Trichlorofluoromethane

Summary

Trichlorofluoromethane, also called freon-11, CFC-11, or R-11, is a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). It is a colorless, faintly ethereal, and sweetish-smelling liquid that boils around room temperature.[5] CFC-11 is a Class 1 ozone-depleting substance which damages Earth's protective stratospheric ozone layer.[6]

Trichlorofluoromethane
Trichlorofluoromethane-2D.svg
Trichlorofluoromethane-3D-vdW.png
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Trichloro(fluoro)methane
Other names
Trichlorofluoromethane
Fluorotrichloromethane
Fluorochloroform
Freon 11
CFC 11
R 11
Arcton 9
Freon 11A
Freon 11B
Freon HE
Freon MF
Identifiers
  • 75-69-4 checkY
3D model (JSmol)
  • Interactive image
  • Interactive image
ChEBI
  • CHEBI:48236 checkY
ChEMBL
  • ChEMBL348290 checkY
ChemSpider
  • 6149 checkY
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.812 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 200-892-3
  • 6389
RTECS number
  • PB6125000
UNII
  • 990TYB331R checkY
  • DTXSID5021384 Edit this at Wikidata
  • InChI=1S/CCl3F/c2-1(3,4)5 checkY
    Key: CYRMSUTZVYGINF-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  • InChI=1/CCl3F/c2-1(3,4)5
  • C(F)(Cl)(Cl)Cl
  • ClC(Cl)(Cl)F
Properties
CCl3F
Molar mass 137.36 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless liquid/gas
Odor nearly odorless[1]
Density 1.494 g/cm3
Melting point −110.48 °C (−166.86 °F; 162.67 K)
Boiling point 23.77 °C (74.79 °F; 296.92 K)
1.1 g/L (at 20 °C)
log P 2.53
Vapor pressure 89 kPa at 20 °C
131 kPa at 30 °C
Thermal conductivity 0.0079 W m−1 K−1 (gas at 300 K, ignoring pressure dependence)[2][verification needed]
Hazards
GHS labelling:[4]
GHS07: Exclamation mark
Warning
H420
P502
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
26,200 ppm (rat, 4 hr)
100,000 ppm (rat, 20 min)
100,000 ppm (rat, 2 hr)[3]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 1000 ppm (5600 mg/m3)[1]
REL (Recommended)
C 1000 ppm (5600 mg/m3)[1]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
2000 ppm[1]
Safety data sheet (SDS) ICSC 0047
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
checkY verify (what is checkY☒N ?)
Infobox references

Historical useEdit

Trichlorofluoromethane was first widely used as a refrigerant. Because of its high boiling point (compared to most refrigerants), it can be used in systems with a low operating pressure, making the mechanical design of such systems less demanding than that of higher-pressure refrigerants R-12 or R-22.

Trichlorofluoromethane is used as a reference compound for fluorine-19 NMR studies.

Trichlorofluoromethane was formerly used in the drinking bird novelty, largely because it has a boiling point of 23.77 °C (74.79 °F). The replacement, dichloromethane, boiling point 39.6 °C (103.3 °F), requires a higher ambient temperature to work.

Prior to the knowledge of the ozone depletion potential of chlorine in refrigerants and other possible harmful effects on the environment, trichlorofluoromethane was sometimes used as a cleaning/rinsing agent for low-pressure systems.[7]

Production moratoriumEdit

Trichlorofluoromethane was included in the production moratorium agreed in the Montreal Protocol of 1987. It is assigned an ozone depletion potential of 1.0, and U.S. production was ended on January 1, 1996.[6]

Regulatory challengesEdit

In 2018, the atmospheric concentration of CFC-11 was noted by researchers to be declining more slowly than expected,[8][9] and it subsequently emerged that it remains in widespread use as a blowing agent for polyurethane foam insulation in the construction industry of China.[10] In 2021 researchers announced that emissions declined by 20,000 U.S. tons from 2018 to 2019, which mostly reversed the previous spike in emissions.[11]

DangersEdit

R11, like most chlorofluoroalkanes, forms phosgene gas when exposed to a naked flame.[12]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0290". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  2. ^ Touloukian, Y.S., Liley, P.E., and Saxena, S.C. Thermophysical properties of matter - the TPRC data series. Volume 3. Thermal conductivity - nonmetallic liquids and gases. Data book. 1970.
  3. ^ "Fluorotrichloromethane". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  4. ^ Record in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
  5. ^ Siegemund, Günter; Schwertfeger, Werner; Feiring, Andrew; Smart, Bruce; Behr, Fred; Vogel, Herward; McKusick, Blaine (2002). "Fluorine Compounds, Organic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a11_349.
  6. ^ a b "International Treaties and Cooperation about the Protection of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 15 July 2015. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
  7. ^ "R-10 ,R-11 ,R-12 GASES - ملتقى التبريد والتكييف HVACafe". ملتقى التبريد والتكييف HVACafe (in Arabic). 2017-05-25. Retrieved 2018-05-18.
  8. ^ Montzka, S.A.; Dutton, G.S.; Yu, P.; et al. (2018). "An unexpected and persistent increase in global emissions of ozone-depleting CFC-11". Nature. Springer Nature. 557 (7705): 413–417. Bibcode:2018Natur.557..413M. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0106-2. hdl:1983/fd5eaf00-34b1-4689-9f23-410a54182b61. PMID 29769666. S2CID 21705434.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  9. ^ Johnson, Scott (5 May 2018). "It seems someone is producing a banned ozone-depleting chemical again". Ars Technica. Retrieved 18 October 2018. Decline of CFC-11 has slowed in recent years, pointing to a renewed source
  10. ^ McGrath, Matt (9 July 2018). "China 'home foam' gas key to ozone mystery". BBC News. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  11. ^ Jennifer Chu (2021-02-10). "Reductions in CFC-11 emissions put ozone recovery back on track". MIT News.
  12. ^ "False Alarms: The Legacy of Phosgene Gas". HVAC School. Retrieved 9 May 2022.

External linksEdit

  • CFC-11 NOAA/ESRL Global measurements
  • Public health goal for trichlorofluoromethane in drinking water
  • Names at webbook.nist.gov
  • Data sheet at speclab.com
  • International Chemical Safety Card 0047
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0290". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  • Phase change data at webbook.nist.gov
  • Thermochemistry data at chemnet.ru
  • ChemSub Online: Trichlorofluoromethane - CFC-11
  • materialsproject.org