Tiangong space station


Tiangong Space Station[1]
Tiangong Space Station Rendering 2021.10.png
Rendering of Tiangong Space Station in October 2021, with Tianhe core module in the middle, Tianzhou at two ends and Shenzhou at nadir.
Station statistics
CrewFully crewed: 3
Currently aboard: 3
(Shenzhou 13)
Expedition: 2
Commander: Zhai Zhigang (PLAAC)
Launch29 April 2021 (Tianhe)
2022 (Wentian and Mengtian)
Launch padWenchang Spacecraft Launch Site LC-1
Mission statusUnder construction
Mass100,000 kg
Length~ 20.00 m
Diameter~ 4.20 m
Pressurised volumeHabitable: 110 m3 (3,880 cu ft) (planned)
Periapsis altitude389.5 km[2]
Apoapsis altitude395 km[2]
Orbital inclination41.58°[2]
Typical orbit altitude389.2 km[2]
Orbital speed7.68 km/s[2]
Orbital period92.2 minutes[3]
Days in orbit5 months, 21 days
(20 October 2021)
Days occupied4 days, 12 hours and 23 minutes[4]
(Shenzhou 13)
95 days, 2 hours and 31 minutes
Statistics as of 16 October 2021

Tiangong (Chinese: 天宫; pinyin: Tiāngōng; lit. 'Heavenly Palace'),[5][6] officially the Tiangong space station (Chinese: 天宫空间站), is a space station being constructed by China in low Earth orbit between 340 and 450 km (210 and 280 mi) above the surface. Being China's first long-term space station, it is the goal of the "Third Step" of the China Manned Space Program. Once completed, the Tiangong Space Station will have a mass between 80 and 100 t (180,000 and 220,000 lb), roughly one-fifth the mass of the International Space Station and about the size of the decommissioned Russian Mir space station but with more advanced technologies.

The construction of the station is based on the experience gained from its precursors, Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2.[7][8][9] The first module, the Tianhe ("Harmony of the Heavens") core module, was launched on 29 April 2021,[5][6] followed by multiple crewed and uncrewed missions and two more modules to be launched by 2022.[7] Chinese leaders hope that research conducted on the station will improve researchers' ability to conduct science experiments in space, beyond the duration offered by China's existing space laboratories.[10]


Deng Xiaoping decided[citation needed] that the names used in the space program, previously all chosen from the revolutionary history of the PRC, would be replaced with mystical-religious ones. Thus, the new Long March launch vehicles were renamed Divine arrow (神箭),[11][12] space capsule Divine vessel (神舟),[13] space shuttle Divine dragon (神龙),[14] land-based high-power laser Divine light (神光)[15] and supercomputer Divine might (神威).[16]

These poetic[17] names continue as the first, second, third, fourth and fifth Chinese Lunar probes are called Chang'e after the Moon goddess. The name "Tiangong" means "heavenly palace". Across the PRC the launch of Tiangong 1 inspired a variety of feelings, including love poetry. Within the PRC, the rendezvous of space vehicles is compared to the reunion of the cowherd and the weavergirl.[18]

Wang Wenbao, director of the China Manned Space Agency (CMSA), told a news conference in 2011 "Considering past achievements and the bright future, we feel the manned space programme should have a more vivid symbol, and that the future space station should carry a resounding and encouraging name. We now feel that the public should be involved in the names and symbols, as this major project will enhance national prestige and strengthen the national sense of cohesion and pride".[17][19][20] Imagery of the Chinese space program has been used by the Party (government) to strengthen its position and promote patriotism since the late 1950s and early 1960s.[21]

On 31 October 2013, CMSA announced the new names for the whole program:[8]

Purpose and mission

According to China Manned Space Agency (CMSA), which operates the space station, the purpose and mission of Tiangong space station is listed as: Further development of spacecraft rendezvous technology; Breakthrough in key technologies such as permanent human operations in orbit, long-term autonomous spaceflight of the space station, regenerative life support technology, and autonomous cargo and fuel supply technology; Test of next-generation orbit transportation vehicles; Scientific and practical applications at large-scale in orbit; Development of technology that can aid future deep space exploration.[28][29][30]

Operations will be controlled from the Beijing Aerospace Flight Control Center in China. To guarantee the safety of astronauts on board, a Long March 2F with a Shenzhou spacecraft will always be on standby for an emergency rescue mission.[31]


"T" concept of the Chinese large modular space station

The space station will be a third generation modular space station. First generation space stations, such as early Salyut, Almaz, and Skylab, were single piece stations and not designed for resupply. Second generation Salyut 6 and 7, and Tiangong 1 and 2 stations, are designed for mid-mission resupply. Third generation stations, such as Mir and the International Space Station, are modular space stations, assembled on-orbit from pieces launched separately. Modularised design methods can greatly improve reliability, reduce costs, shorten development cycle, and meet diversified task requirements.[7]

