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This article considers the detailed timeline of events before, during, and after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States.


November 22, 1963

10:40 a.m. CST: In Fort Worth, Texas, Kennedy's motorcade departs Hotel Texas for Carswell Air Force Base.[1]

11:20 a.m. CST: Air Force One departs Carswell Air Force Base for Dallas, Texas.[1]

11:35 a.m. CST: Air Force Two arrives at Love Field in Dallas.[1][2]

11:38 a.m. CST: Air Force One arrives at Love Field in Dallas.[1][2]

11:44 a.m. CST: The Kennedys and Connallys disembark Air Force One and are greeted by the Johnsons.[1]

11:55 a.m. CST: The motorcade leaves Love Field for its 10-mile trip through downtown Dallas.[2]

12:30 p.m. CST: Shots are fired as the motorcade passes the Texas School Book Depository.[2]

12:34 p.m. CST: The first United Press International bulletin clears the wire stating: "Three shots were fired today at the president's motorcade in downtown Dallas."[2]

12:36 p.m. CST: President Kennedy's limousine arrives at Parkland Memorial Hospital.[2]

12:40 p.m. CST: Viewers of the live soap opera As The World Turns receive the first national television report of the shooting from CBS News anchorman Walter Cronkite.[2]

12:45 p.m. CST: Dan Rather of CBS calls Parkland Memorial Hospital; a doctor there tells him he believes Kennedy is dead.[2]

12:50 p.m. CST: Kennedy's top military aide General Godfrey McHugh calls Air Force One from Parkland to state that they will soon be leaving for Andrews Air Force Base.[3]

1:00 p.m. CST: President Kennedy is officially pronounced dead.[2]

1:16 p.m. CST: The first report that Dallas Police Officer J.D. Tippit has been shot.[2]

1:26 p.m. CST: Lyndon Johnson departs Parkland Memorial Hospital for Love Field.[2]

1:30 p.m. CST: Johnson, protected by Rufus Youngblood in a car driven by Jesse Curry, along with passengers Congressmen Albert Thomas and Homer Thornberry, arrives at Air Force One.[3] Lady Bird Johnson, Congressman Jack Brooks, and three members of the Secret Service also arrive in a second car, and Jack Valenti, Lem Johns, Cliff Carter, and Cecil Stoughton arrive in a third.[3] They are followed by additional cars containing officials and aids for both Kennedy and Johnson.[3]

1:33 p.m. CST: White House Assistant Press Secretary Malcolm Kilduff announces at Parkland Memorial Hospital that Kennedy is dead.[2][3]

1:38 p.m. CST: CBS News anchor Cronkite reports the official word that President Kennedy is dead and Johnson will be sworn in as the United States' 36th President.[2][3]

1:40 p.m. CST: Johnson telephones Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy to express his condolences and ask where he should take the oath of office of the President of the United States.[3]

1:50 p.m. CST: Johnson telephones his friend Irving Goldberg, an attorney.[3] The two decide to ask Sarah T. Hughes to administer the oath.[3]

1:51 p.m. CST: Lee Harvey Oswald is arrested at the Texas Theater in Dallas.[2]

2:10 p.m. CST: Abraham Zapruder arrives at WFAA-TV in Dallas and is interviewed about his film of the assassination.[2]

2:13 p.m. CST: Police find the weapon used to kill the president on the 6th floor of the Texas School Book depository.[2]

2:38 p.m. CST: Johnson is sworn in as President by federal judge Sarah Hughes on Air Force One.[2]

2:46 p.m. CST: Air Force One departs Love Field for Washington, D.C.[2]


October 24, 1956: Lee Harvey Oswald drops out of high school and joins the U.S. Marine Corps, where he is trained as a sharpshooter.[4]

October 31, 1959: Oswald goes to the Soviet Union, and is sent to work at an electronics factory in Minsk.

November 8, 1960: John F. Kennedy wins the 1960 United States presidential election.

June 13, 1962: Oswald returns to the United States with his wife Marina and their child to live in Texas.[5]

November 6, 1962: John Connally (D) is elected Governor of Texas.[6]

January 15, 1963: Connally is sworn in as Governor of Texas.[7] As the Governor of Texas he will help plan and serve as host for President Kennedy's trip to Texas.

February 22, 1963: Ruth Paine meets the Oswalds at a party given at Everett Glover's house.[8]

March 12, 1963: An order for a rifle with a mounted scope is sent to Klein's Sporting Goods from someone named "A. Hidell" (an alias used by Oswald) to be delivered to a P.O. Box that was rented by Oswald.[9]

March 13, 1963: Order received by Klein's Sporting Goods from A. Hidell P.O. Box 2915 Dallas, TX for an Italian Carbine 6.5 W/4X Scope. Total cost is $21.45 for rifle with serial number C2766.[10]

March 17, 1963: Marina Oswald sends a letter to the Russian Embassy in Washington DC asking to be granted an entrance visa to the USSR.[11]

Oswald is given notice in the latter part of March that he will be terminated from his job.

April 6, 1963: Oswald works his last day at Jaggars-Chiles-Stovall.[12]

April 10, 1963: Someone fires a bullet that just misses retired General Edwin Walker, an advocate of far right politics and strongly anti-communist. The police determine the shot came from a distance of less than 40 yards.[13] The case remained unsolved until two weeks after the death of Lee Oswald when Marina Oswald admitted to the FBI it may have been her husband who fired the shot.[14]

April 11, 1963: U.S. Rep. Albert Richard Thomas (D-Tex) announces his retirement from Congress due to health reasons.[15]

April 23, 1963: Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson, a Texas native, tells reporters in Dallas that President Kennedy may visit Texas sometime that summer. LBJ hopes Kennedy's schedule would allow him to have a breakfast in Fort Worth, a luncheon in Dallas, an afternoon tea in San Antonio and dinner in Houston.[16]

June 5, 1963: President Kennedy, Vice President Johnson, and Governor Connally were together in a meeting in El Paso when they agree to a second presidential visit to the state of Texas later that year.[17] (In 1978 Connally testified to the House Select Committee on Assassinations that in the spring of 1962 "Vice President Johnson told me then that President Kennedy wanted to come to Texas, he wanted to come to Texas to raise some money, have some fund-raising affairs over the State.")

June 6, 1963: Rep. Albert Thomas announces he is reconsidering his decision to retire and may still run again for reelection[18] based on the advice of Vice President Lyndon Johnson.[19]

Kennedy later decided to embark on the trip with three basic goals in mind: he wanted to help raise more Democratic Party presidential campaign fund contributions;[17] he wanted to begin his quest for reelection in November 1964;[20] and, because the Kennedy-Johnson ticket had barely won Texas in 1960 (and had even lost in Dallas), President Kennedy wanted to help mend political fences among several leading Texas Democratic party members who appeared to be fighting politically amongst themselves.[21]

June 24, 1963: Oswald applies for a US passport in New Orleans, Louisiana stating he intended to depart from New Orleans during the period from October to December 1963 for proposed travel as a tourist for 3 months to one year's duration. The next day he was issued US Passport DO 92526 which was valid for three years to all countries except Albania, Cuba and those portions of China, Korea and Vietnam that were under communist control.[22]

September 17, 1963: Jack Valenti sends an invitation to the White House asking if President Kennedy would attend an Appreciation Dinner in Houston on November 21, 1963 honoring Albert Thomas for his decision not to retire from Congress. The invitation is received at the White House on September 19, 1963.[23]

Lee Oswald is issued a 15 day Mexican tourist card using the name LEE, Harvey Oswald.[24]

September 20, 1963: President Kennedy addresses the United Nations General Assembly and offers the Soviet Union a joint expedition to the Moon.[25][26] The proposal is controversial with many members of Congress and raises fresh questions about how much money should be appropriated to the NASA budget.[27]

September 21, 1963: Rep. Albert Thomas (D-Tex), a member of the powerful House Appropriations Committee and Chairman of its Subcommittee of Independent Offices that was reviewing the Kennedy Administration's record $5.3 billion 1964 NASA budget proposal,[28] sends a letter to the President asking for clarification of his U.N. speech regarding a joint Soviet-US moon landing.[29] He wonders if this proposal indicates a weakening of America's effort in the space program. Thomas had also played an instrumental role in the location of the Manned Spacecraft Center, now known as the Johnson Space Center in his home district of Houston, Texas.

September 23, 1963: President Kennedy responds to Congressman Albert Thomas letter requesting clarification of the goals of the U.S. Space Program by writing him a "Dear Al" letter explaining his position.[30][31]

Ruth Paine drives Marina Oswald from New Orleans back to her home in Irving, Texas.[32] Late that night Lee Oswald also leaves New Orleans[33] to travel to Mexico City in the hopes of somehow gaining entrance to Cuba[34] where travel has been banned from the United States.

September 24–28, 1963: President Kennedy embarks on an eleven-state conservation tour which include visits to Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, Wyoming, Montana, Washington, Utah, Oregon, California, and Nevada.[35]

September 24, 1963: At a press conference in Austin, Texas, Governor Connally announces he will visit Washington DC from October 2–4, 1963 and he hopes to see the President but he has no plans to invite him to visit Texas but that he would be delighted if he came.[36]

The decision is reached this evening by the White House to accept the invitation to the Albert Thomas dinner in Houston and turn it into a 2-day political trip encompassing all the major cities of Texas.[37] Although Kennedy had wanted to visit Texas at some point, he had not planned to go at this particular time.[38] But because of the invitation to speak at the Appreciation Dinner in Houston for Albert Thomas on November 21, 1963, the President decided to time his visit to Texas around that event[39] instead of at some later date.

