas remains quite popular among Saint Thomas Christians of India.
|Part of a series on|
|Saint Thomas Christians|
|Saint Thomas · Thomas of Cana · Mar Sabor and Mar Proth · Tharisapalli plates · Synod of Diamper · Coonan Cross Oath|
|Crosses · Denominations · Churches · Syriac language · Music|
|Abraham Malpan · Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar · Kayamkulam Philipose Ramban · Saint Kuriakose Elias Chavara · Varghese Payyappilly Palakkappilly · Mar Thoma I · Saint Alphonsa · Sadhu Kochoonju Upadesi · Kariattil Mar Ousep · Geevarghese Dionysius of Vattasseril · Geevarghese Mar Gregorios of Parumala · Geevarghese Ivanios · Euphrasia Eluvathingal · Thoma of Villarvattom|
Margamkali · Parichamuttukali · Cuisine · Suriyani Malayalam
|Part of a series on|
|Christianity in India|
Gospel of John
Thomas first speaks in the Gospel of John. In John 11:16, when Lazarus had recently died, the apostles do not wish to go back to Judea, where some Jews had attempted to stone Jesus. Thomas says: "Let us also go, that we may die with him."[a]
Thomas speaks again in John 14:5. There, Jesus had just explained that he was going away to prepare a heavenly home for his followers, and that one day they would join him there. Thomas reacted by saying, "Lord, we know not whither thou goest; and how can we know the way?"
John 20:24–29 tells how doubting Thomas was skeptical at first when he heard that Jesus had risen from the dead and appeared to the other apostles, saying, "Except I shall see on his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe."[20:25] But when Jesus appeared later and invited Thomas to touch his wounds and behold him, Thomas showed his belief by saying, "My Lord and my God".[20:28] Jesus then said, "Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed [are] they that have not seen, and [yet] have believed."[20:29]
Names and etymologies
The name Thomas (Koine Greek: Θωμᾶς) given for the apostle in the New Testament is derived from the Aramaic תְּאוֹמָא or Classical Syriac: ܬܐܘܿܡܵܐ Tāʾwma/Tʾōmā, equivalently from Hebrew תְּאוֹם tʾóm, meaning "twin". The equivalent term for twin in Greek, which is also used in the New Testament, is Δίδυμος Didymos.
The Nag Hammadi copy of the Gospel of Thomas begins: "These are the secret sayings that the living Jesus spoke and Didymos, Judas Thomas, recorded." Early Syrian traditions also relate the apostle's full name as Judas Thomas.[b] Some have seen in the Acts of Thomas (written in east Syria in the early 3rd century, or perhaps as early as the first half of the 2nd century) an identification of Saint Thomas with the apostle Judas, Son of James, better known in English as Jude. However, the first sentence of the Acts follows the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles in distinguishing the apostle Thomas and the apostle Judas son of James. Others, such as James Tabor, identify him as Judah, the brother of Jesus mentioned by Mark. In the Book of Thomas the Contender, part of the Nag Hammadi library, he is alleged to be a twin to Jesus: "Now, since it has been said that you are my twin and true companion, examine yourself…"
A "Doubting Thomas" is a skeptic who refuses to believe without direct personal experience—a reference to the Apostle Thomas, due to his refusal to believe the resurrected Jesus had appeared to the ten other apostles, until he could see and feel the wounds received by Jesus on the cross.
When the feast of Saint Thomas was inserted in the Roman calendar in the 9th century, it was assigned to 21 December. The Martyrology of St. Jerome mentioned the apostle on 3 July, the date to which the Roman celebration was transferred in 1969, so that it would no longer interfere with the major ferial days of Advent. Traditionalist Roman Catholics (who follow the General Roman Calendar of 1960 or earlier) and many Anglicans (including members of the Episcopal Church as well as members of the Church of England and the Lutheran Church, who worship according to the 1662 edition of the Book of Common Prayer), still celebrate his feast day on 21 December. However, most modern liturgical calendars (including the Common Worship calendar of the Church of England) prefer 3 July.
The Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic churches celebrate his feast day on 6 October (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian calendar, 6 October currently falls on 19 October of the modern Gregorian calendar). In addition, the next Sunday of the Easter (Pascha) is celebrated as the Sunday of Thomas, in commemoration of Thomas' question to Jesus, which led him to proclaim, according to Orthodox teaching, two natures of Jesus, both human and divine. Thomas is commemorated in common with all of the other apostles on 30 June (13 July), in a feast called the Synaxis of the Holy Apostles. He is also associated with the "Arabian" (or "Arapet") icon of the Theotokos (Mother of God), which is commemorated on 6 September (19 September). The Malankara Orthodox church celebrates his feast on three days, 3 July (in memory of the relic translation to Edessa), 18 December (the Day he was lanced), and 21 December (when he died).
Later history and traditions
The Passing of Mary, adjudged heretical by Pope Gelasius I in 494, was attributed to Joseph of Arimathea. The document states that Thomas was the only witness of the Assumption of Mary into heaven. The other apostles were miraculously transported to Jerusalem to witness her death. Thomas was left in India, but after her first burial, he was transported to her tomb, where he witnessed her bodily assumption into heaven, from which she dropped her girdle. In an inversion of the story of Thomas' doubts, the other apostles are skeptical of Thomas' story until they see the empty tomb and the girdle. Thomas' receipt of the girdle is commonly depicted in medieval and pre-Tridentine Renaissance art, the apostle's doubting reduced to a metaphorical knot in the Bavarian baroque Mary Untier of Knots.