Solar arraySolar array
Solar arraySolar arrayDocking portSolar arraySolar array
core module
Solar arrayEVA hatchDocking portDocking portSolar array


The initial target configuration for the end of 2022 consists of three modules, which may be expanded to six in the future.[32]

The Tianhe Core Cabin Module (CCM) provides life support and living quarters for three crew members, and provides guidance, navigation, and orientation control for the station. The module also provides the station's power, propulsion, and life support systems. The module consists of three sections: living quarters, service section and a docking hub. The living quarters will contain a kitchen and toilet, fire control equipment, atmospheric processing and control equipment, computers, scientific apparatus, communications equipment to send and receive communications via ground control in Beijing, and other equipment. An ISS Canadian-style SSRMS robotic arm was folded under the Tisane service section. Additionally, the Wentian experiment (described below) will carry a duplicate stowed second SSRMS robotic arm. In 2018 fullscale mockup of CCM was publicly presented at China International Aviation & Aerospace Exhibition in Zhuhai. The video from CNSA revealed that two of these core modules have been built. Artist impressions have also depicted the two core modules docked together to enlarge the overall station.

Inside view of Tianhe in orbit, 2021.

The first of two Laboratory Cabin Modules, 'Wentian' and 'Mengtian' respectively, will provide additional navigation avionics, propulsion and orientation control as backup functions for the CCM. Both LCMs will provide a pressurised environment for researchers to conduct science experiments in freefall or microgravity which could not be conducted on Earth for more than a few minutes. Experiments can also be placed on the outside of the modules for exposure to the space environment, cosmic rays, vacuum, and solar winds.

Like Mir and the Russian orbital segment of the ISS, the Tiangong modules will be carried fully assembled into orbit, in contrast to the US Orbital Segment of the ISS, which required spacewalking to interconnect cables, piping, and structural elements manually. The axial port of the LCMs will be fitted with rendezvous equipment and will first dock to the axial port of the CCM. A mechanical arm similar to the Russian Lyappa arm used on the Mir space station will then move the module to a radial port of the CCM.[33] In addition to the Lyappa arm used for docking relocation, a 10-meters long robotic arm for exterior station operations is also mounted on the Tianhe module.[34]

Module Launch Time & International Designator Launch vehicle Docking Date and Position Length Diameter Mass Picture
Tianhe core module 29 April 2021, 2021 03:23:15 UTC


Long March 5B (Y2) (Core Module) 16.6 m (54 ft) 4.2 m (14 ft) 22,600 kg (49,800 lb)
Tianhe core module at the Wenchang Spacecraft Launch Site
The Tianhe core module consists of three sections: the habitable living quarter, the non-habitable service section, and a docking hub.[35][36]
Wentian Laboratory Cabin Module May–June 2022 (Planned) Long March 5B (Y3) (Planned) May–June 2022 (Planned)

Front → Left of the Tianhe core module (Planned)

18 m (59 ft) 4.2 m (14 ft) ~20,000 kg (44,000 lb)
Plan of the Wentian module
One of the lab module, which also serves as the backup platform of the core module with capability of space station control and management. It has its own airlock served as main exit for future spacewalking and a second mechanical arm for the station.[36]
Mengtian Laboratory Cabin Module August–September 2022 (Planned) Long March 5B (Y4) (Planned) August–September 2022 (Planned)

Front → Right of the Tianhe core module (Planned)

18 m (59 ft) 4.2 m (14 ft) ~20,000 kg (44,000 lb)
Plan of the Mengtian module
One of the lab module. It has its own airlock for supplement and equipment transportation.[36]


Power supply

Electrical power is provided by two steerable solar power arrays on each module, which use gallium arsenide photovoltaic cells to convert sunlight into electricity. Energy is stored to power the station when it passes into the Earth's shadow. Resupply spacecraft will replenish fuel for the station's propulsion engines for station keeping, to counter the effects of atmospheric drag. The solar arrays are designed to last up to 15 years.[37]


Tiangong is fitted with Chinese Docking Mechanism used by Shenzhou spacecraft and previous Tiangong prototypes. The Chinese docking mechanism is based on the Russian APAS-89/APAS-95 system. Despite NASA describing it as a "clone" to APAS,[38] there have been contradictory claims on the compatibility of the Chinese system with both current and future docking mechanisms on the ISS, which are also based on APAS.[39][40][41] It has a circular transfer passage that has a diameter of 800 mm (31 in).[42][43] The androgynous variant has a mass of 310 kg and the non-androgynous variant has a mass of 200 kg.[44]

Chinese Docking Mechanism was used for the first time on Shenzhou 8 and Tiangong 1 space station and will be used on future Chinese space stations and with future Chinese cargo resupply vehicles.[45][39]


