USA-135

Summary

USA-135
NamesNavstar 2A-19
GPS IIA-19
GPS II-28
GPS SVN-38
Mission typeNavigation
OperatorU.S. Air Force
COSPAR ID1997-067A [1]
SATCAT no.25030
Mission duration7.5 years (planned)
16.8 years (achieved)
Spacecraft properties
SpacecraftGPS IIA
Spacecraft typeGPS Block IIA [2]
ManufacturerRockwell International
Launch mass840 kg (1,850 lb)
Dimensions5.3 m (17 ft) of long
Power710 watts
Start of mission
Launch date6 November 1997, 00:30:00 UTC
RocketDelta II 7925-9.5
(Delta D249)
Launch siteCape Canaveral, LC-17A
ContractorMcDonnell Douglas
Entered service13 December 1997
End of mission
DisposalGraveyard orbit
Deactivated30 October 2014
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric orbit [3]
RegimeMedium Earth orbit
(Semi-synchronous)
SlotA3 (slot 3 plane A)
Perigee altitude19,923 km (12,380 mi)
Apogee altitude20,644 km (12,828 mi)
Inclination54.90°
Period722.00 minutes
← USA-132 (GPS IIR-2)
USA-145 (GPS IIR-3) →
 

USA-135, also known as GPS IIA-19, GPS II-28 and GPS SVN-38, is an American navigation satellite which forms part of the Global Positioning System. It was the last of nineteen Block IIA GPS satellites to be launched.

Background

Global Positioning System (GPS) was developed by the U.S. Department of Defense to provide all-weather round-the-clock navigation capabilities for military ground, sea, and air forces. Since its implementation, GPS has also become an integral asset in numerous civilian applications and industries around the globe, including recreational used (e.g., boating, aircraft, hiking), corporate vehicle fleet tracking, and surveying. GPS employs 24 spacecraft in 20,200 km circular orbits inclined at 55.0°. These vehicles are placed in 6 orbit planes with four operational satellites in each plane.[1]

GPS Block 2 was the operational system, following the demonstration system composed of Block 1 (Navstar 1 - 11) spacecraft. These spacecraft were 3-axis stabilized, nadir pointing using reaction wheels. Dual solar arrays supplied 710 watts of power. They used S-band (SGLS) communications for control and telemetry and Ultra high frequency (UHF) cross-link between spacecraft. The payload consisted of two L-band navigation signals at 1575.42 MHz (L1) and 1227.60 MHz (L2). Each spacecraft carried 2 rubidium and 2 Cesium clocks and nuclear detonation detection sensors. Built by Rockwell Space Systems for the U.S. Air force, the spacecraft measured 5.3 m across with solar panels deployed and had a design life of 7.5 years.[1]

Launch

USA-135 was launched at 00:30:00 UTC on 6 November 1997, atop a Delta II launch vehicle, flight number D249, flying in the 7925-9.5 configuration.[4] The launch took place from Launch Complex 17A (LC-17A) at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS),[5] and placed USA-135 into a transfer orbit. The satellite raised itself into medium Earth orbit using a Star-37XFP apogee motor.[2]

Mission

On 13 December 1997, USA-135 was in an orbit with a perigee of 19,923 km (12,380 mi), an apogee of 20,644 km (12,828 mi), a period of 722.00 minutes, and 54.90° of inclination to the equator.[3] It broadcasts the PRN 08 signal, and operates in slot 3 of plane A of the GPS constellation.[6] The satellite has a mass of 840 kg (1,850 lb). It had a design life of 7.5 years,[2] but it actually remained in service until 30 October 2014.

References

  1. ^ a b c "Display: Navstar 38 1997-067A". NASA. Retrieved 21 December 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ a b c Krebs, Gunter. "GPS-2A (Navstar-2A)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  3. ^ a b "Trajectory: Navstar 38 1997-067A". NASA. Retrieved 21 December 2020. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Report. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  5. ^ McDowell, Jonathan. "Launch List". Launch Vehicle Database. Jonathan's Space Report. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  6. ^ Wade, Mark. "Navstar". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 10 July 2012.