Trema micrantha


Trema micrantha, the Jamaican nettletree[2] or capulin,[3] is a plant species native to warmer parts of the Western Hemisphere. It has been reported from Mexico, Central America, tropical South America, the Virgin Islands, Jamaica, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and southern Florida.[4][5]

Trema micrantha
Flickr - João de Deus Medeiros - Trema micrantha.jpg
In Brasília
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Cannabaceae
Genus: Trema
T. micrantha
Binomial name
Trema micrantha
(L.) Blume
  • Celtis albicans Willd. ex Steud.
  • Celtis canescens Kunth
  • Celtis chichilea Ruiz & Pav. ex Planch.
  • Celtis curiandiuba M.Gómez ex Planch.
  • Celtis lima Lam.
  • Celtis macrophylla Kunth
  • Celtis micrantha (L.) Sw.
  • Celtis microcarpa Salzm. ex Planch.
  • Celtis mollis Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.
  • Celtis rufescens Banks ex Planch.
  • Celtis schiedeana Schltdl.
  • Rhamnus micrantha L.
  • Sponia canescens (Kunth) Decne.
  • Sponia chichilea Planch.
  • Sponia crassifolia Liebm.
  • Sponia grisea Liebm.
  • Sponia lima Decne.
  • Sponia macrophylla (Kunth) Decne.
  • Sponia micrantha (L.) Decne. ex Planch.
  • Sponia micrantha (L.) Decne.
  • Sponia mollis Decne.
  • Sponia peruviana Klotzsch
  • Sponia riparia Decne.
  • Sponia schiedeana (Schltdl.) Planch.
  • Trema canescens (Kunth) Blume
  • Trema chichilea (Planch.) Blume
  • Trema floridana Britton ex Small
  • Trema lima Blume
  • Trema macrophylla (Kunth) Blume
  • Trema melinona Blume
  • Trema micrantha var. obtusatum Urb.
  • Trema micrantha var. strigillosa (Lundell) Standl. & Steyerm.
  • Trema mollis (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Blume
  • Trema riparia Blume
  • Trema rufescens Blume
  • Trema schiedeana (Schltdl.) Blume
  • Trema strigillosa Lundell
  • Urtica alnifolia Bertero ex Griseb.


Trema micrantha is a shrub or small tree up to 10 m tall. Leaves are egg-shaped, up to 9 cm long, green on top but covered with white, woolly pubescence underneath. Flowers are greenish-white. Fruits are yellow to bright reddish-range, up to 4 mm in diameter. [4][6][7]


Following the recent local extirpation of slow-growing xalama in San Pablito, Mexico due to unsustainable harvesting driven by tourism, the Otomi people now use Trema micrantha bark strips as a raw material for making handmade amate paper.[8]


  1. ^ The Plant List, Trema micrantha"
  2. ^ USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Trema micratha". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant Data Team. Retrieved 14 December 2015.
  3. ^ "Trema micrantha". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  4. ^ a b Flora of North America vol 3 Trema micrantha'
  5. ^ Tropicos, Trema micrantha, distribution
  6. ^ Blume, Carl (Karl) Ludwig von. 1856. Museum botanicum Lugduno-Batavum, sive, Stirpium exoticarum novarum vel minus cognitarum ex vivis aut siccis brevis expositio et descriptio 2: 58.
  7. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von. 1759. Systema Naturae, Editio Decima 2: 937.
  8. ^ Peters, C. M., Rosenthal, J., & Urbina, T. (1987). Otomi bark paper in Mexico: commercialization of a pre-hispanic technology. Economic Botany, 41(3), 423-432.