Tiangong space station is fitted with conventional chemical propulsion and ion thrusters to adjust and maintain the station's orbit. Four Hall-effect thrusters are mounted on the exterior wall of Tianhe core module.[46] The development of the Hall-effect thrusters is considered a sensitive topic in China, with scientists "working to improve the technology without attracting attention". Hall-effect thrusters are created with manned mission safety in mind with effort to prevent erosion and damage caused by the accelerated ion particles. A magnetic field and specially designed ceramic shield was created to repel damaging particles and maintain integrity of the thrusters. According to the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the ion drive used on Tiangong has burned continuously for 8,240 hours without a glitch during testing, indicating their suitability for Chinese space station's designated 15-year lifespan.[47] These are the world's first Hall thrusters on a human-rated mission.[48]


The space station will have more than 20 experimental racks with enclosed, pressurized environment. Over 1,000 experiments are tentatively approved by China Manned Space Agency.[49] The programmed experiment equipment for the three modules as of June 2016 are:[9]

  • Space life sciences and biotechnology
    • Ecology Science Experiment Rack (ESER)
    • Biotechnology Experiment Rack (BER)
    • Science Glove-box and Refrigerator Rack (SGRR)
  • Microgravity fluid physics and combustion
    • Fluids Physics Experiment Rack (FPER)
    • Two-phase System Experiment Rack (TSER)
    • Combustion Experiment Rack (CER)
  • Material science in space
    • Material Furnace Experiment Rack (MFER)
    • Container-less Material Experiment Rack (CMER)
  • Fundamental Physics in Microgravity
    • Cold Atom Experiment Rack (CAER)
    • High-precision Time-Frequency Rack (HTFR)
  • Multipurpose Facilities
    • High Micro-gravity Level Rack (HMGR)
    • Varying-Gravity Experiment Rack (VGER)
    • Modularized Experiment Rack (RACK)

Additional spacecraft associated with the station

Spacecraft[a] Launch Time & International Designator Launch vehicle Operational Date Relation It Shares With The Space Station Length Diameter Mass Picture
Xuntian Space Station Telescope 2024 (Planned) Long March 5B (Planned) 2024 (Planned) A Major Space Telescope that shares the same orbit and visits or is visited by the Space Station at the time when it need repairs. 14 m (46 ft)[50] ~4.2 m (14 ft) 15,500 kg (34,200 lb)[50]
CSST Xuntian
Planned Chinese space station telescope currently under development. It will feature a 2 meter (6.6 foot) diameter primary mirror and is expected to have a field of view 300 times larger than the Hubble Space Telescope. This will allow the telescope to image up to 40 percent of the sky using its 2.5 gigapixel camera over ten years. It will co-orbit with the space station, which will allow for periodic docking with the station.



In 2011, the space station was planned to be assembled during 2020 to 2022.[51] By 2013, the space station's core module was planned to be launched earlier, in 2018, followed by the first laboratory module in 2020, and a second in 2022.[52] By 2018, this had slipped to 2020-2023.[24][53] A total of 11 launches are planned for the whole construction phase, now beginning in 2021.[54][55]


A model of the launcher for modules, the Long March 5

The assembly method of the station can be compared with the Soviet-Russian Mir space station and the Russian orbital segment of the International Space Station. The construction of the modular station marks China to be the second nation to develop and use automatic rendezvous and docking for modular space station construction. The docking and assembly mechanism of the Tiangong station are based on or compatible with Russian design due to two iterations of cooperation in the past. During the cordial Sino-Soviet relations of the 1950s, the Soviet Union (USSR) engaged in a cooperative technology transfer program with the PRC, which helped kick-start the Chinese space program. The friendly relationship between the two countries turned to confrontation due to ideological difference on Marxism. As a consequence, all Soviet technological assistance was abruptly withdrawn after the 1960 Sino-Soviet split. The cooperation only restarted after the fall of the Soviet Union. In 1994, Russia sold some of its advanced aviation and space technology to the Chinese. In 1995 a deal was signed between the two countries for the transfer of Russian Soyuz spacecraft technology to China. Included in the agreement was training, provision of Soyuz capsules, life support systems, docking systems, and space suits. In 1996, two Chinese astronauts, Wu Jie and Li Qinglong, began training at the Yuri Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center in Russia. After training, these men returned to China and proceeded to train other Chinese astronauts at sites near Beijing and Jiuquan. The hardware and information sold by the Russians led to modifications of the original Phase One spacecraft, eventually called Shenzhou, which loosely translated means "divine vessel". New launch facilities were built at the Jiuquan launch site in Inner Mongolia, and in the spring of 1998 a mock-up of the Long March 2F launch vehicle with Shenzhou spacecraft was rolled out for integration and facility tests.[56]

A representative of the Chinese crewed space program stated that around 2000, China and Russia were engaged in technological exchanges regarding the development of a docking mechanism used for space station.[57] Deputy Chief Designer, Huang Weifen, stated that near the end of 2009, the Chinese agency began to train astronauts on how to dock spacecraft.[58]

