Timeline of rocket and missile technology


A depiction of the "long serpent" rocket launcher from the 11th century book Wujing Zongyao. The holes in the frame are designed to keep the fire arrows separate.

This article gives a concise timeline of rocket and missile technology.

11th century

17th century-19th century

  • 1633 - Lagâri Hasan Çelebi launched a 7-winged rocket using 50 okka (140 lbs) of gunpowder from Sarayburnu, the point below Topkapı Palace in Istanbul.[1]
  • 1650 - Artis Magnae Artilleriae pars prima ("Great Art of Artillery, the First Part") is printed in Amsterdam, about a year before the death of its author, Kazimierz Siemienowicz.
  • 1664 - A "space rocket" is imagined as a future technology to be studied in France and its drawing is ordered by French finance minister Colbert; designed by Le Brun on a Gobelins tapestry [2] (see: French space program)
  • 1798 - Tipu Sultan, the King of the state of Mysore in India, develops and uses iron rockets against the British Army (see Mysorean rockets).
  • 1801 - The British Army develops the Congreve rocket based on weapons used against them by Tipu Sultan.
  • 1806 - Claude Ruggieri, an Italian living in France, launched animals on rockets and recovered them using parachutes. He was prevented from launching a child by police.[3]
  • 1813 - "A Treatise on the Motion of Rockets" by William Moore – first appearance of the rocket equation
  • 1818 - Henry Trengrouse demonstrates his rocket apparatus for projecting a lifeline from a wrecked ship to the shore, later widely adopted
  • 1844 - William Hale invents the spin-stabilized rocket
  • 1861 - William Leitch publishes an essay "A Journey Through Space" (later published in his book Godto the Moon]] as a humorous science fantasy story about a space gun launching a manned spacecraft equipped with rockets for landing on the Moon, but eventually used for another orbital maneuver.

20th century

21st century

See also


  1. ^ Winter, Frank H. (1992). "Who First Flew in a Rocket?", Journal of the British Interplanetary Society 45 (July 1992), p. 275-80
  2. ^ Jean Cheymol. "Astronautique" (PDF). Biusante.parisdescartes.fr. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-04-26. Retrieved 2017-08-11.
  3. ^ "MSFC History OFFICE: CLAUDE RUGGIERI". History.msfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  4. ^ "Considerations sur les resultats d'un allegement indefini des moteurs", Journal de physique theorique et appliquee, Paris, 1913
  5. ^ Guttman, Jon (2005). Balloon-busting aces of World War 1. Osprey aircraft of the aces 66. Oxford, UK: Osprey. p. 12. ISBN 978-1841768779.
  6. ^ "Goddard launches space age with historic first 85 years ago today". Retrieved 2019-07-28.
  7. ^ a b "space exploration | History, Definition, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-07-06.
  8. ^ "Sommaire chronologie Ariane". Capcomespace.net. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  9. ^ Garmon, Jay. "Geek Trivia: A leap of fakes". TechRepublic. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  10. ^ "Salkeld Shuttle". Astronautix.com. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  11. ^ "ROBERT SALKELD'S". Pmview.com. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  12. ^ "STS-1 Further Reading". History.nasa.gov. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  13. ^ "First Space Tourist Dennis Tito to Make Business Visit to Russia". redOrbit. June 15, 2004. Archived from the original on November 27, 2010. Retrieved February 27, 2013.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  14. ^ "SpaceShipOne Flight Tests". Scaled Composites. Archived from the original on 2010-08-22.
  15. ^ Clark, Stephen (2008-09-28). "Sweet Success at Last for Falcon 1 Rocket". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2014-11-30. the first privately developed liquid-fueled rocket to successfully reach orbit.
  16. ^ Clark, Stephen (25 May 2012). "First commercial cargo ship arrives at space station". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  17. ^ Belfiore, Michael (April 22, 2014). "SpaceX Brings a Booster Safely Back to Earth". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved April 25, 2014.
  18. ^ Orwig, Jessica (2014-11-25). "Elon Musk Just Unveiled A Game-Changing Ocean Landing Pad For His Reusable Rockets". Business Insider. Retrieved 2014-12-11. The first successful "soft landing" of a Falcon 9 rocket happened in April of this year
  19. ^ Jeff Foust (December 21, 2015). "Falcon 9 Launches Orbcomm Satellites, Lands First Stage". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2015-12-22. the first time SpaceX had successfully landed the rocket's first stage.
  20. ^ "SpaceX demonstrates rocket reusability with SES-10 launch and booster landing". Spacenews.com. 30 March 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  21. ^ Grush, Loren (24 January 2018). "Rocket Lab secretly launched a disco ball satellite on its latest test flight". The Verge. Retrieved 24 January 2018.