Triangular tiling  

Type  Regular tiling 
Vertex configuration  3.3.3.3.3.3 (or 3^{6}) 
Face configuration  V6.6.6 (or V6^{3}) 
Schläfli symbol(s)  {3,6} {3^{[3]}} 
Wythoff symbol(s)  6  3 2 3  3 3  3 3 3 
Coxeter diagram(s)  = 
Symmetry  p6m, [6,3], (*632) 
Rotation symmetry  p6, [6,3]^{+}, (632) p3, [3^{[3]}]^{+}, (333) 
Dual  Hexagonal tiling 
Properties  Vertextransitive, edgetransitive, facetransitive 
In geometry, the triangular tiling or triangular tessellation is one of the three regular tilings of the Euclidean plane, and is the only such tiling where the constituent shapes are not parallelogons. Because the internal angle of the equilateral triangle is 60 degrees, six triangles at a point occupy a full 360 degrees. The triangular tiling has Schläfli symbol of {3,6}.
Conway calls it a deltille, named from the triangular shape of the Greek letter delta (Δ). The triangular tiling can also be called a kishextille by a kis operation that adds a center point and triangles to replace the faces of a hextille.
It is one of three regular tilings of the plane. The other two are the square tiling and the hexagonal tiling.
There are 9 distinct uniform colorings of a triangular tiling. (Naming the colors by indices on the 6 triangles around a vertex: 111111, 111112, 111212, 111213, 111222, 112122, 121212, 121213, 121314) Three of them can be derived from others by repeating colors: 111212 and 111112 from 121213 by combining 1 and 3, while 111213 is reduced from 121314.^{[1]}
There is one class of Archimedean colorings, 111112, (marked with a *) which is not 1uniform, containing alternate rows of triangles where every third is colored. The example shown is 2uniform, but there are infinitely many such Archimedean colorings that can be created by arbitrary horizontal shifts of the rows.
111111  121212  111222  112122  111112(*) 
p6m (*632)  p3m1 (*333)  cmm (2*22)  p2 (2222)  p2 (2222) 
121213  111212  111112  121314  111213 
p31m (3*3)  p3 (333) 
The vertex arrangement of the triangular tiling is called an A_{2} lattice.^{[2]} It is the 2dimensional case of a simplectic honeycomb.
The A^{*}
_{2} lattice (also called A^{3}
_{2}) can be constructed by the union of all three A_{2} lattices, and equivalent to the A_{2} lattice.
The vertices of the triangular tiling are the centers of the densest possible circle packing.^{[3]} Every circle is in contact with 6 other circles in the packing (kissing number). The packing density is π⁄√12 or 90.69%. The voronoi cell of a triangular tiling is a hexagon, and so the voronoi tessellation, the hexagonal tiling, has a direct correspondence to the circle packings.
Triangular tilings can be made with the equivalent {3,6} topology as the regular tiling (6 triangles around every vertex). With identical faces (facetransitivity) and vertextransitivity, there are 5 variations. Symmetry given assumes all faces are the same color.^{[4]}
Scalene triangle
p2 symmetry
Scalene triangle
pmg symmetry
Isosceles triangle
cmm symmetry
Right triangle
cmm symmetry
Equilateral triangle
p6m symmetry
The planar tilings are related to polyhedra. Putting fewer triangles on a vertex leaves a gap and allows it to be folded into a pyramid. These can be expanded to Platonic solids: five, four and three triangles on a vertex define an icosahedron, octahedron, and tetrahedron respectively.
This tiling is topologically related as a part of sequence of regular polyhedra with Schläfli symbols {3,n}, continuing into the hyperbolic plane.
*n32 symmetry mutation of regular tilings: {3,n}  

Spherical  Euclid.  Compact hyper.  Paraco.  Noncompact hyperbolic  
3.3  3^{3}  3^{4}  3^{5}  3^{6}  3^{7}  3^{8}  3^{∞}  3^{12i}  3^{9i}  3^{6i}  3^{3i} 
It is also topologically related as a part of sequence of Catalan solids with face configuration Vn.6.6, and also continuing into the hyperbolic plane.
V3.6.6 
V4.6.6 
V5.6.6 
V6.6.6 
V7.6.6 
Like the uniform polyhedra there are eight uniform tilings that can be based from the regular hexagonal tiling (or the dual triangular tiling).
Drawing the tiles colored as red on the original faces, yellow at the original vertices, and blue along the original edges, there are 8 forms, 7 which are topologically distinct. (The truncated triangular tiling is topologically identical to the hexagonal tiling.)
Uniform hexagonal/triangular tilings  

Fundamental domains 
Symmetry: [6,3], (*632)  [6,3]^{+}, (632)  
{6,3}  t{6,3}  r{6,3}  t{3,6}  {3,6}  rr{6,3}  tr{6,3}  sr{6,3}  
Config.  6^{3}  3.12.12  (6.3)^{2}  6.6.6  3^{6}  3.4.6.4  4.6.12  3.3.3.3.6 
Triangular symmetry tilings  

Wythoff  3  3 3  3 3  3  3  3 3  3 3  3  3  3 3  3 3  3  3 3 3    3 3 3  
Coxeter  
Image Vertex figure 
(3.3)3 3.6.3.6 
(3.3)3 3.6.3.6 
(3.3)3 3.6.3.6 
6.6.6 
3.3.3.3.3.3 Related regular complex apeirogonsEdit There are 4 regular complex apeirogons, sharing the vertices of the triangular tiling. Regular complex apeirogons have vertices and edges, where edges can contain 2 or more vertices. Regular apeirogons p{q}r are constrained by: 1/p + 2/q + 1/r = 1. Edges have p vertices, and vertex figures are rgonal.^{[5]} The first is made of 2edges, and next two are triangular edges, and the last has overlapping hexagonal edges.
Other triangular tilingsEditThere are also three Laves tilings made of single type of triangles:
See alsoEdit
ReferencesEdit
External linksEdit