Mission in India
According to traditional accounts of the Saint Thomas Christians of India, the Apostle Thomas landed in Muziris (Cranganore) on the Kerala coast in AD 52 and was martyred in Myalpur, near Madras in AD 72. The port was destroyed in 1341 by a massive flood that realigned the coasts. He is believed by the Saint Thomas Christian tradition to have established seven churches (communities) in Kerala. These churches are at Kodungallur, Palayoor, Kottakkavu (Paravur), Kokkamangalam, Niranam, Nilackal (Chayal), Kollam, and Thiruvithamcode. Thomas baptized several families, namely Pakalomattom, Sankarapuri, Thayyil, Payyappilly, Kalli, Kaliyankal, and Pattamukku. Other families claim to have origins almost as far back as these, and the religious historian Robert Eric Frykenberg notes that: "Whatever dubious historicity may be attached to such local traditions, there can be little doubt as to their great antiquity or to their great appeal in popular imagination."
It was to a land of dark people he was sent, to clothe them by Baptism in white robes. His grateful dawn dispelled India's painful darkness. It was his mission to espouse India to the One-Begotten. The merchant is blessed for having so great a treasure. Edessa thus became the blessed city by possessing the greatest pearl India could yield. Thomas works miracles in India, and at Edessa Thomas is destined to baptize peoples perverse and steeped in darkness, and that in the land of India.— Hymns of Saint Ephrem, edited by Lamy (Ephr. Hymni et Sermones, IV).
... Into what land shall I fly from the just?
I stirred up Death the Apostles to slay, that by their death I might escape their blows.
But harder still am I now stricken: the Apostle I slew in India has overtaken me in Edessa; here and there he is all himself.
There went I, and there was he: here and there to my grief I find him.— quoted in Medlycott 1905, Ch II
St. Ephrem, a doctor of Syriac Christianity, writes in the forty-second of his "Carmina Nisibina" that the Apostle was put to death in India, and that his remains were subsequently buried in Edessa, brought there by an unnamed merchant.
According to Eusebius' record, Thomas and Bartholomew were assigned to Parthia and India.> The Didascalia (dating from the end of the 3rd century) states, "India and all countries condering it, even to the farthest seas... received the apostolic ordinances from Judas Thomas, who was a guide and ruler in the church which he built."
Thomas is believed to have left northwest India when invasion threatened and traveled by vessel to the Malabar Coast, possibly visiting southeast Arabia and Socotra en route, and landing at the former flourishing port of Muziris (modern-day North Paravur and Kodungalloor) (c. AD 50) in the company of a Jewish merchant Abbanes (Hebban).[better source needed] From there he is said to have preached the gospel throughout the Malabar coast. The various churches he founded were located mainly on the Periyar River and its tributaries and along the coast, where there were Jewish colonies. In accordance with apostolic custom, Thomas ordained teachers and leaders or elders, who were reported to be the earliest ministry of the Malankara Church.
According to Syrian Christian tradition, Saint Thomas was allegedly martyred at St.Thomas Mount in Chennai on 3 July in AD 72, and his body was interred in Mylapore. Ephrem the Syrian states that the Apostle was killed in India, and that his relics were taken then to Edessa. This is the earliest known record of his death.
The records of Barbosa from early 16th century witness that the tomb was then maintained by a Muslim who kept a lamp burning there. The San Thome Basilica Mylapore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India presently located at the tomb was first built in the 16th century by the Portuguese and rebuilt in the 19th century. St. Thomas Mount has been a revered site by Hindus, Muslims, and Christians since at least the 16th century.
Possible visit to China
The alleged visit to China of Thomas is mentioned in the books and church traditions of Saint Thomas Christians in India (Mar Thoma Syrian Church and the Syro-Malabar rites) who, for a part, claim descent from the early Christians evangelized by Thomas the Apostle in AD 52. For example, it is found in the Malayalam ballad Thomas Ramban Pattu (The Song of the Lord Thomas) with the earliest manuscript being from the 17th century. The sources clearly have Thomas coming to India, then to China, and back to India, where he died.
In other attested sources, the tradition of making St. Thomas the apostle of China is found in the "Law of Christianity" (Fiqh al-naṣrāniyya), a compilation of juridical literature by Ibn al-Ṭayyib (Nestorian theologian and physician who died in 1043 in Baghdad). Later, in the Nomocanon of Abdisho bar Berika (metropolitan of Nisibis and Armenia dead in 1318) and the breviary of the Chaldean Church it is written:
1. Through St. Thomas the error of idolatry vanished from India.
2. Through St. Thomas the Chinese and Ethiopians were converted to the truth.
3. Through St. Thomas they accepted the sacrament of baptism and the adoption of sons.
4. Through St. Thomas they believed in and confessed the Father, the Son, and Holy Spirit.
5. Through St. Thomas they preserved the accepted faith of the one God.
6. Through St. Thomas the life-giving splendors rose in all India.
7. Through St. Thomas the Kingdom of Heaven took wing and ascended to China.
In its nascent form, this tradition is found at the earliest in the Zuqnin Chronicle (775 CE) and may have originated in the late Sasanian period. Perhaps it originated as a 3rd century pseudepigraphon where Thomas would have converted the Magi (in the Gospel of Matthew) to Christianity as they dwelled in the land of Shir (land of Seres, Tarim Basin, near what was the world's easternmost sea for many people in antiquity). Additionally, the testimony of Arnobius of Sicca, active shortly after 300 CE, maintains that the Christian message had arrived in India and among the Persians, Medians, and Parthians (along with the Seres).
