Timeline of space exploration

Summary

This is a timeline of space exploration including notable achievements and first accomplishments or major events in humanity's exploration of outer space.

Pre-20th century

Date Event leading to space exploration Country Researcher(s) Ref(s)
1610 First telescopic observation of the night sky: discovery of Jupiter's moons, lunar craters and the phases of Venus. Flag of Most Serene Republic of Venice.svg Republic of Venice Galileo Galilei
1813 First exposition of the rocket equation based on Newton's third law of motion: Treatise on the Motion of Rockets. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK William Moore
1840 First clear telescopic photograph of another world: the Moon. US flag 26 stars.svg United States John William Draper
1845 First proper observation of other galaxies which are termed "whirlpool nebulae". Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK William Parsons
1861 A Journey Through Space makes first proposal of using rockets for space flight. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK William Leitch
1895 First proposal of space elevator. Flag of Russia.svg Russia Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

1900–1956

Date Mission success Country/organization Mission name Ref(s)
1903 Inspired by the writings of Jules Verne, first serious work published that showed physical space exploration was theoretically possible: Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами (The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices). Flag of Russia.svg Russia Konstantin Tsiolkovsky
1914 Goddard files for and is subsequently awarded U.S. patents on multistage and liquid-fueled rockets. US flag 48 stars.svg United States Robert H. Goddard
1917 First observation of an extrasolar planet (exoplanet) round Van Maanen 2 although it is not recognised as such at the time. Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands Adriaan van Maanen
1919 Goddard's widely influential paper "A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes" discussed solid- and liquid-fueled rocketry. US flag 48 stars.svg United States Robert H. Goddard
15 December 1923 Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen ("By Rocket into Planetary Space") self-published after its rejection as a doctoral thesis. Flag of Germany.svg Germany Hermann Oberth
1924 Society for Studies of Interplanetary Travel founded. Flag of the Soviet Union (1924-1936).svg USSR Members include Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Friedrich Zander, Yuri Kondratyuk
16 March 1926 Goddard launches the first liquid-fueled rocket. US flag 48 stars.svg United States Robert H. Goddard
1927 Verein für Raumschiffahrt (Society for Space Travel) formed; it includes many top European rocket scientists. Flag of Germany.svg Germany  
1927 Завоевание межпланетных пространств (The Conquest of Interplanetary Space) discusses rocket mechanics and orbital effects including the gravitational slingshot. Flag of the Soviet Union (1924-1936).svg USSR Yuri Kondratyuk
1928 Das Problem der Befahrung des Weltraums – der Raketen-Motor (The Problem of Space Travel – The Rocket Motor) discusses space travel and its potential uses for scientific experiments. Flag of Germany.svg Germany Herman Potočnik
11 June 1928 Lippisch Ente, first successful rocket-powered full-size aircraft, as part of Opel RAK program.[1] Flag of Germany.svg Germany Alexander Lippisch (designer), Fritz Stamer (pilot), Fritz von Opel and Max Valier (program heads)
30 September 1929 Opel RAK.1, first successful public flight of a rocket-powered aircraft, as part of Opel RAK program. Flag of Germany.svg Germany Julius Hatry (designer), Fritz von Opel (pilot and program head), Max Valier (program head)
January 1933 British Interplanetary Society founded. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK Philip E. Cleator
20 June 1944 V-2 Rocket (MW 18014): First artificial object to cross what would later be defined as the Kármán line and hence first spaceflight in history. Flag of the German Reich (1935–1945).svg Germany Wehrmacht
October 1945 Article in Wireless World, "Extra-Terrestrial Relays — Can Rocket Stations Give Worldwide Radio Coverage?" makes first discussion of geostationary satellites as a means of communication. Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK Arthur C. Clarke
10 May 1946 First space research flight (cosmic radiation experiments). US flag 48 stars.svg United States captured and improved V-2 rocket
24 October 1946 First pictures of Earth from 105 km (65 mi). US flag 48 stars.svg United States V-2 [2][3]
20 February 1947 First animals in space (fruit flies). US flag 48 stars.svg United States V-2 [2][4]
24 February 1949 WAC Corporal missile mounted onto a V-2 rocket, producing the first two-stage liquid-fueled rocket, that sets a record altitude of 244 miles (392.68 kilometers). US flag 48 stars.svg United States Bumper-5
20 September 1956 The first rocket to pass the Thermopause and enter the Exosphere. At 682 miles (1,097.57 km) altitude and 3,335 miles range, the 3-stage Jupiter-C breaks both records and achieves MACH 18 velocity. US flag 48 stars.svg United States Jupiter-C (first launch)