September 25, 1963: Late that evening White House sources, in an exclusive to the Dallas Morning News, announce that the President will visit Texas November 21–22, 1963 and it will include Dallas.[37]

September 26, 1963: The Dallas Morning News is the first newspaper that announces the visit to Texas by President Kennedy in an article covering the President's conservation tour in Jackson Hole, Wyoming.[37]

September 27, 1963: Lee Oswald arrives in Mexico City and registers at the Hotel del Comercio.[40] He visits the Cuban Consulate three times in an attempt to secure a visa to Cuba and also the Soviet Embassy to obtain a visa from them but is denied in both instances.[41]

September 30, 1963: Lee Oswald purchases a bus ticket using the alias Mr. H. O. Lee that leaves Mexico City for Laredo, Texas at 0830 on October 2, 1963.[42]

October 3, 1963: Oswald arrives in Dallas and spends the night at the YMCA.[43]

October 4, 1963: Governor Connally meets with President Kennedy at the White House.[44]

Oswald applies for a job at Padgett Printing but is not hired because of a poor recommendation by the owner of Jaggars-Chiles-Stovall.[45]

Oswald returns to stay at the Paine's residence in Irving, Texas for the weekend.[46]

October 7, 1963: Bobby Baker resigns his position as Secretary to the Senate Majority Leader because of various scandals. He was appointed to the position by Lyndon B. Johnson in 1955 and was a close personal friend of his.[47]

October 10, 1963: The House of Representatives voted 302–32 to pass the 1964 fiscal year Independent Offices Appropriations Bill which contained funding for NASA and 25 other independent government agencies. Guiding the bill through the House was the Chairman of the subcommittee Rep. Albert Thomas (D-Tex). The bill prohibited NASA from spending any of its budget on a joint Soviet Moon landing.[48]

October 11, 1963: Kenneth O'Donnell sends a letter of reply to Jack Valenti formally accepting his invitation for the President to speak at the dinner honoring Rep. Albert Thomas.[49]

October 15, 1963: Ruth Paine calls the Texas School Book Depository and speaks to building superintendent Roy Truly, and convinces him to give Oswald a job interview. Truly interviews him that same day and hires Oswald as a temporary employee and he starts training the following day.[50]

October 20, 1963: Kenneth O'Donnell, special assistant and Appointments Secretary to President Kennedy, calls Jerry Bruno the advance man for the Kennedy trips, and asks him to come to the White House to discuss the planning of the trip to Texas.[51]

October 21, 1963: Bruno meets with O'Donnell and is told to contact Walter Jenkins one of Vice President Lyndon Johnson's top administrative assistants to get his input for the trip.

October 24, 1963: Bruno meets with Walter Jenkins who tells Bruno the stops Governor Connally has suggested. First stop would be to fly to San Antonio on November 21 and motorcade to Brooks Air Force Base, then fly to Houston and motorcade to the Rice Hotel where the Albert Thomas dinner was originally scheduled to take place that evening and stay overnight there. On the morning of November 22 fly to Fort Worth to receive an honorary degree at Texas Christian University (TCU) at 9:30 a.m., then from Fort Worth motorcade the short distance to Dallas[52] for a luncheon at the Statler Hilton Hotel for the annual meeting of the Dallas Citizens Council.[53] and then finally a fundraising dinner in Austin. Jenkins suggested Bruno go to Texas, meet with Governor Connally and evaluate the sites himself and to also meet with Senator Ralph Yarborough (D-Tex), who was a bitter political enemy of Connally and Johnson so as to avoid any trouble between the two parties on the trip.[54]

United States Ambassador to the United Nations Adlai Stevenson II gives a contentious speech on what is designated United Nations Day at the Dallas Memorial Auditorium where he is booed and heckled. After the speech, as he is walking to his limo he stops to talk to a loud group of protesters when he is suddenly hit on the head with a picket sign and then spit upon.[55]

October 28, 1963: Jerry Bruno flies to Austin, Texas to begin his evaluation of the stops being considered for the Kennedy visit on November 21–22.[56][57]

October 29, 1963: Bruno meets with Henry Brown who is President of the Texas AFL-CIO and a friend of Senator Ralph Yarborough to obtain his input from the labor leaders. He then has lunch with Governor Connally to review his itinerary, which includes an honorary degree from Texas Christian University, an event, because Kennedy is Catholic, that Bruno considers one of the highlights of the trip.[58] Connally informs Bruno that he has assigned different members of his staff to each stop on his itinerary and they would be in charge of the visit.[59] Bruno tells Connally that he welcomes his input and suggestions but the final decisions on where the President goes in Texas will be made by the White House.[60][61]

Governor Connally announces that a "Texas welcome dinner" for President Kennedy will be held in Austin on November 22. The governor said the dinner will be a $100 per plate event held at 7:30 pm in Austin Municipal Auditorium as a climax to the President's trip to Texas. It is sponsored by the State Democratic Executive Committee. Besides the Albert Thomas Appreciation Dinner in Houston on November 21, no other plans have been completed.[62]

October 30, 1963: Bruno is flown to the various cities in Texas that the President would visit with Clifton Carter who is one of Vice-President Johnson's top aides.[63] The San Antonio and Houston sites are checked and confirmed as acceptable by Bruno but when visiting Texas Christian University in Fort Worth he is informed by school officials that TCU has no intention of conferring an honorary degree on the President. Only the use of their campus as a location for a speech was approved by the university. Bruno informs Gov. Connally of this development and Connally says he will meet with the University Board of Regents the next night.[52] Bruno then travels to Dallas to evaluate the ballroom at the Statler Hilton Hotel where the luncheon was going to be held for the President on Friday November 22. He is met there by J. Erik Jonsson, Chairman of the Citizen Council (and one of the owners of Texas Instruments), and Robert B. Cullum Chairman of the Dallas Chamber of Commerce and owner of the Tom Thumb Food Stores. Cullum informs Bruno that the ballroom at the Statler Hilton is now unavailable because members of a Bottler's convention being held the week of the President's visit had reserved it and would not give it up for the President.[64] Bruno now has to find another site for the luncheon. Jonsson and Cullum suggest the Dallas Trade Mart, but after visiting the site, Bruno doesn't like it because of the many catwalks that would be over the President. He feels that in light of the Stevenson incident which had just occurred a few days earlier the catwalks could present a security problem. He asks to be shown other available sites in Dallas.[65]

October 31, 1963: Bruno visits two other potential luncheon sites, the Dallas Memorial Auditorium which he deems too large, and the Graduate Research Center of the Southwest which he believes would be too far out of town and thus impractical. He is also informed that Governor Connally is unhappy with his decision not to go to the Trade Mart because of the catwalk issue. Bruno agrees to visit the Trade Mart again but afterward still has misgivings. Connally telephones that he has met with the TCU Board of Regents and they will not confer an honorary degree on the President.[66] Bruno is now faced with two holes in the schedule: Fort Worth and Dallas. One last place is suggested as a luncheon possibility, the Women's Building (now known as The Women's Museum) at the State Fairgrounds at Fair Park.[67]

President Kennedy is asked at a press conference about rumors that Lyndon Johnson will be dumped in 1964 as a running mate,[68][69] and whether he still wanted Johnson on the ticket, and if he expects that he will be on the ticket? Kennedy responds yes, to both of the questions.[70]

November 1, 1963: Bruno returns to Washington D.C. with the Dallas luncheon site location still undecided. The Fort Worth visit is resolved by having their Chamber of Commerce sponsor a breakfast for the President. Because of this, the President's overnight stay is changed from Houston to Fort Worth so he will have time to attend the breakfast.[71][72]

November 2, 1963: The arrest and assassination of Ngô Đình Diệm, the president of South Vietnam, marked the culmination of a successful CIA-backed coup d'état led by General Dương Văn Minh. Diệm and his adviser, his younger brother Ngô Đình Nhu, were arrested after the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) had been successful in a bloody overnight siege on Gia Long Palace in Saigon. President Kennedy canceled his planned visit to Chicago to attend the Army-Air Force football game so he could instead keep in close touch with developments in South Vietnam.[73]

November 3, 1963: Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson leaves Washington D.C. to fly to Europe for a one week visit of the Benelux countries.[74]

November 6, 1963: White House Press Secretary Pierre Salinger announces that First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy has decided to accompany the President on his trip to Texas.[75]

November 7, 1963: The Albert Thomas Appreciation Dinner being held on November 21, 1963 sells out a second time. Organizers of the dinner had already moved the venue from the Rice Hotel to the larger Sam Houston Coliseum because they could not accommodate the increased demand for tickets once it became known that President Kennedy would attend. After it was announced that the First Lady would also be there, tickets to the dinner sold out again.[76]

November 8, 1963: Bobby Baker is featured on the cover of Life magazine with the headline “THE BOBBY BAKER BOMBSHELL, Capital Buzzes Over Stories of Misconduct in High Places”.[77] The article features a full page picture of Vice President Lyndon Johnson with his arm around Baker and reveals he was known around the Senate as “Lyndon’s boy”.[78]