International co-operation

China's incentive to build its own space station was amplified after NASA refused Chinese participation in the International Space Station in 2011,[59] a move that was criticized by various parties,[60][61][62] with China, Russia and Europe intended to keep a cooperative and multilateral approach in space.[63] Cooperation in the field of crewed space flight between the China Manned Space Agency (CMSA) and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) was examined in 2011, participation in the development of China crewed space stations and cooperation with China in the fields such as astronauts flight, and scientific research was discussed.[64] An initial cooperative agreement with China National Space Administration and Italian Space Agency was signed in November 2011, covering collaboration areas of space transportation, telecommunications, Earth observation, etc.[65] Italian experiment High Energy cosmic-Radiation Detection (HERD) is scheduled to be onboard the Chinese station.[66] Tiangong also involves cooperation from France, Sweden, and Russia.[67]

On 22 February 2017, CMSA and Italian Space Agency (ASI) signed an agreement to cooperate on long-term human spaceflight activities.[68] The agreement holds importance due to Italy's leading position in the field of human spaceflight with regard to the creation and exploitation of the International Space Station (Node 2, Node 3, Columbus, Cupola, Leonardo, Raffaello, Donatello, PMM, etc.) and it signifies Italy's increased anticipation in China's developing space station programme.[69] European Space Agency (ESA) started human spaceflight training with CMSEO in 2017, with the ultimate goal of sending ESA astronauts onto Chinese space station.[70]

International experiments are selected by CMSA and United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) on a UN session in 2019. 42 applications were submitted and nine experiments were accepted.[71] Some of the experiment are continuation to the ones on Tiangong-2 such as POLAR-2, an experiment of researching Gamma-ray burst polarimetry, proposed by Switzerland, Poland, Germany and China.[72] Tricia Larose from the University of Oslo of Norway develops a cancer research experiment for the station. The 31-days experiment will test to see if weightlessness has a positive effect in stopping cancer growth.[73] Tiangong is also expected to host experiments from Belgium, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Kenya, the Netherlands, Mexico, Peru, Russia, Saudi Arabia, and Spain.[72]

Regarding the participation of foreign astronauts, CMSA repeatedly communicated their support for such proposal. On the press conference of Shenzhou 12 mission, Zhou Jianping, the chief designer of China Manned Space Program explained that multiple countries have expressed their wish in the participation. He told journalists that foreign astronauts' future participation "will be guaranteed".[74] Ji Qiming, an assistant director at CMSEO told reporters that he believes "in the near future, after the completion of the Chinese space station, we will see Chinese and foreign astronauts fly and work together."[75]

Life aboard

The station has a Wi-Fi network for wireless connection. Each astronaut wears a bone-conduction headphone and microphone for easy communication.[76] 120 different types of food, selected based on astronauts' preference, are stored aboard. Staples including shredded pork in garlic sauce, kung pao chicken, black pepper beef, pickled cabbage and beverages including a variety of teas and juices are resupplied by trips of the Tianzhou 2 cargo ship. Fresh fruits and vegetables are stored in coolers. Huang Weifen, chief astronaut trainer of CNSA, explains that most food is prepared to be solid, boneless, small-piece. Condiments such as pork sauce and Sichuan pepper sauce are used to compensate for the mainly temporary loss in taste during microgravity. The station is equipped with a small kitchen for food preparation and the first-ever microwave oven in spaceflight[77] so that astronauts can "always have hot food whenever they need."[78][79]

The station core module Tianhe provides living quarters for the crew members,[80][81] containing three separate bedrooms, toilet, shower facility, and gym equipment.[82] The crew quarters are substantially larger than that of International Space Station, featuring a bed in size of twin mattress, a small window, a headphone, ventilation and other amenities. Neuromuscular electrical stimulator is used to prevent muscle atrophy. The noise level in the working area is 58 decibels, while in the sleeping area, the noise is kept at 49 decibels.[83][84]


The station will be resupplied by crewed and robotic spacecraft.

Crewed mission

Initial crewed missions to Tiangong, including its first mission Shenzhou 12 lasting a planned 90 days, uses the Shenzhou spacecraft. Proceeding missions starting from Shenzhou 13 which lasts a planned 180 days will then become the norm duration stay at the Tiangong.[85]

China is testing a next-generation crewed spacecraft to eventually replace Shenzhou. It is designed to carry astronauts to the Chinese space station and offer the capability for the moon exploration. China's next-generation crew carrier is reusable with a detachable heat shield built to handle higher-temperature returns through Earth's atmosphere. The new capsule design is larger than the Shenzhou, according to Chinese officials. The spacecraft is capable of carrying astronauts to the Moon, and can accommodate up to six to seven crew members at a time, three more astronauts than that of Shenzhou.[86] The new crewed spacecraft has cargo section that allows astronauts bringing cargo back to Earth, whereas Tianzhou cargo resupply spacecraft is not designed to bring any cargo back to Earth.[86]