Possible travel into Indonesia
in the estate of our college, called Paraguay, and twenty leagues distant from Asumpcion. This place stretches out on one side into a pleasant plain, affording pasture to a vast quantity of cattle; on the other, where it looks towards the south, it is surrounded by hills and rocks; in one of which a cross piled up of three large stones is visited, and held in great veneration by the natives for the sake of St. Thomas; for they believe, and firmly maintain, that the Apostle, seated on these stones as on a chair, formerly preached to the assembled Indians.— Dobrizhoffer 1822, p. 385
Almost 150 years prior to Dobrizhoffer's arrival in Paraguay, another Jesuit Missionary, F.J. Antonio Ruiz de Montoya recollected the same oral traditions from the Paraguayan tribes. He wrote:
...The paraguayan tribes they have this very curious tradition. They claim that a very holy man (Thomas the Apostle himself), whom they call "Paí Thome", lived amongst them and preached to them the Holy Truth, wandering and carrying a wooden cross on his back.— Ruiz de Montoya 1639, Ch XVIII
The sole recorded research done about the subject was during José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia's reign after the Independence of Paraguay. This is mentioned by Franz Wisner von Morgenstern, an Austro-Hungarian engineer who served in the Paraguayan armies prior and during the Paraguayan War. According to Von Morgenstern, some Paraguayan miners while working nearby some hills at the Caaguazú Department found some stones with ancient letters carved in them. Dictator Francia sent his finest experts to inspect those stones, and they concluded that the letters carved in those stones were Hebrew-like symbols, but they couldn't translate them nor figure out the exact date when those letters were carved. No further recorded investigations exists, and according to Wisner, people believed that the letters were made by Saint Thomas the Apostle, following the tradition.
Mylapore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Traditional accounts say that the Apostle Thomas preached not only in Kerala but also in other parts of Southern India – and a few relics are still kept at San Thome Basilica in Chennai, Mylapore, India. Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller and author of Description of the World, popularly known as Il Milione, is reputed to have visited Southern India in 1288 and 1292. The first date has been rejected as he was in China at the time, but the second date is generally accepted.
According to tradition, in 232 AD, the greater portion of relics of the Apostle Thomas are said to have been sent by an Indian king and brought from Mylapore to the city of Edessa, Mesopotamia, on which occasion his Syriac Acts were written.
The Indian king is named as "Mazdai" in Syriac sources, "Misdeos" and "Misdeus" in Greek and Latin sources respectively, which has been connected to the "Bazdeo" on the Kushan coinage of Vasudeva I, the transition between "M" and "B" being a current one in Classical sources for Indian names. The martyrologist Rabban Sliba dedicated a special day to both the Indian king, his family, and St Thomas:
Coronatio Thomae apostoli et Misdeus rex Indiae, Johannes eus filius huisque mater Tertia (Coronation of Thomas the Apostle, and Misdeus king of India, together with his son Johannes (thought to be a latinization of Vizan) and his mother Tertia) Rabban Sliba— Bussagli 1965, p. 255
In the 4th century, the martyrium erected over his burial place brought pilgrims to Edessa. In the 380s, Egeria described her visit in a letter she sent to her community of nuns at home (Itineraria Egeriae):
We arrived at Edessa in the Name of Christ our God, and, on our arrival, we straightway repaired to the church and memorial of saint Thomas. There, according to custom, prayers were made and the other things that were customary in the holy places were done; we read also some things concerning saint Thomas himself. The church there is very great, very beautiful and of new construction, well worthy to be the house of God, and as there was much that I desired to see, it was necessary for me to make a three days' stay there.
According to Saint Theodoret of Cyrrhus, the bones of Saint Thomas were transferred by Cyrus I, Bishop of Edessa, from the martyrium outside of Edessa to a church in the south-west corner of the city on 22 August 394.
In 522 AD, Cosmas Indicopleustes (called the Alexandrian) visited the Malabar Coast. He is the first traveller who mentions Syrian Christians in Malabar, in his book Christian Topography. He mentions that in the town of "Kalliana" (Quilon or Kollam) there was a bishop who had been consecrated in Persia.
Chios and Ortona
The reputed relics of St. Thomas remained at Edessa until they were translated to Chios in 1258. Some portion of the relics were later transported to the West, and now rest in the Cathedral of St. Thomas the Apostle in Ortona, Italy. However, the skull of Thomas is said to be at Monastery of Saint John the Theologian on the Greek island of Patmos.
Ortona's three galleys reached the island of Chios in 1258, led by General Leone Acciaiuoli. Chios was considered the island where Saint Thomas, after his death in India, had been buried. A portion fought around the Peloponnese and the Aegean islands, the other in the sea lapping at the then Syrian coast. The three galleys of Ortona moved on the second front of the war and reached the island of Chios.
The tale is provided by Giambattista De Lectis, physician and writer of the 16th century of Ortona. After the looting, the navarca Ortona Leone went to pray in the main church of the island of Chios and was drawn to a chapel adorned and resplendent with lights. An elderly priest, through an interpreter informed him that in that oratory was venerated the Body of Saint Thomas the Apostle. Lion, filled with an unusual sweetness, gathered in deep prayer. At that moment a light hand twice invited him to come closer. The navarca Leone reached out and took a bone from the largest hole of the tombstone, on which were carved the Greek letters and a halo depicted a bishop from the waist up. He was the confirmation of what he had said the old priest and that you are indeed in the presence of the Apostle's body. He went back on the galley and planned the theft for the next night, along with fellow Ruggiero Grogno. They lifted the heavy gravestone and watched the underlying relics. The wrapped in snow-white cloths them laid in a wooden box (stored at Ortona to the looting of 1566) and brought them aboard the galley. Lion, then, along with other comrades, he returned again in the church, took the tombstone and took her away. Just the Chinardo admiral was aware of the precious cargo moved all the sailors of the Muslim faith on other ships and ordered him to take the route to Ortona.