While Johnson was travelling abroad visiting the Benelux countries, Life Magazine’s Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter, William G. Lambert received approval from Managing Editor George P. Hunt to significantly expand his nine-member team who were investigating Bobby Baker and send them to Texas to start focusing on the financial affairs of Lyndon Johnson. Teams of reporters began working in Johnson City, Austin, and the Texas Hill Country searching through deeds and other records of recent land sales and the real-estate and banking transactions of the Johnson family’s L.B.J. Company. Reporters were also digging into the advertising sales and other activities of KTBC (TV), the cornerstone of the Johnson's extensive radio and television interests. The first of what was supposed to be a series of articles laying out some of their new findings on LBJ was soon written by Keith Wheeler for future publication.[79][80][81]

November 15, 1963: President Kennedy delivers a speech in New York City at the AFL-CIO convention then flies to West Palm Beach, Florida to spend his last weekend.[82]

November 16, 1963: President Kennedy tours Cape Canaveral to inspect plans for the U.S. man-to-the-moon project and to direct the submarine firing of a Polaris A-2 missile.[83]

November 17, 1963: President Kennedy stays in Palm Beach, Florida spending much of the day preparing for the five speeches he will deliver the next day in Tampa and Miami.[84]

November 18, 1963: President Kennedy gives three speeches in Tampa plus a motorcade through the city, then flies to Miami and gives two more speeches including a hemisphere policy talk at the Miami Beach convention of the Inter-American Press Association where he urges the Cuban people to overthrow the Castro regime.[85] He then flies back to Washington D.C. late that evening. On the return flight, Kennedy confided to his good friend Senator George Smathers (D-FL) that Vice President Lyndon Johnson wanted First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy to ride in the car with him during the upcoming tour of Texas.[86]

November 19, 1963: In an informal discussion with his secretary Evelyn Lincoln, President Kennedy revealed some of the plans he had for his next administration if he were re-elected in 1964. He informs Lincoln that he is seriously considering replacing Vice President Lyndon Johnson as his running mate in 1964 with Governor Terry Sanford of North Carolina.[87][88][89][90]

November 22, 1963: The second in a series of articles on the Bobby Baker scandal appears in Life Magazine.[91]

Kennedy's upcoming trip to Dallas was first announced to the public in September 1963.[92] The exact motorcade route was finalized on November 18 and announced to the public a few days before November 22.[93]

During the third week of October 1963, Lee Harvey Oswald was living in a rented room in a boarding house in the Oak Cliff district of Dallas. He had just been hired for a seasonal job at the Texas School Book Depository as a $1.25/hour clerk, filling customer orders for books.[94] Oswald had obtained the job after a referral by Ruth Paine,[95] with whom Lee's wife, Marina Oswald, and the Oswald children were living.[96] At about the same time, Ruth had also separated from her husband, Michael Paine.[97]

A month before Kennedy's ill-fated trip, U.N. Ambassador Stevenson was jeered, jostled, hit by a sign, and spat upon when he visited Dallas to mark U.N. Day.[98][99] Dallas Police were fearful that similar demonstrations would occur when Kennedy visited Dallas.[100] Several people, including Stevenson, warned JFK against coming to Dallas, but Kennedy ignored their advice.[21] Dallas Police Chief Jesse Curry increased the level of security during Kennedy's visit; he put into effect the most stringent security precautions in the city's history.[100] Curry even deputized citizens to take action for any suspicious acts that could have been pointed towards the president.[101]

President Kennedy's Texas trip schedule

Thursday, November 21

San Antonio: Dedication speech for U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base.
Houston: Testimonial dinner at the Sam Houston Coliseum,[102] honoring Congressman Albert Thomas.
Fort Worth: Arrival at Hotel Texas.

Friday, November 22

Fort Worth: Chamber of Commerce breakfast speech at Hotel Texas.
Dallas: Luncheon speech attended by Dallas Citizens Council, Dallas Assembly and Graduate Research Center of the Southwest at Trade Mart.
Austin: Fundraising dinner speech at Municipal Auditorium.
Johnson City: Weekend of relaxation at Lyndon Johnson's ranch.

November 21: Arrival in Fort Worth

On Thursday, November 21, 1963, at 11:07 p.m., Air Force One lands at Carswell Air Force Base on the outskirts of Fort Worth, Texas. The president and his wife walk down the steps of the aircraft and are met by Raymond Buck, president of the Fort Worth Chamber of Commerce and his wife.

Air Force Two also lands at Carswell with vice president Lyndon B. Johnson, the Texas governor John Connally, and Senator Ralph Yarborough. Connally and Yarborough dislike each other so much that Yarborough is unwilling to travel in the same car as Johnson, who is an ally of Connally. The following day, the president tells him to ride with Johnson.[103]

At 11:35 p.m., the First Couple arrives at the Hotel Texas in Fort Worth, after being cheered by thousands of well-wishers lined on the route towards the West Freeway, despite the late time and rainy weather.

November 22: Fort Worth breakfast speech

On Friday, November 22, 1963, at 8:45 a.m., the president is speaking before breakfast in a square across Eighth Street, accompanied by Congressman Jim Wright, Senator Yarborough, Governor Connally and Vice President Johnson. Kennedy is praising Fort Worth's aviation industry.

At 9:10 a.m., JFK takes his place in the hotel's Grand Ballroom for the scheduled speech, the First Lady arriving amid loud applause 15 minutes later.

After the speech, Roy Kellerman, the Secret Service agent in charge of the trip, is advised by Kenny O'Donnell that the presidential limousine should have its bubbletop off if it's not raining in Dallas.[103]

Later, press secretary Mac Kilduff shows the First Couple a disturbing advertisement seen in The Dallas Morning News, ironically and critically headlined 'Welcome Mr. Kennedy to Dallas'. JFK tells Jacqueline: 'We're heading into nut country today. […]'

November 22: Arrival in Dallas

On Friday, November 22, 1963, at 11:38 a.m. CST, Kennedy, his wife Jacqueline, and the rest of the presidential entourage arrived at Love Field in northwest Dallas aboard Air Force One after a very short flight from nearby Carswell Air Force Base, west of Fort Worth.[1][2] The motorcade cars had been lined up in a certain order earlier that morning. The original schedule was for the president to proceed in a long motorcade from Love Field through downtown Dallas, and end at the Dallas Business and Trade Mart.

The motorcade was scheduled to enter Dealey Plaza at 12:10 p.m., followed by a 12:15 p.m. arrival at the Trade Mart, where President Kennedy was scheduled to deliver a speech and share a steak luncheon with local government, business, religious, and civic leaders and their spouses. Invitations that were sent out specify a noon start time to the luncheon while SS agent Lawson told Chief Curry that after arriving at Love Field and leaving at 11:30 the 38- to 45-minute trip would get them to the Trade Mart on time. Air Force One touched down at 11:39 a.m. and the Presidential motorcade did not leave Love Field until approximately fifteen minutes later.

Dallas/Fort Worth's television stations were given separate assignments. As Bob Walker of WFAA-TV 8 (ABC) was providing live coverage of the President's arrival at Love Field, KRLD-TV 4 (CBS) with Eddie Barker was set up at the Trade Mart for Kennedy's luncheon speech. KTVT Channel 11 (Independent), had originated live coverage of the President's breakfast speech in Fort Worth earlier that day. On hand to report the arrival on radio was Joe Long of KLIF 1190.

Motorcade vehicles and personnel

The following lists the order of the vehicles in the November 22, 1963 Dallas Presidential motorcade, along with their occupants:[104]

Presidential motorcade route

The motorcade route schedule was as follows: left turn from the south end of Love Field to West Mockingbird Lane, right on Lemmon Ave., right at the "Y" on Turtle Creek Blvd, straight on Cedar Springs Rd, left on North Harwood St, right on Main St, right on Houston St, sharp left on Elm St, through Triple Underpass, right turn up ramp to North Stemmons Freeway, to Dallas Trade Mart at 2100 North Stemmons. This same exact route cannot be driven today as there have been highway progressions in several areas.

The presidential motorcade began its route without incident, stopping twice so President Kennedy could shake hands with some Catholic nuns, then some school children.

The route taken by the motorcade within Dealey Plaza. North is towards the almost direct-left

At 12:29 p.m. CST, the presidential limousine entered Dealey Plaza after a 90-degree right turn from Main Street onto Houston Street. Over two dozen known and unknown amateur and professional still and motion-picture photographers captured the last living images of President Kennedy.

Just before 12:30 p.m. CST, President Kennedy was riding on Houston Street and slowly approached the Texas School Book Depository head-on.

12:30 p.m. (CST): Shots are fired

According to witnesses, the shooting occurred shortly after the limousine made the sharp left-hand turn from Houston onto Elm Street. Most of the witnesses recalled that the first shot was fired after the president had started waving with his right hand. Several onlookers recalled hearing three shots, with the second and third shots bunched distinctly much closer together than the first and second shots. Witnesses estimate that from three to eight shots were fired. The Zapruder film shows the President re-emerging in the footage after being temporarily hidden from view by the Stemmons Freeway sign at Zapruder film frames 215 to 223; his mouth has already opened wide in an anguished expression by frame 225. He has already been impacted by a bullet, which hit him in the upper back and exited his throat, and his hands clench into fists. He then quickly raises his fists dramatically in front of his face and throat as he turns leftwards towards his wife. Secret Service Agent Clint Hill testified that he heard one shot, then jumped off the running board of the Secret Service follow-up car directly behind Kennedy (Hill was filmed jumping off his follow-up car at the equivalent of Zapruder frame 308; about a quarter of a second before the president's head exploded at frame 313). Hill then rapidly ran towards the Presidential limo and then another shot hit Kennedy in the head, cracking open the right side of his skull. As the limousine began speeding up, Mrs. Kennedy was heard to scream[112] and she climbed out of the back seat onto the rear of the limo. At the same time, Hill managed to climb aboard and hang onto the suddenly accelerating limo, and Mrs. Kennedy returned to the back seat. Hill then shielded her and the President. Both of the Connallys stated they heard Mrs. Kennedy say, "I have his brains in my hand!" The limo driver and police motorcycles turned on their sirens and raced at high speeds to Parkland Hospital, passing their intended destination of the Dallas Trade Mart along the way, and arriving at about 12:38 p.m. (CST).