Cargo resupply

Tianzhou (Heavenly Vessel), a modified derivative of the Tiangong-1 spacecraft, will be used as robotic cargo spacecraft to resupply this station.[87] The launch mass of Tianzhou is expected to be around 13,000 kg with a payload of around 6,000 kg.[88] Launch, rendezvous and docking shall be fully autonomous, with mission control and crew used in override or monitoring roles. This system becomes very reliable with standardisations that provide significant cost benefits in repetitive routine operations. An automated approach could allow assembly of modules orbiting other worlds prior to crewed missions.[89]

List of missions

  • All dates are UTC. Dates are the earliest possible dates and may change.
  • Forward ports are at the front of the station according to its normal direction of travel and orientation (attitude). Aft is at the rear of the station, used by spacecraft boosting the station's orbit. Nadir is closest the Earth, zenith is on top. Port is to the left if pointing one's feet towards the Earth and looking in the direction of travel; starboard to the right.
  Uncrewed cargo spacecraft are in light blue colour
  Crewed spacecraft are in light green colour
  Modules are in beige colour
Launch date (UTC) Docking date (UTC) Undocking date (UTC) Result Spacecraft Launch vehicle Launch site Launch provider Docking/berthing port Duration[b]
29 April 2021, 03:23:15[5] Success Tianhe Long March 5B China Wenchang LC-1 China CASC N/A
29 May 2021, 12:55:29[90] 29 May 2021, 21:01[91] TBD Tianzhou 2 Long March 7 China Wenchang LC-2 China CASC Tianhe forward[c]
17 June 2021, 01:22:27[92] 17 June 2021, 07:54[92] 16 September 2021, 00:56 [93] Shenzhou 12 Long March 2F China Jiuquan SLS-1 China CASC Tianhe forward 90 days, 14 hours and 8 minutes
20 September 2021, 07:10:11[94][95] 20 September 2021, 14:08[96] TBD Tianzhou 3 Long March 7 China Wenchang LC-2 China CASC Tianhe aft
15 October 2021, 16:23:56[97][98] 15 October 2021, 22:56[99] TBD Shenzhou 13 Long March 2F China Jiuquan SLS-1 China CASC Tianhe nadir
March–April 2022[100] TBD TBD Planned Tianzhou 4 Long March 7 China Wenchang LC-2 China CASC Tianhe aft
May 2022[101] TBD TBD Shenzhou 14 Long March 2F China Jiuquan SLS-1 China CASC Tianhe forward
May–June 2022[102] TBD Wentian Long March 5B China Wenchang LC-1 China CASC Tianhe port
August–September 2022[103] TBD Mengtian Long March 5B China Wenchang LC-1 China CASC Tianhe starboard
October 2022[104] TBD TBD Tianzhou 5 Long March 7 China Wenchang LC-2 China CASC Tianhe aft
November 2022[105] TBD TBD Shenzhou 15 Long March 2F China Jiuquan SLS-1 China CASC Tianhe nadir

End of mission

Tiangong is designed to be used for 10 years which could be extended to 15 years[106] and will accommodate three astronauts.[107] Chinese crewed spacecraft use deorbital burns to slow their velocity, resulting in their re-entry to the Earth's atmosphere. Vehicles carrying a crew have a heat shield which prevents the vehicle's destruction caused by aerodynamic heating upon contact with the Earth's atmosphere. The station itself has no heat-shield; however, small parts of space stations can reach the surface of the Earth, so uninhabited areas will be targeted for de-orbit manoeuvres.[52]

See also


  1. ^ Excludes visiting cargo like Tianzhou and crew vehicles like Shenzhou that are meant for supplementing the space station
  2. ^ Duration is calculated from the moment of entry into the Tianhe core module to the time of undocking with the station.
  3. ^ Initially docked to aft port, moved to forward port on 18 Sep 2021