He landed at the port of Ortona 6 September 1258. According to the story of De Lectis, he was informed the abbot Jacopo responsible for Ortona Church, which predispose full provision for hospitality felt and shared by all the people. Since then the body of the apostle and the gravestone are preserved in the crypt of the Basilica. In 1259 a parchment written in Bari by the court under John Peacock contracts, the presence of five witnesses, preserved in Ortona at the Diocesan Library, confirming the veracity of that event, reported, as mentioned, by Giambattista De Lectis, physician and writer Ortona of the 16th century.
The relics resisted both the Saracen looting of 1566, and the destruction of the Nazis in the battle of Ortona fought in late December 1943. The basilica was blown up because the belfry was considered a lookout point by the allies, coming by sea from San Vito Chietino. The relics, together with the treasure of Saint Thomas, were intended by the Germans to be sold, but the monks entombed them inside the bell tower, the only surviving part of the semi-ruined church.
The tombstone of Thomas, brought to Ortona from Chios along with the relics of the Apostle, is currently preserved in the crypt of St Thomas Basilica, behind the altar. The urn containing the bones instead is placed under the altar. It is the cover of a fake coffin, fairly widespread burial form in the early Christian world, as the top of a tomb of less expensive material. The plaque has an inscription and a bas-relief that refer, in many respects, to the Syro-Mesopotamian. Tombstone Thomas the Apostle on inclusion can be read, in Greek characters uncial, the expression 'osios thomas, that Saint Thomas. It can be dated from the point of view palaeographic and lexical to the 3rd–5th century, a time when the term osios is still used as a synonym of aghios in that holy is he that is in the grace of God and is inserted in the Church: the two vocabulary, therefore, indicate the Christians. In the particular case of Saint Thomas' plaque, then, the word osios can easily be the translation of the word Syriac mar (Lord), attributed in the ancient world, but also to the present day, is a saint to be a bishop.
The finger bones of Saint Thomas were discovered during restoration work at the Church of Saint Thomas in Mosul, Iraq in 1964, and were housed there until the Fall of Mosul, after which the relics were transferred to the Monastery of Saint Matthew on 17 June 2014.
A number of early Christian writings written during the centuries immediately following the first Ecumenical Council of 325 mention Thomas' mission.
The Transitus Mariae describes each of the apostles purportedly being temporarily transported to heaven during the Assumption of Mary.
Acts of Thomas
The main source is the apocryphal Acts of Thomas, sometimes called by its full name The Acts of Judas Thomas, written circa 180–230 AD/CE, These are generally regarded by various Christian religions as apocryphal, or even heretical. The two centuries that lapsed between the life of the apostle and the recording of this work cast doubt on their authenticity.
The king, Misdeus (or Mizdeos), was infuriated when Thomas converted the queen Tertia, the king's son Juzanes, sister-in-law princess Mygdonia and her friend Markia. Misdeus led Saint Thomas outside the city and ordered four soldiers to take him to the nearby hill, where the soldiers speared Thomas and killed him. After Thomas' death, Syphorus was elected the first presbyter of Mazdai by the surviving converts, while Juzanes was the first deacon. (The names Misdeus, Tertia, Juzanes, Syphorus, Markia and Mygdonia (c.f. Mygdonia, a province of Mesopotamia) may suggest Greek descent or cultural influences. Greek traders had long visited Muziris. Greek kingdoms in northern India and Bactria, founded by Alexander the Great, were vassals[dubious ] of the Indo-Parthians.
Doctrine of the Apostles
The Doctrine of the Apostles as reflected in Cureton 1864, pp. 32–34 attests that Thomas had written Christian doctrine from India.
India and all its own countries, and those bordering on it, even to the farther sea, received the Apostle's hand of Priesthood from Judas Thomas, who was Guide and Ruler in the Church which he built and ministered there". In what follows "the whole Persia of the Assyrians and Medes, and of the countries round about Babylon… even to the borders of the Indians and even to the country of Gog and Magog" are said to have received the Apostles' Hand of Priesthood from Aggaeus the disciple of Addaeus— Cureton 1864, p. 33
Christian philosopher Origen taught with great acclaim in Alexandria and then in Caesarea. He is the first known writer to record the casting of lots by the Apostles. Origen's original work has been lost, but his statement about Parthia falling to Thomas has been preserved by Eusebius. "Origen, in the third chapter of his Commentary on Genesis, says that, according to tradition, Thomas's allotted field of labour was Parthia".
Quoting Origen, Eusebius of Caesarea says: "When the holy Apostles and disciples of our Saviour were scattered over all the world, Thomas, so the tradition has it, obtained as his portion Parthia…" "Judas, who is also called Thomas" has a role in the legend of king Abgar of Edessa (Urfa), for having sent Thaddaeus to preach in Edessa after the Ascension (Eusebius, Historia ecclesiae 1.13; III.1; Ephrem the Syrian also recounts this legend.)