Governor Connally was also struck by the shots, and his wife pulled him closer to her. He suffered several severe wounds that he survived; a bullet entry wound in his upper right back located just behind his right armpit; four inches of his right, fifth chest rib was pulverised; a two-and-a-half inch sized chest exit wound; his right arm's wrist bone was fractured into seven pieces; and he had a bullet entry wound in his left inner thigh. Although there is controversy about exactly when he was wounded, analysts from both the Warren Commission (1964) and House Select Committee on Assassinations (1979) believed that his wounds had been inflicted nearly simultaneously with President Kennedy's in their theories that the two men were struck by a single bullet. The Commission theorized both men were hit nearly simultaneously between Zapruder film frames 210 to 225, while the Committee theorized it happened at frame 190.

Witness James Tague was also injured by the shots when he received a superficial face wound. The Main Street south curb he had been standing 23.5 feet away from was struck by a bullet or bullet fragment that had no copper sheath, and a fragment of the concrete curb or a bullet fragment struck Tague on his right cheek. At Zapruder frame 313 Tague's head top was located 271 feet away from and 16.4 feet below President Kennedy's head top and the limousine's front windshield and its pushed nearly vertically straight-upwards sun visors were in between the president and the impacted curb point. The bullet or bullet fragment that struck the concrete curb was never found.

Immediate aftermath

Lee Harvey Oswald

Dallas Patrolman Marion L. Baker had been assigned to serve as a motorcycle escort for the motorcade, and he was riding just behind the camera cars. He testified that the first shot he could hear was fired after he turned from Main St. onto Houston St. and had traveled approximately 60 to 80 feet along Houston as he approached the Houston and Elm streets intersection. Baker stated that he recognized the first shot he could hear as the report of a high-powered rifle and that he thought the shots had originated from the building "either right in front of me [the Depository] or the one across to the right of it" [the Dallas Textile Building (DalTex)]. He also said that he noticed pigeons take flight up from the roof of the depository building and start flying around. Baker then quickly drove to the corner of Houston and Elm St., parked his motorcycle, then looked westward into the aftermath of persons screaming, running and laying on the ground. He then listened to Chief Curry's radio broadcast saying, "Get some men up on that railroad track".

Baker then ran to the entrance of the Texas School Book Depository, entered the building with his gun drawn, and led by building superintendent Roy Truly, made his way to the far northwest corner of the first floor. From there, Baker and Truly started yelling for someone to send an elevator down from a higher floor. When there was no response, the two men began climbing the stairs, with Truly in the lead. Approximately 90 seconds after the shots rang out, Baker stepped out onto the second floor and a movement towards the lunchroom vestibule across from the stairs caught his attention. Baker confronted Oswald at gunpoint. He let Oswald pass after Truly identified him as an employee. According to Baker, Oswald did not appear to be nervous or out of breath.[113] Truly said that Oswald appeared "startled" when Baker aimed his gun at him.[114][115] According to the Warren Commission, Oswald was next seen by a secretary as he crossed through the second-floor business office carrying a soda bottle.[116] He left the Texas School Book Depository through its front door at approximately 12:33 p.m.[117]

The Warren Commission theorized that Oswald had traveled from the sixth-floor easternmost window, and hid an 8-pound, Italian-made 1940 Carcano, 6.5-millimeter rifle equipped with a four-power scope along the way. The rifle was reportedly discovered near the sixth-floor northwest corner by a Dallas police detective at 1:22 p.m., having been placed down between stacks of boxes, balanced upright on the lowest edges of its barrel and wooden stock. After being discovered, the rifle was photographed before being touched and was filmed while it was being inspected by the police crime lab supervisor.

Estimates of when the depository building was sealed off by police range from 12:33 to 12:50 p.m.[118] The Dealey Plaza immediate area streets and blocks were never sealed-off, and nine minutes after the assassination, photographs show that vehicles were still driving unhampered down Elm Street, through the crime scene kill zone.

After leaving the depository, Oswald walked seven blocks before boarding a bus. When the bus got stuck in traffic, he got off, walked to a nearby bus station, entered a taxi, took it several blocks past his rooming house, and then walked back to the rooming house. He arrived at his rooming house at 1026 North Beckley Ave. at around 1:00 p.m. According to his housekeeper Earlene Roberts, he left three or four minutes later. She last saw him standing and waiting at a bus stop outside the rooming house.[119]

At 1:15 p.m, Oswald shot and killed Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit near the intersection of 10th St. and Patton Ave.[120][121][122] This was 0.86 mile from Oswald's rooming house. Thirteen people witnessed Oswald shooting Tippit or fleeing the immediate scene.[123][124] By that evening, five of the witnesses had identified him in police lineups, and a sixth identified him the following day. Four others subsequently identified Oswald from a photograph.[123][124]

After killing Tippit, Oswald was seen traveling on foot toward the Texas Theater on West Jefferson Blvd.[125] About 1:35 p.m. Johnny Calvin Brewer, who worked as a manager at Hardy's Shoe Store in the same block as the Texas Theater on Jefferson Blvd. saw Oswald turning his face away from the street and duck into the entranceway of the shoe store as Dallas squad cars drove up the street with sirens on. When Oswald left the store, Brewer followed Oswald and watched him go into the Texas Theater movie house without paying while ticket attendant Julie Postal was distracted. Brewer notified Postal, who in turn informed the Dallas Police at 1:40 p.m.

Almost two dozen policemen, sheriffs, and detectives in several patrol cars arrived at Texas Theater because they believed Tippit's killer was inside. When an arrest attempt was made at 1:50 p.m. inside the theater, Oswald resisted arrest and, according to the police, attempted to shoot a patrolman after yelling once, "Well, it's all over now!" then punching a patrolman.[126]

President Kennedy

A Catholic priest named Father Oscar Huber (1895–1975) was summoned to Parkland Hospital to perform the last rites for President Kennedy.[127] Dr. Malcolm Perry, assistant professor of surgery at UT Southwestern and a vascular surgeon on the Parkland staff, was the first to treat Kennedy and he performed a tracheotomy, followed by a cardiopulmonary resuscitation performed with another surgeon.[128][129] Other doctors and surgeons who gathered worked frantically to save the president's life, but his wounds were too severe.[130]

At 1:00 p.m. CST, Kennedy was pronounced dead after all activity had ceased and after Huber had administered Extreme Unction. Personnel at Parkland Hospital Trauma Room #1, who treated the President, observed that the president's condition was "moribund",[131] meaning he had no chance of survival upon arrival at the hospital. "We never had any hope of saving his life," Dr. Perry said.[126][132] "I am absolutely sure he never knew what hit him," said Dr. Tom Shires, Parkland's chief of surgery.[133] Father Huber, after administering the last rites to the president, told The New York Times that the president was already dead upon the priest's arrival at the hospital. Huber had to draw back a sheet covering the President's face so that the last rites could be given.[134][135] Governor Connally, meanwhile, was soon taken to emergency surgery where he underwent two operations that day.

Although Kennedy was pronounced dead at 1:00 p.m. CST, the official announcement would not come until more than half an hour later. After receiving word of the president's death, acting White House press secretary Malcolm Kilduff entered the hospital room where Vice President Johnson—who would be sworn in as the new President on Air Force one later that day—and his wife were sitting.[110][136] Kilduff approached them and said to Johnson, "Mr. President, I have to announce the death of President Kennedy. Is it OK with you that the announcement be made now?"[136] Johnson ordered that the announcement be made only after he left the hospital.[137] When asking that the announcement be delayed, Johnson told Kilduff: "I think I had better get out of here.. .before you announce it. We don't know whether this is a worldwide conspiracy, whether they are after me as well as they were after President Kennedy, or whether they are after Speaker (John W.) McCormack, or Senator (Carl) Hayden. We just don't know."[110]

At 1:33 p.m. CST, Malcolm Kilduff entered a nurses' classroom at the hospital filled with press reporters and made the official announcement:[138][130]

President John F. Kennedy died at approximately 1:00 CST today, here in Dallas. He died of a gunshot wound to the brain. I have no other details regarding the assassination of the president.[136]

A few minutes after 2:00 p.m. CST, President Kennedy's body was removed from Parkland Hospital and transported straight to Air Force One.[139] The removal occurred subsequent to a ten- to fifteen-minute angry confrontation between Kennedy's special assistant Ken O'Donnell (backed by weapons-drawn and/or aimed Secret Service agents) with Parkland Hospital doctors and Medical Examiner Dr. Earl Rose, along with a justice of the peace. The removal of President Kennedy's body may have been illegal according to Texas state law, because it was done before a forensic examination could be performed by the Dallas coroner.[140] The assassination of the president was, at that time, listed on the books as a state-level crime and not a federal one, and as such legally occurred under Texas jurisdiction. To this date, however, no official judge or court of law has ruled on this matter.[citation needed]

Breaking the news

Locally in Dallas

From Dallas, local listeners of top-rated Top 40 music station KLIF-1190 were listening to The Rex Jones Show when they received the first bulletin at approximately 12:38 p.m. CST.[141] A "bulletin alert" sounder faded in during the song "I Have A Boyfriend" by The Chiffons. The song was stopped and newscaster Gary Delaune made the first announcement over the bulletin signal:

This KLIF Bulletin, from Dallas: Three shots reportedly were fired at the motorcade of President Kennedy today near the downtown section. KLIF News is checking out the report. We will have further reports. Stay tuned.