  1. ^ a b "集大众智慧于探索融中华文化于飞天". 5 November 2013. 最终决定沿用“天宫”作为载人空间站的整体名称,但后面不再加序号 (The final decision was to use "Tiangong" as the overall name of the manned space station, but without the serial number at the end)
  2. ^ a b c d e "The orbital parameters of the core module assembly". China Manned Space. 20 September 2021. Archived from the original on 27 July 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  3. ^ "To infinity and beyond: After Space Station, China has plans for a kilometer-long mega spaceship". India Today. 8 September 2021. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  4. ^ "神舟十三号3名航天员顺利进驻天和核心舱". xinhua.news. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  5. ^ a b c Clark, Stephen (29 April 2021). "Assembly of Chinese space station begins with successful core module launch". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  6. ^ a b "China launches space station core module Tianhe". Xinhua. 29 April 2021. The Tianhe module will act as the management and control hub of the space station Tiangong, meaning Heavenly Palace
  7. ^ a b c Barbosa, Rui (1 March 2021). "China preparing to build Tiangong station in 2021, complete by 2022". NASASpaceFlight.com. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  8. ^ a b "中国载人航天工程标识及空间站、货运飞船名称正式公布" [CMSE logo and space station and cargo ship name officially announced] (in Chinese). China Manned Space Engineering Office. 31 October 2013. Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  9. ^ a b Ping, Wu (June 2016). "China Manned Space Programme: Its Achievements and Future Developments" (PDF). China Manned Space Engineering Office. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
  10. ^ ChinaPower (7 December 2016). "What's driving China's race to build a space station?". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
  11. ^ "江泽民总书记为长征-2F火箭的题词". 平湖档案网 (Pinghu Archives Website). 11 January 2007. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
  12. ^ "中国机械工业集团公司董事长任洪斌一行来中国运载火箭技术研究院考察参观". 中国运载火箭技术研究院. 28 July 2008. Archived from the original on 13 February 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2008.
  13. ^ "江泽民为"神舟"号飞船题名". 东方新闻. 13 November 2003. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
  14. ^ "中国战略秘器"神龙号"空天飞机惊艳亮相". 大旗网. 6 June 2008. Archived from the original on 23 December 2007. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
  15. ^ "基本概况". 中国科学院上海光学精密机械研究所. 7 September 2007. Retrieved 21 July 2008.[dead link]
  16. ^ "金怡濂让中国扬威 朱镕基赞他是"做大事的人"". 搜狐. 23 February 2003. Retrieved 21 July 2008.
  17. ^ a b Branigan, Tania; Sample, Ian (26 April 2011). "China unveils rival to International Space Station". The Guardian.
  18. ^ Moskowitz, Clara. "China's 1st Space Docking Inspires Love Poetry". NBC News.
  19. ^ "China sets out space-station plan, asks public to name it". theregister.co.uk. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  20. ^ "China asks people to suggest names for space station". The Times Of India. The Economic Times. 26 April 2011.
  21. ^ "Chinese Space Program". chineseposters.net. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  22. ^ a b c "China readying for space station era: Yang Liwei". xinhuanet.com.
  23. ^ a b c Jones, Andrew (2 October 2019). "This Is China's New Spacecraft to Take Astronauts to the Moon (Photos)". SPACE.com. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  24. ^ a b David, Leonard (21 April 2021). "China to Loft Key Space Station Module". SpaceRef. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  25. ^ "China launches core module of new space station to orbit". space.com. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  26. ^ a b "Planned space station details made public". China Daily. 26 April 2018. The two space labs, Wentian, or Quest for Heavens, and Mengtian, or Dreaming of Heavens
  27. ^ Jones, Andrew (20 April 2021). "China wants to launch its own Hubble-class telescope as part of space station". Space.com. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  28. ^ "空间实验室任务". China Manned Space. Archived from the original on 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2008.
  29. ^ J. Kiger, Patrick (25 June 2021). "What Does China's New 'Heavenly Palace' in Space Mean for the ISS?". howstuffworks.
  30. ^ Goswami, Namrata (1 May 2021). "China Moves Toward a Permanent Space Presence". The Diplomat.
  31. ^ "China rolls out rocket for Tianzhou-2 space station supply mission". 17 May 2021. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  32. ^ "Astronauts conduct second Chinese space station spacewalk". SpaceNews. 20 August 2021.
  33. ^ Graham, William; Gebhardt, Chris (28 April 2021). "China readies launch of Tianhe module, start of ambitious two-year station construction effort". NASASpaceflight.com. This means the two future science modules, Wentian (“Quest for the heavens”) and Mengtian (“Dreaming of the heavens”), cannot dock directly to their planned radial port locations. [...] To account for this, each module will carry a Russian Lyappa robotic arm — like the ones used on Mir for the same purpose — to move the module from the forward port to its respective permanent location on a radial port of Tianhe's docking hub.
  34. ^ Graham, William; Gebhardt, Chris (28 April 2021). "China readies launch of Tianhe module, start of ambitious two-year station construction effort". NASASpaceflight.com.