1957–1959

Date Mission achievements Country/organization Mission name Ref(s)
21 August 1957 First intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR R-7 Semyorka/SS-6 Sapwood
4 October 1957 First artificial satellite.
First signals from space.
Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Sputnik 1
3 November 1957 First mammal in orbit, the dog Laika. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Sputnik 2
31 January 1958 Confirmed existence of the Van Allen radiation belt. US flag 48 stars.svg USA (ABMA) Explorer 1
4 January 1959 First rocket to reach Earth escape velocity; attempt to impact the Moon's surface; missed by 5,995 kilometers (3,237 nmi).
First artificial object in heliocentric orbit.
First detection of solar wind.
Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Luna 1
7 August 1959 First photograph of Earth from orbit. US flag 49 stars.svg USA (NASA) Explorer 6
13 September 1959 First impact into the Moon.
First delivery of national pennants to a celestial body.
Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Luna 2
4 October 1959 First photos of another world from space: the far side of the Moon. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Luna 3

1960–1969

Date Mission success Country/organization Mission name Ref(s)
March 1960 First solar probe. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Pioneer 5
19 August 1960 First plants and animals to return alive from Earth orbit. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Sputnik 5
10 October 1960 First probe launched to Mars (failed to reach target). Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Mars 1M
31 January 1961 First Hominidae in space, first tasks performed in space; Ham (chimpanzee). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) M-R 2
12 February 1961 First launch from Earth orbit of upper stage into a heliocentric orbit.
First mid-course corrections.
First spin-stabilisation.
Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Venera 1
12 April 1961 First human spaceflight (Yuri Gagarin).
First human-crewed orbital flight.
Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Vostok 1
5 May 1961 First human-piloted space flight (Alan Shepard).
First human-crewed suborbital flight.
First human space mission that landed with pilot still in spacecraft, thus the first complete human spaceflight by FAI definitions.
Flag of the United States.svg USA Freedom 7 [5]
19 May 1961 First planetary flyby (within 100,000 km of Venus – no data returned). Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Venera 1
6 August 1961 First crewed space flight lasting over twenty four hours by Gherman Titov, who is also the first to suffer from space sickness. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Vostok 2
7 March 1962 First orbital solar observatory. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) OSO-1
26 April 1962 First spacecraft to impact the far side of the Moon. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Ranger 4 [6]
11 August 1962 First dual crewed spaceflight.
First communication between two crewed space vehicles in orbit.
Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Vostok 3 & Vostok 4
18 August 1962 First auroral research rocket launched into the ionosphere.
Flag of Norway.png
Norway
Ferdinand 1
November 1962 First Mars flyby (11,000 km) but contact was lost. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Mars 1
14 December 1962 First successful planetary flyby (Venus closest approach 34,773 kilometers). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Mariner 2
16 June 1963 First woman in space (Valentina Tereshkova). Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Vostok 6
19 July 1963 First reusable crewed spacecraft (suborbital). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) X-15 Flight 90
12 October 1964 First multi-person crew (3) in orbit. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Voskhod 1
18 March 1965 First space walk/extra-vehicular activity (Alexei Leonov). Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Voskhod 2
March 1965 First crewed spacecraft to change orbit. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Gemini 3
14 July 1965 First Mars flyby (closest approach 9,846 kilometers; returned pictures). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Mariner 4
14 July 1965 First close-up photographs of another planet: Mars. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Mariner 4
15 December 1965 First orbital rendezvous (parallel flight, no docking). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Gemini 6A/Gemini 7
3 February 1966 First soft landing on another world (the Moon).
First photos from another world.
Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Luna 9
1 March 1966 First impact into another planet (Venus). Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Venera 3
16 March 1966 First orbital docking between two spacecraft. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Gemini 8/Agena target vehicle
3 April 1966 First artificial satellite around another world (the Moon). Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Luna 10
August 1966 First probe to map the Moon. Flag of the United States.svg USA Lunar Orbiter 1
30 October 1967 First automated (crewless) docking. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Cosmos 186/Cosmos 188
September 1968 First animals and plants to leave Earth orbit, to travel to and circle the Moon, and the first Moon mission with passengers to return safely to Earth. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Zond 5
7 December 1968 First orbital ultraviolet observatory. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) OAO-2
21 December 1968 First piloted orbital mission of another celestial body (Moon).
First Trans-Earth injection.
First human space mission to enter the gravitational influence of another celestial body (25 December).
Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Apollo 8
January 1969 First docking between two crewed spacecraft in Earth orbit, also the first crew exchange in space. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5
January 1969 First to parachute in Venus's atmosphere, lost contact before landing. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Venera 5
23 May 1969 First docking of two crewed spacecraft around another celestial body. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Apollo 10
20 July 1969 First human on the Moon, and first space launch from a celestial body other than the Earth.
First sample return from the Moon.
Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Apollo 11
August 4, 1969 First photograph of Phobos from Space. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Mariner 7
19 November 1969 First rendezvous on the surface of a celestial body. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Apollo 12/Surveyor 3