KLIF's competitor Top 40 station, KBOX, has been widely cited as the only station to report the shooting as it happened, but the "aircheck" of this moment widely circulated in the decades since – in which newsman Sam Pate breathlessly reports, "It appears as though something has happened in the motorcade route ..." – is in fact a recreation. Although authentic airchecks of KBOX's coverage from later in the day do exist and have been posted online, they do not include the moment when the station first broke the news.

Down the dial, Dallas' CBS Radio affiliate KRLD concluded the coverage of the presidential party's arrival at Love Field and switched to reporter Bob Huffaker who was standing at the corner of Main and Akard Streets in the downtown area, just 1/2 mile east of Dealey Plaza where the shooting occurred. After the president's car passed him, Huffaker continued reporting for several more minutes and was said to have been on the air as the shooting took place (although shots cannot be heard in the audio coverage). Shortly after returning to regular programming with the nationally syndicated religious program Back To The Bible, the first reports of the shooting came through CBS Radio. Huffaker was not aware of the developments until he arrived back at the KRLD studio after wrapping up his coverage; he quickly drove out to Parkland Hospital to report the scene outside the hospital's emergency entrance.

NBC Radio affiliate WBAP played instrumental music, with interruptions for local bulletins, until NBC Radio's continuous coverage began.

Dallas' ABC television affiliate WFAA was airing a local lifestyle program, The Julie Benell Show, at the time. At 12:45 p.m. CST, the station abruptly cut from the prerecorded program to news director Jay Watson in the studio, who had been at Dealey Plaza and ran back to the station following the incident:

Good afternoon, ladies and gentlemen. You'll excuse the fact that I am out of breath, but about 10 or 15 minutes ago a tragic thing from all indications at this point has happened in the city of Dallas. Let me quote to you this [briefly looks at the bulletin sheet in his left hand], and I'll... you'll excuse me if I am out of breath. A bulletin, this is from the United Press from Dallas: (Reading UPI bulletin) 'President Kennedy and Governor John Connally [in his agitated state, he mispronounced Connally's name as "Colony"] have been cut down by assassins' bullets in downtown Dallas. They were riding in an open automobile when the shots were fired.'[142]

Watson then began anchoring continuous coverage of the tragedy with Jerry Haynes, better known as WFAA-TV children's TV show host "Mr. Peppermint," followed shortly by an interview with witnesses Bill and Gayle Newman.

Other stations

In addition to the local Dallas radio and television coverage, recordings exist of coverage by various other radio stations nationwide. Four such stations are WTIC in Hartford, Connecticut; WLW in Cincinnati, Ohio; WCCO in Minneapolis – St. Paul, Minnesota; and KNX in Los Angeles, California.

CBS Radio affiliates KNX, WCCO, and WCBS

KNX and WCCO both had local bulletins interrupting programming prior to the first CBS Radio network bulletin. Both stations momentarily returned to their scheduled programs after those bulletins; on KNX, it was the West Coast network feed of that morning's Arthur Godfrey Time program, while WCCO switched back to its agribusiness news hour in the middle of a commercial for a St. Paul stockyard and slaughterhouse.

When the news broke, WCBS in New York was in the middle of The Ed Joyce Show with Joyce interviewing local Family Court Judge Beatrice Bernstein on the topic of juvenile delinquency. The local bulletin by newsman Joseph Dembo was followed by the first CBS Radio "Net Alert" bulletin. After returning to the program, the interview resumed with both Joyce and Judge Bernstein briefly acknowledging the shocking news. CBS Radio began non-stop coverage at 2:00 PM Eastern time.

NBC radio affiliate WLW in Cincinnati

One of the longest recordings[143] exists from Cincinnati's WLW, then affiliated with NBC's radio news division and aired the five-minute national newscasts the station provided every half-hour. The 1:30 EST newscast, apparently a tape delay of the 1:00 P.M. network newscast (so as not to interrupt the simulcast of WLWT's midday program The 50/50 Club featuring Ruth Lyons), was anchored by Martin Agronsky; as Kennedy was to have been delivering his speech at the Trade Mart at precisely that time, Agronsky described the speech in the past tense, as if it had already been delivered. Following the update, WLW began its regular Tunepike program, with disc jockey Fred Bernard playing mainly Broadway musical songs. At approximately 1:37 p.m., the planned playing of the original cast album to the 1956 musical Li'l Abner was momentarily delayed by Bernard:

We'll have to stand by here just a moment, there may be something... happening. Yes, there is. There's a bulletin just handed me from Dallas, Texas... an unknown sniper fired three shots at President Kennedy- this is, uh, in connection with President Kennedy, who is now touring Texas as you know- uh... I'll tell you exactly how this reads. "Dallas- an unknown sniper fired three shots at...", and then there's five letters: P-M-O-U-X, then a flash, Kennedy's name is misspelled, flash again, and at the bottom of this headline it says "Kennedy seriously wounded".

After the flash was read and recapped, Bernard tried to return to the music. However, the overture to Li'l Abner was interrupted several times. After the first interruption, two staff members in WLW's news office were overheard conversing ...

Staff member #1: ...has been shot.
Staff member #2: Who?
Member #1: Kennedy.
Member #2: The President?
Member #1: Yeah.

This was immediately followed by a bulletin from the WLW newsroom, which was their first official bulletin and was read as follows:

Here is a bulletin from the WLW Comex (Communications Exchange) Newsroom: a late bulletin from Dallas where three shots were fired at President Kennedy's motorcade today in downtown Dallas, no casualties reported at first however the latest flash indicates President Kennedy was seriously wounded, perhaps fatally, by an assassin's bullet. That's all the information we have; a bulletin, a sniper apparently seriously wounded President Kennedy in downtown Dallas today, perhaps fatally. We'll keep you posted as the news comes in to the WLW newsroom.

WLW also interrupted to air an NBC network "Hotline" bulletin; after the Li'l Abner overture ended, Bernard played instrumental music by Percy Faith for some time before switching to NBC's nationwide radio coverage of the incident, adding relevant information where necessary.

NBC radio affiliate WTIC in Hartford

WTIC did not interrupt its local call-in listener question-and-answer program Mikeline until nearly 1:55 p.m. EST when guest host and WTIC-TV, Channel 3, evening news anchor Bob Ellsworth was handed his first bulletin. From that point forward, he and Mikeline co-host Floyd Richards took turns reading the latest information from the wire services until the 2:00 p.m. EST NBC Radio network newscast which was anchored from Washington, D.C. by Peter Hackes with White House correspondent Robert MacNeil reporting by phone from Parkland Memorial Hospital in Dallas. WTIC staff announcer Dick Bertel took the air from when the NBC newscast concluded at 2:05 p.m. EST until shortly before 2:11 p.m. EST when NBC News first offered continuous coverage to WTIC, WLW, and its other radio affiliates nationwide, anchored mainly by Edwin Newman from New York.

WGN in Chicago

The only record of JFK assassination coverage currently available from a Chicago radio station comes from a non-network station, WGN. Host Orion Samuelson was on the air with Country Fair, a program of agricultural news, when the first bulletins were received. After reading the bulletins, Samuelson resumed the regularly scheduled program, periodically interrupting with further bulletins, until a union record-turner arrived and Samuelson was able to end his program, at which time the station began playing somber easy-listening instrumental music as staff and listeners awaited further bulletins as reported by WGN newsman Jack Taylor.