  35. ^ Ping, Wu (23 April 2016). "空间站工程研制进展" [Space Station Project Development Progress] (PDF). China Manned Space Engineering. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  36. ^ a b c "周建平:走进新时代的中国载人航天工程". 中国载人航天工程网. 24 April 2018. Archived from the original on 19 May 2021. Retrieved 4 July 2021.
  37. ^ "China Focus: Effective power supply energizes China's space station project". Xinhua News Agency. 9 June 2021. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  38. ^ John Cook; Valery Aksamentov; Thomas Hoffman; Wes Bruner (1 January 2011). "ISS Interface Mechanisms and their Heritage" (PDF). Houston, Texas: NASA: 26. Retrieved 31 March 2015. The Chinese APAS is a clone of the Russian APAS. A view of the Chinese APAS is shown in Figure 19 Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  39. ^ a b Jones, Morris (18 November 2011). "Shenzhou for Dummies". SpaceDaily. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  40. ^ "China's First Space Station Module Readies for Liftoff". SpaceNews. 1 August 2011. Archived from the original on 17 September 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  41. ^ Go Taikonauts Team (9 September 2011). "Chinese Docking Adapter Compatible with International Standard". Go Taikonaut. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  42. ^ "Differences between Shenzhou-8 and Shenzhou-7". CCTV. 31 October 2011. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2015. there will be an 800-millimetre cylindrical passage connecting Shenzhou-8 and Tiangong-1.
  43. ^ Clark, Stephen (18 June 2012). "Chinese astronauts open door on orbiting research lab". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 17 March 2015. Jing floated through the narrow 31-inch passage leading into Tiangong 1
  44. ^ Qiu Huayon; Liu Zhi; Shi Junwei; Zheng Yunqing (August 2015). "Birth of the Chinese Docking System". Go Taikonauts!. No. 16. p. 12.
  45. ^ "Testimony of James Oberg: Senate Science, Technology, and Space Hearing: International Space Exploration Program". SpaceRef. 27 April 2004. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  46. ^ Jones, Andrew (28 April 2021). "Three Decades in the Making, China's Space Station Launches This Week". IEEE.
  47. ^ Chen, Stephen (2 June 2021). "How China's space station could help power astronauts to Mars".
  48. ^ 张 (Zhang), 保淑 (Baoshu) (21 June 2021). "配置4台霍尔电推进发动机 "天宫"掀起太空动力变革". 中国新闻网 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 6 July 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  49. ^ Mallapaty, Smriti (23 July 2021). "China's space station is preparing to host 1,000 scientific experiments". Nature.
  50. ^ a b Hu Zhan (5 November 2019). "An Update on the Chinese Space Station Telescope Project" (PDF). National Astronomical Observatories. Retrieved 22 September 2021.
  51. ^ China Details Ambitious Space Station Goals Space.com 7 March 2011
  52. ^ a b Klotz, Irene (12 November 2013). "China Unveils Space Station Research Plans". SpaceNews. Archived from the original on 25 November 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  53. ^ "Chinese space program insights emerge from National People's Congress". SpaceNews. 2 April 2018.
  54. ^ Howell, Elizabeth. "China wants to build a new space station. A planned launch in April will set the stage". Space.com.
  55. ^ Clark, Stephen (10 January 2021). "China to begin construction of space station this year". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  56. ^ Futron Corp. (2003). "China and the Second Space Age" (PDF). Futron Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 6 October 2011.
  57. ^ "All components of the docking mechanism was designed and manufactured in-house China". Xinhua News Agency. 3 November 2011. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2012.
  58. ^ "China next year manual spacecraft Temple docking, multiply group has completed primary". Beijing News. 4 November 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2012.
  59. ^ Alamalhodaei, Aria (17 June 2021). "China launches 3 astronauts to its new space station core module". techcrunch.
  60. ^ Sample, Ian (11 October 2013). "Nasa admits mistake over Chinese scientists' conference ban". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 January 2019. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  61. ^ "Heritage Foundation, Prospects for U.S.-China Space Cooperation, April 2014". Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
  62. ^ Ian Sample. "US scientists boycott Nasa conference over China ban". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
  63. ^ Whitford, George (27 October 2019). "Trouble in the Stars: The Importance of US-China Bilateral Cooperation in Space". Havared International Review.
  64. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 14 January 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  65. ^ Messier, Doug (23 November 2011). "Will Italy Build Modules for Future Chinese Space Stations?". parabolicarc.
  66. ^ Cattaneo, Paolo W.; HERD Collaboration (21 October 2019). "The space station based detector HERD: precise high energy cosmic rays physics and multimessenger astronomy". Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings. 306–308: 85–91. Bibcode:2019NPPP..306...85C. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2019.07.013.
  67. ^ "EXPLAINER: China prepares space station core module launch". Independent. 28 April 2021.