1970–1980

Date Mission success Country/organization Mission name Ref(s)
24 September 1970 First automatic sample return from the Moon. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Luna 16
17 November 1970 First lunar rover. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Lunokhod 1
12 December 1970 First X-ray orbital observatory. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Uhuru (satellite)
15 December 1970 First soft landing on another planet (Venus).
First signals from another planet.
Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Venera 7
19 April 1971 First space station. Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR Salyut 1
June 1971 First crewed orbital observatory. Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR Orion 1
14 November 1971 First to maintain orbit around another planet (Mars). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Mariner 9
27 November 1971 First impact into Mars. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Mars 2
2 December 1971 First soft Mars landing.
First signals from Mars surface.
First photograph from Martian surface.
Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Mars 3
3 March 1972 First human made object sent on escape trajectory away from the Sun. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Pioneer 10
15 July 1972 First mission to enter the asteroid belt and leave inner Solar System. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Pioneer 10
15 November 1972 First orbital gamma ray observatory. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) SAS 2
14 May 1973 Launch of Skylab - first American space station. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Skylab [7]
3 December 1973 First Jupiter flyby (at 130,000 km). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Pioneer 10
5 February 1974 Venus flyby at 5768 kilometers, first gravitational assist manoeuvre.
First photograph of Venus from Space.
Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Mariner 10
29 March 1974 First Mercury flyby at 703 kilometers. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Mariner 10
30 May 1975 Formation of European Space Agency, which pools the resources of several European countries. Flag of Europe.svg ESA
15 July 1975 First multinational crewed mission. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Apollo-Soyuz Test Project
20 October 1975 First orbit around Venus. Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Venera 9
22 October 1975 First successful photos from the surface of another planet (Venus). Flag of the Soviet Union (1955-1980).svg USSR Venera 9
17 April 1976 Closest flyby of the Sun (43.432 million kilometers).
Maximum speed record among spacecraft (252,792 km/h).
Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Flag of Germany.svg West Germany (DFVLR) Helios 2
20 July 1976 First successful photos and soil samples from the surface of Mars. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Viking Lander
26 January 1978 First real time remotely operated ultraviolet orbital observatory. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Flag of Europe.svg ESA Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK (SERC) International Ultraviolet Explorer
4 December 1978 First extended (multi-year) orbital exploration of Venus (from 1978 to 1992). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Pioneer Venus Orbiter
5 March 1979 Jupiter flyby (closest approach 349,000 km)
encounters with Five Jovian moons, discovery of volcanism on Io.
Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Voyager 1
1 September 1979 First Saturn flyby at 21,000 km, first photographs of Titan from Space. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Pioneer 11
12 November 1980 Saturn flyby (closest approach 124,000 kilometers), close encounter of Titan and encounters with a dozen others. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Voyager 1