Samuelson recalled years later that he had initially thought fellow staffers were playing a joke on him with the initial bulletins about the shooting, until he realized it was real.[144]

WGBH-FM/Boston Symphony Orchestra Concert

The Boston Symphony Orchestra was performing a concert at Boston's Symphony Hall when conductor Erich Leinsdorf announced the tragic news to the audience and a last-minute program change replacing a suite from Rimsky-Korsakov's "The Golden Cockerel" with the Marcia funebre from Ludwig van Beethoven's Eroica Symphony:

Ladies and gentlemen, we have a press report over the wires. We hope that it is unconfirmed, but we have to doubt it, that the President of the United States has been the victim of an assassination. [Gasps of shock and disbelief from audience] We will play the Funeral March from Beethoven's Third Symphony. [Further shocked sounds from audience]

A recording of the announcement exists due to the concert being simulcast over non-commercial public radio station WGBH-FM.[145]


The first national news bulletin of the shooting came over the ABC Radio Network at 12:36 p.m. CST/1:36 p.m. EST.[146] The most complete recording of the initial ABC bulletins came from WRUL, a New York-based station transmitting to Latin America and Europe on shortwave, which was featuring a program of MOR album music when the shooting took place. At the time, Doris Day's recording of "Hooray for Hollywood" was playing when newscaster Don Gardiner broke in with the developments:

We interrupt this program to bring you a special bulletin from ABC Radio. Here is a special bulletin from Dallas, Texas: (Reading UPI bulletin) 'THREE SHOTS WERE FIRED AT PRESIDENT KENNEDY'S MOTORCADE TODAY IN DOWNTOWN DALLAS, TEXAS.'[147] This is ABC Radio. To repeat: 'in Dallas, Texas, three shots were fired at President Kennedy's motorcade today.' The president now making a two-day speaking tour of Texas. We're going to stand by for more details on the incident in Dallas. Stay tuned to your ABC station for further details. Now, we return you to your regular program.[146]

Four minutes following ABC's radio bulletin, CBS was the first to break the news over television at 12:40 p.m. CST/1:40 p.m. EST. The network interrupted its live production broadcast of As the World Turns with a "CBS News Bulletin" bumper slide and Walter Cronkite, reporting from the CBS Radio flash booth, filed an audio-only report. Live video of Cronkite was impossible at that time, as no camera in the CBS newsroom (which used image orthicon tubes and took approximately 20 minutes to warm up[148]) was ready:

Here is a bulletin from CBS News: 'in Dallas, Texas, three shots were fired at President Kennedy's motorcade in downtown Dallas.' The first reports say that President Kennedy has been seriously wounded by this shooting. More details just arrived. These details about the same as previously: President Kennedy shot today just as his motorcade left downtown Dallas. Mrs. Kennedy jumped up and grabbed Mr. Kennedy, she called 'Oh, no!' The motorcade sped on. United Press says that the wounds for President Kennedy perhaps could be fatal. Repeating, a bulletin from CBS News: 'President Kennedy has been shot by a would-be assassin in Dallas, Texas.' Stay tuned to CBS News for further details.

Initially, the live broadcast of As the World Turns continued, with the actors unaware of the earlier pre-emption for the bulletin. Cronkite later filed two additional audio-only bulletins to interrupt programming, the last of which interrupted a Friskies dog food commercial and pre-empted the remaining running time of As the World Turns. Only the bulletin bumper remained on screen while a television camera warmed up, until 2:00 p.m. EST. Cronkite stated in a later interview that this event was responsible for a new CBS network policy of always having a hot camera available to the newsroom to avoid this difficulty in the future.[149]

At that time, As the World Turns was the runaway top-rated daytime show, and ABC and NBC made no concerted effort to compete with CBS in the time slot; as a result, the other television networks weren't on the air in the Eastern and Central Time Zones. Various programs were being broadcast through their affiliate stations.[150] From their main headquarters in New York, WABC-TV's first bulletin came from Ed Silverman at 1:42 p.m. EST, also interrupting a rerun of Father Knows Best in the Mountain Time Zone on the ABC-TV network; ABC-TV was not feeding programming to its affiliates in the Pacific Time Zone at that hour. Three minutes later, Don Pardo broke into WNBC-TV's local rerun of Bachelor Father with the news, saying (reading AP bulletin) 'PRESIDENT KENNEDY WAS SHOT TODAY JUST AS HIS MOTORCADE LEFT DOWNTOWN DALLAS. MRS. KENNEDY JUMPED UP AND GRABBED MR. KENNEDY. SHE CRIED 'OH NO!' THE MOTORCADE SPED ON.'[128] (Videotape of the NBC bulletins have been assumed "lost" as they did not start recording coverage until minutes later. However, audio engineer Phil Gries rolled tape on a set of audio recordings on a 1/4" reel to reel audiotape recorder. These have been donated to the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library.[151] However, NBC, in its book on the coverage of the assassination, mentioned the bulletins.)[152] At 1:53 p.m. (EST), NBC broke into programming with a NBC Network bumper slide and Chet Huntley and Bill Ryan began informing the viewers what was going on as it happened.[152] However, NBC's camera was not ready and the coverage was limited to audio-only reports as CBS' coverage had been to that point. Other than for two audio-only bulletins (one following the initial report), ABC did not break into its stations' programming at all, instead waiting until the network was to return to broadcasting at 2:00 p.m. Eastern to begin its coverage.

At 1:57 p.m. EST, just as Frank McGee joined the reporting, NBC began broadcasting the report as their camera was ready and working.[151] Three minutes later, at 2:00 EST, CBS' camera was finally ready and Cronkite appeared on the air after a brief station break, with ABC beginning its coverage at the same time. Radio coverage was reported by Don Gardiner (ABC), Alan Jackson (CBS), and (after a top-of-the-hour newscast) by Peter Hackes and Edwin Newman (NBC).

Television and radio coverage (from approx. 2:00 to 2:40 p.m. EST)


Providing the reports for ABC Television were Don Goddard, Ron Cochran, and Ed Silverman in New York, Edward P. Morgan in Washington, Bob Clark (who as noted above had been riding in the motorcade when Kennedy was shot) from Parkland Hospital, and Bill Lord from the Dallas County sheriff's office. As with the other networks, ABC interspersed with their Dallas affiliate WFAA-TV 8 for up-to-date information. Reporting from WFAA were Bob Walker (who had been at Love Field for live coverage of the President's arrival) and Jay Watson (who had remained on the air locally from the time he broke into local programming upon his return from Dealey Plaza). They were later joined by Bob Clark upon his arrival from the hospital.

ABC's initial coverage of the incident was very disorganized. Cochran, ABC's primary news anchor, was on his lunch break when word of the assassination attempt first broke and the network had to call him back to the studio. Silverman was the voice accompanying ABC's first bulletin, broadcast during a rerun episode of Father Knows Best that was airing on a majority of the network's affiliates in the Mountain Time Zone at the time; the surviving videotape of ABC's initial bulletins appears to have been recorded by then-affiliate KTVK in Phoenix, as it contains the interruption of Father Knows Best. The first on-camera report was given by Goddard in the network's news studio, which was too far away from the teletype machines. Goddard then moved to the newsroom and was joined by the returning Cochran, and the technical crew began constructing an impromptu news set around them (ABC did not have studio space ready for such an occasion; NBC had a flash studio in its newsroom and CBS' reports came directly from their own newsroom as they had since they launched an evening newscast earlier in 1963). Cochran and Goddard were forced to stand and awkwardly hold microphones and headsets so they could report the information.

In addition to the disorganization in New York, ABC was not able to switch to Dallas to speak to its correspondents. Only one feed was available to them at first, which came from the Dallas Trade Mart and CBS affiliate KRLD reporter Eddie Barker. CBS had earlier aired snippets of Barker's report, but had cut it off to return to its own reporting of the incident before Barker finished; ABC aired the remainder of the report until the end. The reason that ABC was able to air the CBS affiliate's coverage was due to a pool arrangement the three major Dallas stations agreed to for the President's visit. WBAP was responsible for covering the President's visit to Fort Worth and his departure and landing at Love Field, WFAA was assigned to cover the parade through downtown Dallas, and KRLD was set up at the Dallas Trade Mart for the address the President was to give.

At 2:25 p.m. EST, while attempting to switch to Bob Clark in Dallas, ABC Radio reported that Parkland Hospital said President Kennedy was dead, and then stressed that it was unconfirmed. Upon reporting the news, anchor Don Gardiner said this to his audience:

Ladies and gentlemen, this is a moment trying for all of us. Let us pause, and let us all pray.

ABC Radio then stopped coverage to broadcast orchestral music.[153]

At 2:33 p.m. EST, Cochran reported on ABC Television that the two priests who were called into the hospital to administer the last rites to the President said that he had died from his wounds. Although this was an unconfirmed report, ABC prematurely placed a photo of the President with the words "JOHN F. KENNEDY – 1917–1963" on the screen.

Five minutes later, this photo was again prematurely placed when Cochran received an erroneous report that the President had died at 1:35 p.m. CST when, in fact, he had died at 1:00 p.m. CST. A few minutes following that, Cochran received further information regarding the President's condition and relayed the following to the ABC viewing audience:

Government sources now confirm...we have this from Washington. Government sources now confirm that President Kennedy is dead. So that, apparently, is the final word and an incredible event that I am sure no one except the assassin himself could have possibly imagined would occur on this day.

On ABC Radio, Gardiner reported the news, but did not say whether or not it was official. ABC then switched to Pete Clapper on Capitol Hill for an interview with the Senate's press liaison Richard Reidel. Moments later, the interview was interrupted by Gardiner's report of the President's death:

Ladies and gentlemen, the President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, is dead. The President is dead. Let us pray.

ABC Radio then returned to orchestral music.


At 2:00 p.m. EST, Walter Cronkite moved from the CBS Radio flash booth, to his desk. The static CBS news bulletin bumper which had been on the screen for the last several minutes as Cronkite filed audio reports was now replaced by a live image of him, since a camera was now warmed up and ready to broadcast. Any CBS affiliates that had not been with CBS News New York joined their feed. From the time the CBS affiliates joined Cronkite in the news room at the top of the hour to approximately 2:38 p.m. EST, the coverage alternated from the CBS Newsroom and Cronkite, to KRLD-TV's Eddie Barker at the Dallas Trade Mart where President Kennedy was to give his luncheon address.

At approximately 2:11 p.m. EST, CBS News correspondent Dan Rather telephoned one of the two priests who performed last rites on Kennedy to confirm that he had indeed been shot. "Yes, he's been shot and he is dead," the priest told Rather. Almost simultaneously at the Trade Mart, a doctor went up to Barker and whispered, "Eddie, he is dead... I called the emergency room and he is DOA." Moments later, as the news cameras panned throughout the Trade Mart crowds, Barker gave this report:

As you can imagine, there are many stories that are coming in now as to the actual condition of the President. One is that he is dead; this cannot be confirmed. Another is that Governor Connally is in the operating room; this we have not confirmed.

