Troyes (French pronunciation: [tʁwa] (listen)) is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in the Grand Est region of north-central France. It is located on the Seine river about 140 km (87 mi) south-east of Paris. Troyes is situated within the Champagne wine region and is near to the Orient Forest Regional Natural Park.
|Intercommunality||CA Troyes Champagne Métropole|
|• Mayor (2020–2026)||François Baroin (LR)|
|13.2 km2 (5.1 sq mi)|
|• Density||4,700/km2 (12,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|Elevation||100–126 m (328–413 ft) |
(avg. 118 m or 387 ft)
|1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.|
Troyes had a population of 61,996 inhabitants in 2018. It is the center of the agglomeration community Troyes Champagne Métropole, which was home to 170,145 inhabitants.
Troyes developed as early as the Roman era, when it was known as Augustobona Tricassium. It stood at the hub of numerous highways, primarily the Via Agrippa. The city has a rich historical past, from the Tricasses tribe to the liberation of the city on August 25, 1944 during the Second World War, including the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains, the Council of Troyes, the marriage of Henry V and Catherine of France, and the Champagne fairs to which merchants came from all over Christendom. The city has a rich architectural and urban heritage: many buildings are protected as historical monuments, including the half-timbered houses (mainly of the 16th century) that survived in the old town. They have contributed to Troyes being designated as a City of Art and History.
Manufacturing of textiles, developed from the 18th century onwards, was a chief part of Troyes' economy until the 1960s. Today, Troyes is the European capital of factory outlets and trading, and has three brand centers.
Prehistoric evidence has been found in the Troyes area, suggesting that the settlement may have developed as early as 600 BC. Celtic grave-mounds have been found near the city, and Celtic artifacts have been excavated within the City grounds.
In the Roman era, it was known as Augustobona Tricassium. Numerous highways intersected here, primarily the Via Agrippa, which led north to Reims and south to Langres, and eventually to Milan. Other Roman routes from Troyes led to Poitiers, Autun and Orléans.
It was the civitas of the Tricasses people, who had been separated by Augustus from the Senones. Of the Gallo-Roman city of the early Empire, some scattered remains have been found, but no public monuments, other than traces of an aqueduct. By the Late Empire the settlement was reduced in extent. It was referred to as Tricassium or Tricassae, the origin of French Troyes.
From the fourth century AD, the people had become Christian and the city was designated as the seat of a bishop. The legend of its bishop Lupus (Loup), who saved the city from Attila by offering himself as hostage, is hagiographic rather than historical. It was several centuries before Troyes gained importance as a medieval centre of commerce.
The early cathedral occupied the site of the current one. Here Louis the Stammerer in 878 received the imperial crown from Pope John VIII. At the end of the ninth century, following depredations to the city by Normans, the counts of Champagne chose Troyes as their capital. It remained the capital of the Province of Champagne until the Revolution of the late eighteenth century. The Abbey of Saint-Loup developed a renowned library and scriptorium.
During the Middle Ages, Troyes was an important international trading town. It was the namesake of troy weight for gold a standard of measurement developed here. The Champagne cloth fairs and the revival of long-distance trade, together with new extension of coinage and credit, were the drivers of the medieval economy of Troyes.
In 1285, when Philip the Fair united Champagne to the royal domain, the town kept a number of its traditional privileges. John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and ally of the English, in 1417 worked to have Troyes designated as the capital of France. He came to an understanding with Isabeau of Bavaria, wife of Charles VI of France, that a court, council, and parlement with comptroller's offices should be established at Troyes.
On 21 May 1420, the Treaty of Troyes was signed in this city, still under control of the Burgundians, by which Henry V of England was betrothed to Catherine, daughter of Charles VI. Under the terms of the treaty, Henry V was to succeed Charles, to the detriment of the Dauphin. The high-water mark of Plantagenet hegemony in France was reversed when the Dauphin, afterwards Charles VII, and Joan of Arc recovered the town of Troyes in 1429 for French control by armed conflict (Siege of Troyes).
The great fire of 1524 destroyed much of the medieval city, although the city had numerous canals separating sections.
Not having suffered from the last wars, Troyes has a high density of old religious buildings grouped close to the city centre. They include:
Several Troyes churches have sculpture by The Maitre de Chaource.
|Climate data for Troyes (1981–2010 averages)|
|Record high °C (°F)||16.2
|Average high °C (°F)||6.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−0.1
|Record low °C (°F)||−23.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||50.5
|Average precipitation days||10.6||9.2||10.5||9.5||10.5||9.3||7.6||7.7||8.2||9.7||10.3||11.3||114.5|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||68.6||88.3||143.8||184.8||215.0||229.4||235.5||228.2||179.2||123.6||66.6||53.6||1,816.4|
|Source: Météo France|
The inhabitants of the commune are called Troyens.
|Source: EHESS and INSEE (1968-2017)|
The train station Gare de Troyes offers connections to Paris, Dijon, Mulhouse and several regional destinations. Troyes is at the junction of motorways A5 (Paris – Troyes – Langres) and A26 (Calais – Reims – Troyes). Troyes – Barberey Airport is a small regional airport.