1981–1999

Date Mission success Country/organization Mission name Ref(s)
12 April 1981 First Reusable crewed orbital spacecraft. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) STS-1
1 March 1982 First Venus soil samples and sound recording of another world. Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR Venera 13
19 August 1982 First mixed gender crew aboard space station, and first woman, Svetlana Savitskaya, on space station. Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR Salyut 7
25 January 1983 First Infrared orbital observatory. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK (SERC) Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands (NIVR) IRAS
13 June 1983 First spacecraft beyond the orbit of Neptune (first spacecraft to pass beyond all Solar System planets). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Pioneer 10
7 February 1984 First untethered spacewalk, Bruce McCandless II. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) STS-41-B
25 July 1984 First spacewalk by woman, Svetlana Savitskaya. Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR Salyut 7
11 June 1985 First balloon deployed on another planet (Venus). Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR Vega 1
24 January 1986 First Uranus flyby (closest approach 81,500 kilometers (44,000 nmi)). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Voyager 2
28 January 1986 First major American space loss, the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, an explosion soon after liftoff which killed, among others, Christa McAuliffe, a high school teacher. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) STS-51-L
19 February 1986 First consistently inhabited long-term research space station. Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR Mir
4 March 1986 First flyby of a comet (Halley's Comet, 8,889 kilometers). Flag of the Soviet Union.svg USSR Vega 1 & Vega 2
13 March 1986 First close up observations of a comet (Halley's Comet, 596 kilometers). Flag of Europe.svg ESA Giotto
July 1988 First suspected detection of an exoplanet Gamma Cephei Ab, although the discovery was retracted in 1994, and not confirmed until 2002. Flag of Canada.svg Canada Team of astronomers, led by Bruce Campbell, Gordon Walker, and Stephenson Yang; existence announced by Anthony Lawton & P. Wright in 1989
8 August 1989 First astrometric satellite. Flag of Europe.svg ESA Hipparcos
25 August 1989 First Neptune flyby (closest approach at 29,240 km). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Voyager 2
18 November 1989 First orbital cosmic microwave observatory. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) COBE
14 February 1990 First photograph of the whole Solar System. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Voyager 1 [8]
24 April 1990 Optical orbital observatory. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Flag of Europe.svg ESA Hubble Space Telescope
2 July 1990 First time a spacecraft coming from deep space uses the Earth for a gravity-assist manoeuvre. Flag of Europe.svg ESA Giotto [9]
15 September 1990 Extended (multi-year) orbital exploration of Venus. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Magellan
21 October 1991 First asteroid flyby (951 Gaspra closest approach 1,600 kilometers). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Galileo
1992 First confirmed observation of an exoplanet. Flag of Canada.svg Canada Flag of Poland.svg Poland Aleksander Wolszczan & Dale Frail
8 February 1992 First polar orbit around the Sun. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Flag of Europe.svg ESA Ulysses
22 March 1995 Record longest duration spaceflight (437.7 days) set by Valeri Polyakov. Flag of Russia.svg Russia (FKA) Mir
7 December 1995 First orbit of Jupiter. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Galileo
7 December 1995 First mission into the atmosphere of a gas giant (Jupiter). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Galileo's atmospheric entry probe
12 February 1997 First orbital radio observatory. Flag of Japan.svg Japan (ISAS) HALCA
4 July 1997 First operational rover on another planet (Mars). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Mars Pathfinder
20 November 1998 First multinational space station.
Largest artificial object built in space to date.
Flag of Russia.svg Russia (FKA) Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Flag of Europe.svg Europe (ESA) Flag of Japan.svg Japan (JAXA) Flag of Canada.svg Canada (CSA) International Space Station