Several minutes later, when CBS switched back to KRLD and the Trade Mart for another report, Barker repeated the claim of the President's death, adding "the source would normally be a good one." During this report, as Barker was speaking of security precautions for the President's visit, a Trade Mart employee was shown removing the Presidential seal from the podium where President Kennedy was to have spoken.

CBS Radio's death announcement

At 2:19 p.m. EST, CBS Dallas correspondents Dan Rather and Eddie Barker spoke by telephone to "compare notes, to take stock". Rather was aware that there was an open line to New York as the two of them spoke, but "didn't realize how many people were on that phone line", which included at least three individuals from CBS Radio.[154] Rather, who had "no doubt in his mind" that Kennedy was dead, nevertheless was not delivering official word to CBS Radio, nor was he aware that his discussion with Barker would be construed as such. As Rather spoke to Barker, an individual from CBS Radio asked, "Did you say the president is dead?" Rather replied, "Yes."[154] Based on the call, CBS Radio newsroom supervisor Robert Skedgell wrote "JFK DEAD" on a slip of paper and handed it to CBS Radio news anchor Alan Jackson. At 2:22 p.m. EST, eleven minutes before Kilduff's official announcement, Jackson made the following announcement:

Ladies and gentlemen, the president of the United States is dead. John F. Kennedy has died of the wounds he received in an assassination in Dallas less than an hour ago. We repeat: it has just been announced that President Kennedy is dead.[155]

After the announcement, CBS Radio, apparently trying to play "The Star Spangled Banner", inadvertently aired a brief excerpt of an LP Samuel Barber's Adagio for Strings played at the wrong speed of 78 RPM.[156] After a few seconds of silence, Jackson repeated the news:

John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President Of The United States, is dead at the age of 46. Shot by an assassin as he drove through the streets of Dallas, Texas less than an hour ago. Repeating this: the President is dead, killed in Dallas, Texas by a gunshot wound.[157]

This was followed by an excerpt from the first movement to Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony.[158] After the music, Jackson again repeated the news:

We repeat our announcement that the President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, is dead in Dallas, Texas, of an assassin's bullets. He was shot, and governor Tom Connelly of the state of Texas was shot, as they rode in a motorcade through the streets of Dallas less than an hour ago. Governor Connelly is in serious condition, President John Kennedy is dead. The 35th president of the United States, he was 46 years old.

According to the constitution, Vice President Lyndon Johnson will now succeed Mr. Kennedy in office. Mr. Johnson will become the 36th president of the United States, very probably within a few hours upon taking the oath of office.[159]

After Jackson's announcement, his co-anchor Dallas Townsend added:

Well, as a matter of fact, Alan, Lyndon Johnson is now the president whether he takes the Oath or not. He is the president.[160]

Townsend's comment was followed by "The Star Spangled Banner".


While CBS Radio had taken Dan Rather's earlier discussion with Barker as confirmation of the president's death, there was a debate going on between CBS television network officials as to whether or not to report this development, as Rather's report was not a truly official confirmation. At 2:27 p.m. EST, they decided to give Rather's report to Cronkite, who relayed this to the nation:

We just have a report from our correspondent Dan Rather in Dallas that he has confirmed that President Kennedy is dead. There is still no official confirmation of this. However, it's a report from our correspondent, Dan Rather, in Dallas, Texas.

Approximately five minutes after this, one of the newsroom staff members rushed to Cronkite's desk with another bulletin. As Cronkite read the bulletin, he had to re-read it as he stumbled over his words.

The priest... who were with Kennedy... the two priests who were with Kennedy say that he is dead of his bullet wounds. That seems to be about as close to official as we can get at this time.

Although Cronkite continued to stress that there was no official confirmation, the tone of Cronkite's words seemed to indicate that it would only be a matter of time before the official word came. Three minutes later, he received the same report that ABC's Ron Cochran chose to relay as official word. Cronkite did not do the same, reporting it instead in this context:

And now, from Washington, government sources say that President Kennedy is dead. Those are government sources, still not an official announcement.

Cronkite continued as before while still awaiting word of the official confirmation of the President's death, which at this time had been relayed by Kilduff at the hospital two minutes prior but had not made the press wires yet. After speaking about what Kennedy had done earlier that day in Fort Worth, Cronkite noted that the plane from Fort Worth flew the President to his "rendezvous with death, apparently, in Dallas", although the official bulletin still had not arrived yet.

Immediately after that, at 2:38 p.m. EST, Cronkite remarked on fearful concerns of demonstrations in Dallas similar to the attack of U.N. Ambassador Adlai Stevenson in Dallas the previous month. At that moment, a CBS News employee seen in the background pulled off a sheet from the AP News ticker. He quickly relayed it (off-camera) to Cronkite, who put on his glasses, took a few seconds to read the sheet, and made the announcement:

From Dallas, Texas, the flash, apparently official: [reading AP flash] 'PRESIDENT KENNEDY DIED AT 1 P.M. (CST),'[138] 2:00 Eastern Standard Time, some thirty-eight minutes ago.

After reading the flash, Cronkite took off his glasses so he could consult the studio clock, which established the lapse in time since Kennedy had died. He paused briefly and replaced his eyeglasses, visibly moved for a moment. Cronkite continued:

Vice President Johnson... (clears throat) ...has left the hospital in Dallas, but we do not know to where he has proceeded. Presumably, he will be taking the oath of office shortly and become the thirty-sixth president of the United States.

There was a sense of irony to CBS' coverage of the assassination. On September 2, 1963, Kennedy gave an interview with Cronkite, helping CBS inaugurate network television's first half hour evening newscast.[161]

It should perhaps be noted that CBS did not include any further coverage from Dallas or Washington as the other networks had until after the announcement of Kennedy's death. As coverage continued following the announcement, Charles Collingwood relieved Cronkite in New York while Neil Strawser reported from CBS' Washington bureau and Dan Rather and Eddie Barker provided reports from KRLD in Dallas.


At NBC-TV, Chet Huntley, Bill Ryan, and Frank McGee anchored from the network's emergency "flash" studio (code name 5HN) in New York, with reports from David Brinkley in Washington, Charles Murphy and Tom Whelan from NBC affiliate WBAP-TV (now KXAS-TV) in Fort Worth, Texas, and Robert MacNeil, who had been in the motorcade, at Parkland Hospital.[162] Edwin Newman reported from NBC Radio with periodic simulcast with NBC-TV. NBC Radio's coverage was simulcast in Canada by CBC Radio.[163] Also, the United States' international shortwave broadcaster, Voice of America, relayed portions of NBC's coverage (including the simulcast with the television coverage) as part of its English-language coverage of the tragic news. (A short aircheck of VOA exists in which the announcers on duty attempt to make sense of the conflicting reports about Kennedy's condition, and then the station briefly simulcasts NBC before heading into Polish language programming at 1:00 p.m. Central Time.)

Throughout the first 35 minutes, there were technical difficulties with the Fort Worth TV relay as well as with the phone link MacNeil was using to report from the hospital.[150] When the coverage began, McGee was waiting for MacNeil to call in with information. While Ryan and Huntley were recounting the information, McGee got MacNeil on the line and told him to recount chronologically what happened.[127] However, NBC was using a studio that wasn't equipped to patch calls through to the air and thus only McGee could hear MacNeil.[150] While the studio crew worked on a solution, McGee improvised and told MacNeil to relay the information in fragments, which he would then repeat for the audience. While they were talking, Huntley was handed a speaker from off camera and took the receiver from McGee so he could attach it to the earpiece, this enabling MacNeil to be heard. However, by that time there was no further information to report; MacNeil had a medical student from Parkland hold the phone line for him so that he could return to the emergency ward for the latest developments. He would return briefly several minutes later to offer more word on the condition of the President, during which the phone link temporarily worked, but as MacNeil left again the relay cut out. Before he left, he informed McGee that a press conference regarding Kennedy's condition was forthcoming.[127]

At approximately 2:35 p.m. EST, shortly after Ryan reported that a neurosurgeon had just arrived at Parkland to assist in treating Kennedy. Huntley alluded to the last time a president had died in office:

In just this momentary lull, I would assume that the memory of every person listening at this moment has flashed back to that day in April 1945 when Franklin Delano Roosevelt ...

He was unable to complete his thought, however. The flash regarding the priests who administered the Last Rites to the President had reached the desk while Huntley was speaking and Ryan interrupted him to relay this:[164]

Excuse me, Chet. Here is a flash from the Associated Press, dateline Dallas: 'Two priests who were with President Kennedy say he is dead of bullet wounds.' There is no further confirmation, but this is what we have on a flash basis from the Associated Press: 'Two priests in Dallas who were with President Kennedy say he is dead of bullet wounds.' There is no further confirmation. This is the only word we have indicating that the president may, in fact, have lost his life. It has just moved on the Associated Press wires from Dallas. The two priests were called to the hospital to administer the last rites of the Roman Catholic Church. And it is from them, we get the word, that the president has died, that the bullet wounds inflicted on him as he rode in a motorcade through downtown Dallas have been fatal. We will remind you that there is no official confirmation of this from any source as yet.