Ephrem the Syrian
Many devotional hymns composed by St. Ephraem bear witness to the Edessan Church's strong conviction concerning St. Thomas's Indian Apostolate. There the devil speaks of Saint Thomas as "the Apostle I slew in India". Also, "The merchant brought the bones" to Edessa.
Another hymn eulogizing Saint Thomas reads "The bones the merchant hath brought". "In his several journeyings to India/ And thence on his return/ All riches/ which there he found/ Dirt in his eyes he did repute when to thy sacred bones compared". In yet another hymn Ephrem speaks of the mission of Thomas: "The earth darkened with sacrifices' fumes to illuminate", "a land of people dark fell to thy lot", "a tainted land Thomas has purified"; "India's dark night" was "flooded with light" by Thomas.— Medlycott 1905, pp. 21–32[dubious ][better source needed]
Gregory of Nazianzus
Gregory of Nazianzus was born AD 330, consecrated a bishop by his friend St. Basil; in 372, his father, the Bishop of Nazianzus, induced him to share his charge. In 379, the people of Constantinople called him to be their bishop. By the Orthodox Church, he is emphatically called "the Theologian". "What? were not the Apostles strangers amidst the many nations and countries over which they spread themselves? … Peter indeed may have belonged to Judea, but what had Paul in common with the gentiles, Luke with Achaia, Andrew with Epirus, John with Ephesus, Thomas with India, Mark with Italy?"[better source needed]
Ambrose of Milan
Saint Ambrose was thoroughly acquainted with the Greek and Latin Classics and had a good deal of information on India and Indians. He speaks of the Gymnosophists of India, the Indian Ocean, the river Ganges etc., a number of times. "This admitted of the Apostles being sent without delay according to the saying of our Lord Jesus… Even those Kingdoms which were shut out by rugged mountains became accessible to them, as India to Thomas, Persia to Matthew..."[better source needed]
Gregory of Tours
Saint Gregory of Tours (died 594) Saint Gregory's testimony: "Thomas the Apostle, according to the narrative of his martyrdom is stated to have suffered in India. His holy remains (corpus), after a long interval of time, were removed to the city of Edessa in Syria and there interred. In that part of India where they first rested, stand a monastery and a church of striking dimensions, elaborately adorned and designed. This Theodore, who had been to the place, narrated to us."
Let none read the gospel according to Thomas, for it is the work, not of one of the twelve apostles, but of one of Mani's three wicked disciples.— Cyril of Jerusalem, Cathechesis V (4th century)
In the first two centuries of the Christian era, a number of writings were circulated. It is unclear now why Thomas was seen as an authority for doctrine, although this belief is documented in Gnostic groups as early as the Pistis Sophia. In that Gnostic work, Mary Magdalene (one of the disciples) says:
Now at this time, my Lord, hear, so that I speak openly, for thou hast said to us "He who has ears to hear, let him hear:" Concerning the word which thou didst say to Philip: "Thou and Thomas and Matthew are the three to whom it has been given… to write every word of the Kingdom of the Light, and to bear witness to them"; hear now that I give the interpretation of these words. It is this which thy light-power once prophesied through Moses: "Through two and three witnesses everything will be established. The three witnesses are Philip and Thomas and Matthew"— Pistis Sophia 1:43
Besides the Acts of Thomas there was a widely circulated Infancy Gospel of Thomas probably written in the later 2nd century, and probably also in Syria, which relates the miraculous events and prodigies of Jesus' boyhood. This is the document which tells for the first time the familiar legend of the twelve sparrows which Jesus, at the age of five, fashioned from clay on the Sabbath day, which took wing and flew away. The earliest manuscript of this work is a 6th-century one in Syriac. This gospel was first referred to by Irenaeus; Ron Cameron notes: "In his citation, Irenaeus first quotes a non-canonical story that circulated about the childhood of Jesus and then goes directly on to quote a passage from the infancy narrative of the Gospel of Luke.[Luke 2:49] Since the Infancy Gospel of Thomas records both of these stories, in relative close proximity to one another, it is possible that the apocryphal writing cited by Irenaeus is, in fact, what is now known as the Infancy Gospel of Thomas. Because of the complexities of the manuscript tradition, however, there is no certainty as to when the stories of the Infancy Gospel of Thomas began to be written down."
The best known in modern times of these documents is the "sayings" document that is being called the Gospel of Thomas, a noncanonical work whose date is disputed. The opening line claims it is the work of "Didymos Judas Thomas" – whose identity is unknown. This work was discovered in a Coptic translation in 1945 at the Egyptian village of Nag Hammadi, near the site of the monastery of Chenoboskion. Once the Coptic text was published, scholars recognized that an earlier Greek translation had been published from fragments of papyrus found at Oxyrhynchus in the 1890s.
Saint Thomas Cross
In the 16th-century work Jornada, Antonio Gouvea writes of ornate crosses known as Saint Thomas Crosses. It is also known as Nasrani Menorah, Persian Cross, or Mar Thoma Sleeva. These crosses are believed to date from the 6th century as per the tradition and are found in a number of churches in Kerala, Mylapore and Goa. Jornada is the oldest known written document to refer to this type of cross as a St. Thomas Cross. Gouvea also writes about the veneration of the Cross at Cranganore, referring to the cross as "Cross of Christians".
There are several interpretations of the Nasrani symbol. The interpretation based on Christian Jewish tradition assumes that its design was based on Jewish menorah, an ancient symbol of the Hebrews, which consists of seven branched lamp stand (candelabra). The interpretation based on local culture states that the Cross without the figure of Jesus and with flowery arms symbolizing "joyfulness" points to the resurrection theology of Saint Paul; the Holy Spirit on the top represents the role of Holy Spirit in the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The lotus symbolizing Buddhism and the Cross over it shows that Christianity was established in the land of Buddha. The three steps indicate Calvary and the rivulets, channels of Grace flowing from the Cross.
