Tianlian I

Summary

Tianlian I
ManufacturerChina Academy of Space Technology (CAST)
Country of originChina
OperatorChina Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC)
ApplicationsTracking and Data Relay Satellite System
Specifications
BusDFH-3
RegimeGeostationary
Production
StatusIn service
Launched4
Operational4
Maiden launchTianlian I-01
25 April 2008
Last launchTianlian I-04
22 November 2016

Tianlian I (Simplified Chinese: 天链一号, Traditional Chinese: 天鏈一號, English: Sky Chain), also known as Tian Lian 1, TL-1, and CTDRS-1 is a Chinese data tracking and relay communications satellite series. Based on the DFH-3 satellite bus, it will provide communication coverage for crewed Shenzhou missions, from Shenzhou 7 onwards.[1] Functionally, it is similar to the United States Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System.

The first satellite of the series, Tianlian I-01, was launched on the maiden flight of the Long March 3C launch vehicle, at 15:35 UTC on 25 April 2008, from LC-2 at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center.[2] Tianlian I-01 is able to cover around half of the spacecraft's trajectory, compared to around 12% which had been covered using tracking stations and a fleet of ships. Tianlian I-02 was launched on 11 July 2011, Tianlian I-03 on 25 July 2012 and Tianlian I-04 on 22 November 2016.[3] The satellites are in geostationary orbit.[4]

Tianlian-I satellites

  • Tianlian I-01
  • Tianlian I-02
  • Tianlian I-03
  • Tianlian I-04

Tianlian I-01

Tianlian I-01
NamesTian Lian 1
TL-1
CTDRS-1
Mission typeTracking and Data Relay Satellite
OperatorChina Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC)
COSPAR ID2008-019A
SATCAT no.32779
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeTianlian I
BusDFH-3
ManufacturerChina Academy of Space Technology (CAST)
Start of mission
Launch date25 April 2008, 15:35:11 UTC [5]
RocketLong March 3C
Launch siteXichang, LC-2
ContractorChina Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT)
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric orbit [6]
RegimeGeostationary orbit
Longitude77.0° East
 

Tianlian I-01 (Simplified Chinese: 天链一号01星, Traditional Chinese: 天鏈一號01星) is the first Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) launched by People's Republic of China, and the first satellite of Tianlian I TDRS series.[7] The satellite has multiple roles and especially serves China's crewed spaceflight. Its first task could be for the Shenzhou 7 communication.

The satellite was launched successfully by the Long March 3C rocket in Xichang Satellite Launch Center on 25 April 2008, at 15:35:11 UTC (23:35 local time). It was the 105th launch of the Long March rocket family. The rocket had 3 stages, 2 roll boosters, a 55 metre height; and was liquid-fueled. Its initial weight was ~343 tons.

Its history includes:

  • 26 April 2008, 00:00 UTC, the Xi'an Satellite Control Center received the feedback signal, which showed the satellite accurately entered its predesigned orbit.
  • 30 April 2008, 08:25 UTC, the satellite was announced to be successfully set at 77.0° East over the equator.[8]

Tianlian I-02

Tianlian I-02
NamesTian Lian 2
TL-2
CTDRS-2
Mission typeTracking and Data Relay Satellite
OperatorChina Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC)
COSPAR ID2011-032A
SATCAT no.37737
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeTianlian I
BusDFH-3
ManufacturerChina Academy of Space Technology (CAST)
Start of mission
Launch date11 July 2011, 15:41:04 UTC
RocketLong March 3C
Launch siteXichang, LC-2
ContractorChina Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT)
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric orbit
RegimeGeostationary orbit
 

Tianlian I-02, a Chinese data relay satellite, was launched from Xichang on 11 July 2011 at 15:41 UTC by a Long March 3C launch vehicle. The satellite is the second launch of the Tianlian communication system. Tianlian I-02 spacecraft join the Tianlian I-01 data relay satellite launched in April 2008 in monitoring flights of China's crewed Shenzhou capsule and China's future space station. The satellite is placed in a geostationary orbit over the equator.[9]

Tianlian I-03

Tianlian I-03
NamesTian Lian 3
TL-3
CTDRS-3
Mission typeTracking and Data Relay Satellite
OperatorChina Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC)
COSPAR ID2012-040A
SATCAT no.38730
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeTianlian I
BusDFH-3
ManufacturerChina Academy of Space Technology (CAST)
Start of mission
Launch date25 July 2012, 15:43:04 UTC
RocketLong March 3C
Launch siteXichang, LC-2
ContractorChina Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT)
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric orbit
RegimeGeostationary orbit
 

The Tianlian I-03 satellite is a geostationary relay satellite based on the DFH-3 bus (three-axis-stabilized telecommunications satellite platform). It is used to support real-time communications between orbiting satellites and ground control stations. This system has replaced the network of ground-based space tracking and telemetry stations and space tracking ships.[10]

Tianlian I-04

Tianlian I-04
NamesTian Lian 4
TL-4
CTDRS-4
Mission typeTracking and Data Relay Satellite
OperatorChina Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC)
COSPAR ID2016-072A
SATCAT no.41869
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeTianlian I
BusDFH-3
ManufacturerChina Academy of Space Technology (CAST)
Start of mission
Launch date22 November 2016,
15:24:04 UTC
RocketLong March 3C
Launch siteXichang, LC-2
ContractorChina Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT)
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric orbit
RegimeGeostationary orbit
 

The new satellite is the fourth in China's Tianlian I series, joining data relay stations launched in 2008, 2011, and 2012. The spacecraft has conduct maneuvers in the fellow weeks to circularize its geostationary orbit over the equator, where its velocity matches the rate of Earth's rotation. That allows the satellite to stay over the same part of Earth at all times.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ Stephen Clark (25 April 2008). "Chinese data relay spacecraft put into orbit". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 26 April 2008.
  2. ^ Yan Liang (25 April 2008). "China blasts off first data relay satellite". Xinhua. Retrieved 26 April 2008.
  3. ^ Xin Dingding (27 July 2012). "Satellite launch completes network". China Daily. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  4. ^ David Todd (26 July 2012). "Chinese data relay satellite TianLian-1C is launched successfully on a Long March 3C". Flightglobal. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  5. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Report. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  6. ^ "CTDRS Satellite details 2008-019A NORAD 32779". N2YO. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2015.
  7. ^ 我国成功发射首颗数据中继卫星(组图)
  8. ^ China sets up first space station for spacecraft data relay_English_Xinhua Archived 2008-09-18 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Display: Tianlian 1-02 2011-032A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  10. ^ "Display: Tianlian 1-03 2012-040A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  11. ^ "Display: Tianlian 1-04 2016-072A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.