2000–2021

Date Mission success Country/organization Mission name Ref(s)
14 February 2000 First orbiting of an asteroid (433 Eros). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Flag of Europe.svg ESA NEAR Shoemaker
12 February 2001 First landing on an asteroid (433 Eros). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) NEAR Shoemaker
21 June 2004 First human spaceflight launched by a private company (suborbital).
First private astronaut (Mike Melvill).
Flag of the United States.svg USA (Mojave Aerospace Ventures) SpaceShipOne Flight 15P
1 July 2004 First orbit of Saturn. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Flag of Europe.svg ESA Flag of Italy.svg Italy (ASI) Cassini–Huygens
8 September 2004 First sample return beyond lunar orbit (solar wind). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Genesis
14 January 2005 First soft landing on Titan.
First soft landing in the outer Solar System.
Flag of Europe.svg ESA Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Flag of Italy.svg Italy (ASI) Cassini–Huygens
19 November 2005 First asteroid ascent (25143 Itokawa).
First interplanetary escape without undercarriage cutoff.[clarification needed]
Flag of Japan.svg Japan (JAXA) Hayabusa
15 January 2006 First sample return from comet (81P/Wild). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Stardust
8 November 2008 Discovery of lunar water in the form of ice. Flag of India.svg INDIA (ISRO) Chandrayaan-1
6 March 2009 Kepler Mission is launched, first space telescope designated to search for Earth-like exoplanets. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Kepler Mission [10]
13 June 2010 First sample return from asteroid (25143 Itokawa). Flag of Japan.svg Japan (JAXA) Hayabusa
18 March 2011 First orbit of Mercury. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) MESSENGER
16 July 2011 First orbit of giant asteroid Vesta. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Dawn
25 August 2012 First manmade probe in interstellar space. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Voyager 1
12 November 2014 First artificial probe to make a planned and soft landing on a comet (67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko). Flag of Europe.svg ESA Rosetta [11]
6 March 2015 First orbit of dwarf planet (Ceres).
First spacecraft to orbit two separate celestial bodies.
Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Dawn
July 2015 First flyby of dwarf planet (Pluto).
Last original encounter with one of the nine major planets recognized in 1981.
Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) New Horizons
10 August 2015 First food grown in space eaten (lettuce). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA)Flag of Japan.svg Japan (JAXA) International Space Station [12]
23 November 2015 First propulsive landing of a rocket after sending something into space (suborbital). Flag of the United States.svg USA (Blue Origin) New Shepard 2 [13]
21 December 2015 First propulsive landing of an orbital rocket. Flag of the United States.svg USA (SpaceX) Falcon 9 first-stage landing tests
19 October 2017 First known interstellar object detected passing through the Solar System. Flag of Hawaii.svg Hawaii Haleakalā Observatory Oumuamua
21 September 2018 First operational rover on asteroid (162173 Ryugu). Flag of Japan.svg Japan (JAXA) Hayabusa2 [14]
1 January 2019 First contact binary explored by spacecraft (486958 Arrokoth). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) New Horizons [15]
3 January 2019 First soft landing on the far side of the Moon; also first germination of seeds on another celestial body. China China (CNSA) Chang'e 4 [16]
10 April 2019 First direct photograph of a black hole and its vicinity. Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Event Horizon Telescope [17]
30 May 2020 First orbital human spaceflight launched by a private company. Flag of the United States.svg USA (SpaceX) SpaceX Demo-2 [18]
19 April 2021 First aerodynamically-powered flight on another celestial body (Mars). Flag of the United States.svg USA (NASA) Ingenuity [19]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Das RAK-Protokoll", a 25 minutes documentary on the Opel RAK program https://opel-tv-footage.com/v/The%20RAK%20Protocoll?p=4&c=86&l=1
  2. ^ a b "Chronology: Cowboys to V-2s to the Space Shuttle to lasers". Wsmr.army.mil. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-02-21. Retrieved 2013-01-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "Part 1". History.nasa.gov. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Geek Trivia: A leap of fakes". Techrepublic.com. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  6. ^ "Discussion". Space Policy. 14 (1): 6. 1998-02-01. doi:10.1016/S0265-9646(97)00038-6.
  7. ^ Whiting, Melanie (2018-05-14). "Skylab: America's First Space Station". NASA. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-03-31. Retrieved 2009-07-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Giotto overview". European Space Agency. Retrieved 2019-07-11.
  10. ^ "NASA launches Kepler Mission: Search for Earth-like worlds". Spacechornology.com. Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  11. ^ Chang, Kenneth (November 12, 2014). "European Space Agency's Spacecraft Lands on Comet's Surface". The New York Times. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
  12. ^ "Meals Ready to Eat: Expedition 44 Crew Members Sample Leafy Greens Grown on Space Station". Nasa. 7 July 2015.
  13. ^ Foust, Jeff (24 November 2015). "Blue Origin Flies — and Lands — New Shepard Suborbital Spacecraft". Space News. Retrieved 1 December 2015. We’re going to take that same exact architecture that was demonstrated and use it on our the booster stage of our orbital vehicle
  14. ^ "Hayabusa 2". NASA Science Solar System Exploration. Retrieved 2020-07-29.
  15. ^ "Ultima Thule: Clearest image yet of 'snowman' space rock released by NASA". Sky News. Retrieved 2019-01-02.
  16. ^ Lyons, Kate (2019-01-03). "Far side of the moon: China's Chang'e 4 probe makes historic touchdown". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-01-03.
  17. ^ Drake, Nadia (10 April 2019). "First-ever picture of a black hole unveiled". National Geographic. Retrieved 27 Jan 2021.
  18. ^ "SpaceX Speeding Astronauts to Space Station in Landmark Trip". www.bloomberg.com. 2020-05-30. Retrieved 2020-05-31.
  19. ^ "NASA's Ingenuity Mars Helicopter Succeeds in Historic First Flight". www.nasa.gov. 2021-04-19. Retrieved 2021-04-19.

External links

  • Chronology of Space Exploration archive of important space exploration missions and events, including future planned and proposed endeavors
  • Crewed spaceflight 1961-1980
  • Crewed spaceflight chronology
  • History of crewed space missions Archived 2009-02-07 at the Wayback Machine
  • Timeline of the Space Race/Moon Race
  • Chronology: Moon Race at russianspaceweb.com
  • Space Timeline in 3d