The Qur’anic account of the disciples of Jesus does not include their names, numbers, or any detailed accounts of their lives. Muslim exegesis, however, more-or-less agrees with the New Testament list and says that the disciples included Peter, Philip, Thomas, Bartholomew, Matthew, Andrew, James, Jude, John, and Simon the Zealot.
- Book of Thomas the Contender
- Syro Malabar Catholic Church
- Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church
- Gospel of Barnabas
- List of Patriarchs of the Church of the East
- Mar Thoma Syrian Church
- Saint Thomas of Mylapur
- São Tomé
- St. Thomas' Church for a listing of all churches and chapel named in his honour
- Throne of St. Thomas
- All three occasions are discussed in detail by Dr. Mathew Vallanickal, "Faith and Character of Apostle Thomas" in The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Vol. II, Trichur, 1973, p. 2
- "... Judas Thomas, as he is called [in the Acta Thomae] and elsewhere in Syriac tradition ...". Thurston 1913 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFThurston1913 (help)
- Fahlbusch et al. 2008, p. 285.
- "Liturgical Calendar: December'". Latin-mass-society.org. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "The martyrdom of Thomas the Apostle The Day of Sinxar, on the 26th of Bashnas, the month of Bashnas, the Coptic month". st-takla.org (in Arabic). Retrieved 24 February 2020.
- Slapak 1995, p. 27.
- Medlycott 1905.
- Puthiakunnel 1973.
- Johnson & Zacharia 2016.
- About Thomas The Apostle at the Wayback Machine (archived 2011-02-08)
- "Co-Cathedral Basilica of St. Thomas the Apostle". GCatholic.org. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- "Patron Saints of Countries". Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Medlycott 1905, Ch. IV.
- Thomas the Apostle n.d.
- Catholic Church 1969, p. 96.
- "Propers for St. Thomas the Apostle". Commonprayer.org. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- Holy, Glorious Apostle Thomas Orthodox icon and synaxarion for 6 October
- Icon of the Mother of God, Arapet (Arabian) Orthodox icon and synaxarion for 6 September
- "Malankara Orthodox Church". Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Lewis 1927.
- Robinson 1926, p. 33.
- "The Passing of Mary". Ccel.org. 1 June 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
- "St Thomas Receiving the Virgin Mary’s Girdle at her Assumption", Dimus, no. 17 (April 2008)
- Norman 1993, pp. 1-42.
- History Archived 4 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Payyappilly Palakkappilly Nasrani family
- Mani 2016, p. 14.
- Frykenberg, Robert Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present. Oxford University Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 0-19-826377-5. Missing or empty
- Medlycott 1905, p. 157.
- Medlycott 1905, pp. 18–71.
- James 1924, pp. 364-436.
- Medlycott 1905, pp. 1–17, 213–297.
- Eusebius, History, chapter 4:30
- Farquhar 1926, p. 30.
- Smith 1914, p. 235.
- Brown 1956, pp. 49-59.
- Farmer 2011, p. 418.
- Marco Polo 1920, p. 117.
- Hunter 1886, p. 237.
- Neill 2004, p. 29.
- Hunter 1886, p. 31.
- Bays 2011, Ch. 1.
- Hoenerbach & Spies 1956.
- Gilman & Klimkeit 2016.
- Tubach 1995, pp. 397-430.
- Takahashi 2011.
- Andrade 2018, pp. 58-59.
- Arnobius of Sicca 1949, p. 125.
- Koch 1972.
- von Morgenstern 1998, p. 198.
- Muthiah 2014.
- Bussagli 1965, p. 255.
- "The Pilgrimage of S. Silvia of Aquitania to the Holy Places". Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Harvey 2005, p. 124.
- Segal 2005, pp. 174–176, 250.
- Sadasivan 2000, p. 410.
- Thurston 1913. sfn error: no target: CITEREFThurston1913 (help)
- Sanidopoulos 2010.
- من الأرشيف: اكتشاف ذخيرة الرسول توما بيد مطران الموصل مار سويريوس زكا عيواص. Syrian Orthodox Patriarchate (in Arabic). Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- Arraf 2018.
- "Holy Relics of Saint Thomas transferred to the Monastery of St Matthew in Nineveh". OCP. 9 July 2014. Retrieved 18 May 2018.
- Wright 1871; Rev. Paul Bedjan, Acta Martyrum et Sanctorum, Vol. III, Leipsic-Paris, 1892.Medlycott 1905, pp. 221–225, Appendix. Also in The Nazranies, Ed. G. Menachery, Ollur, 1998.
- "The Consummation of Thomas the Apostle". Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- Mookerji 1966, p. 28.
- Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, 3.1; Patrologia Graeca, Migne Edn., 20.215; Patrologia Latina, Migne, 21.478.
- Perumalil 1971, pp. 50-51.
- 20th Century Discussions: Hambye 1952; Comes, S. J., "Did St. Thomas Really come to India?", in Menachery (Ed.) STCEI, II.
- Farquhar 1926, pp. 30-31.
- Panjikaran 1926, p. 99 esp. for reference to Pantaenus' Indian visit. Reproduced in ICHC I 'The Nazranies", ed. George Menachery 1998, pp. 277 ff.
- Patrologia Graeca (Migne), 19–24., 20.215.