  68. ^ "China and Italy to cooperate on long-term human spaceflight". 22 February 2017. Archived from the original on 16 February 2018. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  69. ^ "Agreement Italy-China". 22 February 2017. Archived from the original on 2 December 2018. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
  70. ^ "ESA and Chinese astronauts train together". European Space Agency. 24 August 2017.
  71. ^ Gibney, Elizabeth (17 June 2019). "China reveals scientific experiments for its next space station". Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-01913-0.
  72. ^ a b Jones, Andrew (13 July 2019). "International experiments selected to fly on Chinese space Station". spacenews.
  73. ^ Xin, Ling. "China Is Set to Launch First Module of Massive Space Station". Scientific American. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  74. ^ Garcia, Carlos (17 June 2021). "Chinese astronauts board space station module in historic mission". reuters.
  75. ^ Amos, Jonathan (18 June 2021). "China space station: Shenzhou-12 delivers first crew to Tianhe module". BBC News.
  76. ^ "The Shenzhou XII astronauts install WIFI on the space station: they can make video calls with the ground at any time-Communication Technology-Wi-Fi". breakinglatest. 18 June 2021.
  77. ^ "神舟十二号里的"广东制造":首台航天微波炉被送入太空,中国太空笔实现新突破". 21 jingji (in Chinese). 21 June 2021.
  78. ^ Jones, Andrew (26 June 2021). "Chinese astronauts enjoying 120 dishes during space station stay". Space.com.
  79. ^ Howell, Elizabeth (28 June 2021). "Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Panda: Adorable cartoon shows astronaut life on Chinese space station". Space.com.
  80. ^ Reuters (29 April 2021). "China launches Tianhe, future living quarters for space station planned for 2022". www.scmp.com.
  81. ^ Reuters (29 April 2021). "China launches key module of space station planned for 2022, state media reports". CNBC.
  82. ^ Chen, Stephen (17 June 2021). "First astronauts enter China's Tiangong space station after successful docking operation". www.scmp.com.
  83. ^ "The Bunks in the Chinese Space Station Are Absolutely Enormous". Futurism.
  84. ^ "China launches first crewed mission for space station construction". Xinhua. 17 June 2021.
  85. ^ "空间站建造后续有四次载人飞行,航天员每次在轨驻留3至6个月". the paper. 29 April 2021.
  86. ^ a b "China's next-generation crew spacecraft lands after unpiloted test flight". Spaceflight Now. 8 May 2020.
  87. ^ BNS (9 September 2014). "China completes design of Tianzhou cargo spacecraft". Bramand Defence and Aerospace News. Archived from the original on 5 June 2015.
  88. ^ Ana Verayo (7 September 2014). "China Completes Design of First Cargo Spacecraft". China Topix.
  89. ^ Press Trust of India (2 March 2014). "China plans to launch Tianzhou cargo ship into space by 2016". Indian Express.
  90. ^ Graham, William (29 May 2021). "China launches Tianzhou 2, first cargo mission to new space station". NASASpaceFlight. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  91. ^ Jones, Andrew (29 May 2021). "Tianzhou-2 docks with China's space station module". SpaceNews. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  92. ^ a b Clark, Stephen (17 June 2021). "Chinese astronauts enter Tiangong space station for first time". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  93. ^ "神舟十二号载人飞船撤离空间站组合体". China Manned Space (in Chinese). 16 September 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  94. ^ Wall, Mike (17 September 2021). "China rolls out rocket for Tianzhou 3 cargo mission ahead of Monday launch (photos)". Space.com.
  95. ^ "【2021年9月待定】长征七号 • 天舟三号货运飞船 • LongMarch 7 Y4 • Tianzhou-3". spaceflightfans.cn (in Chinese). 21 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  96. ^ "Tianzhou-3 spacecraft docks with Chinese space station". spacenews.com. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  97. ^ "关于神舟十三号发射观摩暨"少年宇航技师"训练营活动延期的通知". www.csaspace.org.cn.
  98. ^ "China expected to name woman for next space station crew". www.scmp.com. 22 September 2021.
  99. ^ "China's Shenzhou 13 crew enters space station for 6-month stay". www.scmp.com. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  100. ^ "【2022年3月04日待定】长征七号 • 天舟四号货运飞船 • LongMarch 7 Y5 • Tianzhou-4". spaceflightfans.cn (in Chinese). 21 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  101. ^ "长征二号F • 神舟十四号载人飞船(2022年待定)" [Long March 2F • Shenzhou-14 (2022 TBD)]. spaceflightfans.cn (in Chinese). 21 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  102. ^ "【22年待定】长征五号乙遥三火箭 • 中国空间站实验舱——问天 • LongMarch-5B Y3" [[2022 TBD] Long March 5B Y3 rocket • Chinese Space Station Laboratory Module—Wentian]. spaceflightfans.cn (in Chinese). 21 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  103. ^ "【22年待定】长征五号乙遥四火箭 • 中国空间站实验舱——梦天 • LongMarch-5B Y4" [[2022 TBD] Long March 5B Y4 rocket • Chinese Space Station Laboratory Module—Mengtian]. spaceflightfans.cn (in Chinese). 21 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  104. ^ "【2022年10月待定】长征七号 • 天舟五号货运飞船 • LongMarch 7 Y6 • Tianzhou-5". spaceflightfans.cn (in Chinese). 21 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  105. ^ "长征二号F • 神舟十五号载人飞船(2022年待定)" [Long March 2F • Shenzhou-15 (2022 TBD)]. spaceflightfans.cn (in Chinese). 21 April 2021. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  106. ^ "China successfully launches first module of planned space station". cnn.com. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
  107. ^ "China Space Station to be completed in 2022". Youtube. Retrieved 10 August 2020.

External links

Media related to Tiangong at Wikimedia Commons

  • China Manned Space Program website