As this was going on, McGee received a report from Parkland Hospital. Shortly after arriving at the hospital, Vice President Johnson had been advised to begin heading back to Washington to assume executive duties in case he needed to be sworn in. Johnson decided to wait until he received word of Kennedy's condition, which he did at approximately 1:20 PM CST. McGee reported to Ryan that a motorcade carrying the Johnsons had just left Parkland Hospital, which Ryan took to be confirmation of the President's death as the priests had reported.

On NBC Radio and CBC Radio, Newman reported the same flash:

Here is a flash from Dallas: 'Two priests who were with President Kennedy say he is dead of bullet wounds suffered in the assassination attempt today.' I repeat, a flash from Dallas: 'Two priests who were with President Kennedy say he is dead of bullet wounds.' This is the latest information we have from Dallas. We are, of course, standing by to give you all available information as it comes to us. I will repeat, with the greatest regret, this flash: 'Two priests who were with President Kennedy say he has died of bullet wounds.'[165]

At that point, both radio networks rejoined NBC-TV where Ryan reported that there may in fact be confirmation of the priests' account of Kennedy's death. The feed then switched back to Charles Murphy at WBAP-TV, who reported that although no official statement had been released by the President's staff, the Dallas Police Department had been notified of Kennedy's death and radioed the word to every officer on duty shortly before the flash from Dallas made the wires.[164]

As Murphy was filing his report, McGee got back in touch with Robert MacNeil, who had just returned from the aforementioned press conference. Partway through the report, the audio link was fixed and MacNeil could be heard clearly in studio and on air. McGee was unaware of this, as he simply carried on as he had been:[164]

White House (Acting) Press Secretary... Malcolm Kilduff... has just announced that President Kennedy... died at approximately 1:00 Central Standard Time, which is about 35 minutes ago... (audio enabled) ...after being shot at (after being shot)... by an unknown assailant (by an unknown assailant) ...during a motorcade drive through downtown Dallas (during a motorcade drive through downtown Dallas).

After MacNeil finished giving all the relevant information available, he left the phone to obtain further information. McGee, wiping a tear from his eye, stood by and kept the phone line open for MacNeil's next update.

KLIF Radio, Dallas

From local radio station KLIF, Gary Delaune relayed the bulletins as received with reports from Joe Long from KLIF News Mobile Unit #4. Long, who had reported the President's arrival at Love Field earlier, later joined Delaune in the studio; Roy Nichols took over the #4 mobile unit and headed for Parkland Hospital. After a report from the Trade Mart, radio broadcaster and KLIF founder Gordon McLendon returned to the radio station to relieve Delaune. The reporters continuously stressed, as a strict radio station rule of McLendon's, whether the information received is from official or unofficial sources, especially concerning reports of the President's death. At approximately 1:38 p.m. CST, KLIF's Teletype sounded ten bells (indicating an incoming bulletin of utmost importance) and Long was given the official flash:

Gordon McLendon: The President is clearly, gravely, critically, and perhaps fatally wounded. There are strong indications that he may already have expired, although that is not official, we repeat, not official. But, the extent of the injuries to Governor Connally is, uh, a closely shrouded secret at the moment...

Joe Long: President Kennedy is dead, Gordon. This is official word.

Gordon McLendon: Ladies and gentlemen, the President is dead. The President, ladies and gentlemen, is dead at Parkland Hospital in Dallas.

KLIF's continuous coverage would eventually be aired over an ad-hoc radio network of its own, as the station's coverage was fed to KLIF's sister stations in Houston, Louisville, and other cities and reportedly aired (with or without permission) on dozens, possibly hundreds, of others.

Following the official announcement of President Kennedy's death, all three commercial networks suspended their regular programming and commercials for the first time in the short history of television and ran coverage on a non-stop basis for four days. The assassination of President Kennedy was the longest uninterrupted news event in the history of American television until just before 9:00 a.m. EDT, September 11, 2001, when the networks were on the air for 72 hours straight covering the 9/11 terrorist attacks.[166]

Return to Washington

Once back at Air Force One, and only after Mrs. Kennedy and President Kennedy's body had also returned to the plane, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in by Sarah T. Hughes as the 36th President of the United States of America at 2:38 p.m. CST.[167] One of President Kennedy's aides stayed with his coffin during the swearing-in of Johnson.

At about 6:00 p.m. EST, Air Force One arrived at Andrews Air Force Base near Washington, D.C.[168][169] The television networks made the switch to the AFB just as the plane touched down. Reporting the arrival for the TV networks were Richard Bate (ABC),[170] Charles Von Fremd (CBS),[171][172] and Bob Abernethy & Nancy Dickerson (NBC).[173]

After President Kennedy's brother, Robert Kennedy, boarded the plane,[174][175] Kennedy's casket was removed from the rear entrance and loaded into a light gray US Navy ambulance for its transport to the Bethesda Naval Hospital for an autopsy and mortician's preparations.[176] When Jackie Kennedy stepped off the plane with her brother-in-law, her pink suit and legs were still stained with her husband's blood.[177] All that long afternoon and into the early morning hours of the next day, the widow objected to leaving her husband's body, except for the swearing in of Johnson.[178] She also refused to change out of her blood-stained suit; Lady Bird Johnson, in her audio diary, quoted Mrs. Kennedy as saying "I want them to see what they have done to Jack."[179][180][181]

Shortly after the ambulance with the casket and Mrs. Kennedy departed, President Johnson and the First Lady exited Air Force One.[168] They were led to a podium clustered with microphones where Lyndon Johnson made his first official statement as president of the United States:

This is a sad time for all people. We have suffered a loss that cannot be weighed. For me, it is a deep, personal tragedy. I know the world shares the sorrow that Mrs. Kennedy and her family bear. I will do my best; that is all I can do. I ask for your help and God's.[182]

President Johnson himself ordered the arrival to be televised live.[183] While en route to Washington from Dallas, he and Kilduff told the other assistant press secretary, Andrew Hatcher, that he was going to make his statement and that he wanted the arrival to be televised live.[183] As the new president boarded his helicopter, he said that Mrs. Kennedy was in his heart and remarked about the presidency, and recounted, "Then the door of the helicopter slammed shut behind me and thus ended a tragic chapter in American history."[182]

Oswald charged with two counts of murder

At 7:05 p.m. CST Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with "murder with malice" in the killing of police officer J.D. Tippit.[184]

At 11:26 p.m. CST Oswald was charged with the murder of President Kennedy in the furtherance of a Communist conspiracy.[184] (The reference to a Communist conspiracy was soon dropped from the language of the murder charge, reportedly on orders from someone in the White House.)

On November 24, 1963, at 11:21 a.m. CST, before live television cameras, Lee Harvey Oswald was shot and mortally wounded in the basement of Dallas Police headquarters by a local nightclub owner with alleged mafia ties, Jack Ruby.[185][186][187] Unconscious, Oswald was put into an ambulance and rushed to Parkland Memorial Hospital, the same hospital where doctors tried to save the life of John F. Kennedy two days earlier. Oswald died at 1:07 pm.


The state funeral took place in Washington, DC during the three days that followed the assassination.[188]

The body of President Kennedy was brought back to Washington, D.C. and placed in the East Room of the White House for 24 hours.[189][190] On the Sunday after the assassination, his coffin was carried on a horse-drawn caisson to the U.S. Capitol to lie in state.[191] Throughout the day and night, hundreds of thousands lined up to view the guarded casket.[192] Representatives from over 90 countries attended the state funeral on Monday, November 25.[193] After the Requiem Mass at St. Matthew's Cathedral, the late President was laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia.

Official investigations

The Warren Commission presents its report to President Johnson. From left to right: John McCloy, J. Lee Rankin (General Counsel), Senator Richard Russell, Congressman Gerald Ford, Chief Justice Earl Warren, President Lyndon B. Johnson, Allen Dulles, Senator John Sherman Cooper, and Congressman Hale Boggs.

The Warren Commission's 888-page final report was presented to President Johnson on September 24, 1964,[194] and made public three days later,[195] saying one shot wounded President Kennedy and Governor Connally, and a subsequent shot hit Kennedy in the head, killing him. The Commission also concluded a third shot was fired, but made no conclusion as to whether it was the first, second or third shot fired. The Warren Commission concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald fired all three shots.

In 1979, the House Select Committee on Assassinations investigated the assassination of JFK and found that president Kennedy was "probably assassinated as a result of a conspiracy". The Committee found that Carlos Marcello and Santos Trafficante had the means, motive, and opportunity to assassinate president Kennedy, stating "Trafficante, like Marcello, had the motive, means, and opportunity to assassinate President Kennedy.”[196][197]


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  • Associated Press (1963). The Torch Is Passed. New York: Associated Press.
  • Johnson, Lyndon (1971). The Vantage Point: Perspectives of the Presidency, 1963–1969. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
  • Miller, Merle (1980). Lyndon: An Oral Biography. New York: Putnam.
  • NBC News (1966). There Was a President. New York: Random House.
  • Trost, Cathy; Bennett, Susan (2003). President Kennedy Has Been Shot. Naperville, Ill.: Sourcebooks.
  • United Press International; American Heritage Magazine, eds. (1964). Four Days. New York: American Heritage Pub. Co.
  • Warren Commission (1964). Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy Author United States. Washington: United States Government Printing Office.
  • White, Theodore H. (1965). The Making of the President, 1965. New York: Athenium Publishers.

External links

  • JFKtimeline.com: Context to a Coup; Tribute to a Revolutionary Leader