- Bickell, S. Ephraemi Syri, Caramina Nisibena, Lipsiae, 1866; Monsignor Lamy, S. Ephraemi Syri Hymni et Sermones, (Quarto 4 vols.); Breviary acc. to the Rite of the Church of Antioch of the Syrians, Mosul, 1886–96. Medlycott 1905, pp. 21–32 Alias Menachery (Ed.) STCEI, II, pp. 18ff.
- Homil. XXXII, xi, Contra Arianos et de seipso. Migne, PG 36-228.
- 20th Century Discussions : Medlycott 1905, pp. 42–43; Perumalil 1971, pp. 43,44
- Migne, P-L 140 1143. (Also see 17. 1131, 17.1133, for his Indian knowledge.)
- 20th Century Discussions : Medlycott 1905, pp. 43–44; Perumalil 1971, pp. 44–45, Perumalil and Menachery (STCEI I, II), Migne Edns.; Wm. A. Jurgens, Faith of the Early Fathers:etc. History of Christianity-Source Materials by M. K. George, CLS, Madras, 1982 and the Handbook of Source Materials by Wm. G. Young. Ferroli 1939, pp. 71-; Hunt 1920, pp. 27, 33, 46–50; G.T. Mackenzie, i.c.s., "History of Christianity in Travancore", in The Travancore State Manual, Vol-II, Edited by Nagam Aiya, Trivandrum 1906, pp. 135–233; Menachery, STCEI, I, II.
- Medlycott 1905, p. 71.
- Collins 2007, p. 119.
- Antony 2019.
- Thadikkatt 2004, p. 114. sfn error: no target: CITEREFThadikkatt2004 (help)
- Noegel & Wheeler 2002, p. 86.
- Andrade, Nathanael J. (2018). The Journey of Christianity to India in Late Antiquity: Networks and the Movement of Culture. Cambridge: University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-41912-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Antony, M Thomas (17 February 2019). "Saint Thomas Cross- A Religio Cultural Logo of Saint Thomas Christians". Nasrani.net. Retrieved 16 June 2012.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Arnobius of Sicca (1949). The Case Against the Pagans. Volume 1. Translated by George E. McCracken. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-0248-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Arraf, Jane (31 March 2018). "Iraq's Christians Remain Displaced This Easter". NPR. Retrieved 18 May 2018.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bays, Daniel H. (2011). A New History of Christianity in China. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-5954-8.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Brown, Leslie W. (1956). The Indian Christians of St Thomas, an Account of the Ancient Syrian Church of Malabar. Cambridge: University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bussagli, Mario (1965). Arte del Grandhara. Sadea / Sansoni.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Catholic Church (1969). Calendarium Romanum [Roman Calendar] (in Latin). Rome: Libreria Editrice Vaticana.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Collins, Paul M. (2007). Christian Inculturation in India. Ashgate. ISBN 978-0-7546-6076-7.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Cureton, W. (1864). Ancient Syriac Documents Relative to the Earliest Establishment of Christianity in Edessa and the Neighbouring Countries, from the Year After Our Lord Ascension, to the Beginning of the Fourth Century. London: Williams and Norgate.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Dobrizhoffer, Martin (1822). An account of the Abipones, an equestrian people of Paraguay. London: John Murray.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Fahlbusch, Erwin; Bromiley, Geoffrey William; Lochman, Jan Milic; Mbiti, John; Pelikan, Jaroslav (2008). The Encyclodedia of Christianity. Vol. 5. Wm. B. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-2417-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Farmer, David Hugh (2011). The Oxford Dictionary of Saints, Fifth Edition Revised (5th ed.). Oxford: University Press. ISBN 0-19-959660-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ferroli, Domenico (1939). The Jesuits in Malabar. Volume 1. Printed at the Bangalore Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Farquhar, John Nicol (1926). "Ch. 4". The Apostle Thomas in North India. Manchester: University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Frykenberg, Robert Eric (2008). Christianity in India: from Beginnings to the Present. Oxford University Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 0-19-826377-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Gilman, Ian; Klimkeit, Hans-Joachim (2016). Christians in Asia before 1500. Routledge. ISBN 978-1138970663.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hambye, E. R. (1952). "Saint Thomas and India". The Clergy Monthly (16).CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Harvey, Susan Ashbrook (2005). ""Incense in our land": Julian Saba and Early Christianity". Wilderness: Essays in Honour of Frances Young. T&T Clark. pp. 120–134.
- Hoenerbach, W; Spies, O (1956). Ibn At-Taiyib. Fiqh An-Nasraniya Das Recht Der Christenheit. Leuven: Peeters. ISBN 978-9042901964.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hunt, William Saunders (1920). The Anglican Church in Travancore and Cochin, 1816-1916. Church Missionary Society.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hunter, William Wilson (1886). The Indian empire : its peoples, history, and products. Morrison & Gibb.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- James, Montague Rhodes (1924). "The Acts of Thomas". The Apocryphal New Testament: Being the Apocryphal Gospels, Acts, Epistles, and Apocalypses, with Other Narratives and Fragments. Oxford: Clarendon Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Johnson, Lynn; Zacharia, Paul (19 February 2016). "The Surprisingly Early History of Christianity in India". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 24 February 2020.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Koch, Kurt E. (1972). The Revival in Indonesia. Evangelization Publishers.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lewis, Lionel Smithett (1927). St. Joseph of Arimathea at Glastonbury: Or, The Apostolic Church of Britain. Covenant.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mani, Thattunkal Zachariah (2016). ThomaaSleehaayude Kerala ChristhavaSabha Onnaam Noottaandil. T.Z. Mani.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Marco Polo (1920). Henri Cordier (ed.). Ser Marco Polo: Notes and Addenda to Sir Henry Yule's Edition, Containing the Results of Recent Research and Discovery. Translated by Sir Henry Yule. John Murray.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Medlycott, Adolphus E. (1905). India and the Apostle Thomas: An Inquiry, with a Critical Analysis of the Acta Thomae. London: David Nutt.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mookerji, Radhakumud (1966). Chandragupta Maurya and His Times. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-0405-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Muthiah, S. (2014). Madras Rediscovered. East-West Press. ISBN 978-93-85724-77-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Neill, Stephen (2004). A History of Christianity in India: The Beginnings to AD 1707. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-54885-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Noegel, Scott B.; Wheeler, Brannon M. (2002). Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam and Judaism. Scarecrow. ISBN 978-0-8108-4305-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Norman, Diana (1993). "In imitation of Saint Thomas Aquinas: art, patronage and liturgy within a Renaissance chapel". Renaissance Studies. 7: 1–42. doi:10.1111/j.1477-4658.1993.tb00266.x.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Panjikaran, Joseph C. (1926). Christianity in Malabar with Special Reference to the St. Thomas Christians of the Syro-Malabar Rite. Rome: Pont. Institutum orientalium studiorum.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Perumalil, A. C. (1971). The Apostles in India. Patna: Xavier Teachers' Training Institute.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Puthiakunnel, Thomas (1973). "Jewish colonies of India paved the way for St. Thomas". In Menachery, George (ed.). The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India. Volume 2. Trichur. OCLC 1237836.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Robinson, Joseph Armitage (1926). Two Glastonbury Legends: King Arthur and St. Joseph of Arimathea. Cambridge: University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Ruiz de Montoya, Antonio (1639). "Chapter XVIII". Conquista espiritual hecha por los religiosos de la Compañía de Jesús en las provincias del Paraguay, Paraná, Uruguay y Tape. Madrid.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Sadasivan, S. N. (2000). A Social History of India. APH. ISBN 978-81-7648-170-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Sanidopoulos, John (6 October 2010). "The Skull of the Holy Apostle Thomas in Patmos". Mystagogy. Retrieved 10 May 2015.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Segal, J.B. (2005). Edessa the Blessed City. Gorgias. ISBN 1-59333-059-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Slapak, Orpa, ed. (1995). The Jews of India: A Story of Three Communities. Muzeon Yisrael. ISBN 978-965-278-179-6 – via University Press of New England.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Smith, Vincent A. (1914). Early History of India. Oxford: Clarendon Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Takahashi, Hidemi (2011), "China, Syriac Christianity in,", in Brock, Sebastian P.; Butts, Aaron M.; Kiraz, George A.; van Rompay, Lucas (eds.), Gorgias Encyclopedic Dictionary of the Syriac Heritage (Electronic ed.), Gorgias PressCS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Thadikatt, Geo. (2004). Liturgical Identity of Mar Thoma Nasrani Church. Kottayam.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Thomas the Apostle (n.d.). The Book of Thomas. NHC II,7 138,7–138,12. Translated by John D. Turner. Archived from the original on 30 January 2016.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Thurston, Herbert (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link) . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.).
- Tubach, Jürgen (1995). "Der Apostel Thomas in China. Die Herkunft einer Tradition" [The Apostle Thomas in China. The origin of a tradition]. In Samuel, V. C.; Panicker, Geevarghese; Thekeparampil, Rev. Jacob (eds.). The Harp (in German). Vol. 8–9. Gorgias. pp. 397–430.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- von Morgenstern, Franz Wisner (1998). El Dictador del Paraguay: José Gaspar de Francia (in Spanish). Asunción, Paraguay: Instituto Paraguayo Alemán.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Wright, William, ed. (1871). Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles: The Syriac texts. Williams and Norgate.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- George Menachery, Ed., The Nazranies, Indian Church History Classics, Vol.1, 1998, esp.books fully reproduced in it by Mackenzie, Medlycott, Farquar& many others.
- Most, Glenn W. (2005). Doubting Thomas. Cambridge, Mass., London: Harvard University Press. (a study in the reception of Thomas' story in literature and art).
- Nicholl, Charles (8 November 2012). "The Other Thomas". London Review of Books. 34 (21): 39–43.
- Perrier, Pierre; Xavier, Walter (2008), Thomas Fonde L'église En Chine (65–68 Ap J.-C.) [Thomas founder of the church in China (65-68 AD)] (in French), Paris: Jubilé, ISBN 9782866794828
- Richards, William Joseph (1908). The Indian Christians of St. Thomas: Otherwise Called the Syrian Christians. London: Bemrose.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Apostle in India, The tomb of the Apostle
- Mylapore santhomechurch built over the tomb of Saint Thomas
- Jacobite Syrian Christian Church
- Mylapore Diocese of Jacobite Syrian Church
- St. Thomas Indian Orthodox Church – Greater Washington
- A.E. Medlycott, India and the Apostle Thomas, London 1905 (e-text)
- Niranam Valiyapally and Saint Thomas
- The Nasrani Syrian Christians Network
- Official Site of the Malankara Mar Thoma Syrian Church
- Mar Thoma Churches all over the world
- Passages to India
- Orthodox Church Portal
- Apostle of India at the Wayback Machine (archived 2011-07-20)
- The Little Gospel of St Thomas (Sri Lankan film dramatisation)