Unenlagiines
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 94–70 Ma
Unenlagiinae.jpg
Many genera of the family
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
Family: Dromaeosauridae
Subfamily: Unenlagiinae
Bonaparte, 1999
Type species
Unenlagia comahuensis
Novas & Puerta, 1997
Genera

Unenlagiinae is a subfamily of dromaeosaurid theropods. Unenlagiines are known from South America and Antarctica.[1]

Description

Buitreraptor skeleton
Austroraptor preying on fish, depicting a piscivore life-style

Most unenlagiines have been discovered in Argentina. The largest was Austroraptor, which measured up to 5–6 m (16.4–19.7 ft) in length, making it also one of the largest dromaeosaurids.[2] The subfamily is distinguished from other dromaeosaurids by a tail stiffened by lengthy chevrons and superior processes, sharp articulate claws, and a posteriorly oriented pubis.[citation needed] Their distinct anatomy from Laurasian dromaeosaurids was likely a consequence of the breakup of Pangaea into Gondwana and Laurasia, where the geological isolation of unenlagiines from their relatives resulted in allopatric speciation.[3]

Classification

During the description of Halszkaraptor in 2017, Cau et al. published a phylogenetic analysis of the Dromaeosauridae, in which, members of the Unenlagiinae are classified as:[4]

Unenlagiinae

Austroraptor

Buitreraptor

Unenlagia comahuensis

Unenlagia paynemili

Neuquenraptor

In 2019, during the description of Hesperornithoides, many Paravian groups were examinated for the inclusion of this new genus, including the Unenlagiinae. The analysis ended in the inclusion of Rahonavis, Pyroraptor, Dakotaraptor and Ornithodesmus to the Unenlagiinae, the last one is unranked.[5]

Unenlagiinae

Austroraptor

Buitreraptor

Pyroraptor

Pamparaptor

Rahonavis

Dakotaraptor

Unenlagia

See also

References

  1. ^ "Unenlagiinae". Paleobiology Database. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
  2. ^ Orozco, José (December 17, 2008). ""Bizarre" New Dinosaur: Giant Raptor Found in Argentina". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  3. ^ GIANECHINI, FEDERICO A. (2011). "Unenlagiinae revisited: dromaeosaurid theropods from South America" (PDF). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências (in English and Spanish). Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina: Brazilian Academy of Sciences. 83 (1): 163–195. doi:10.1590/s0001-37652011000100009. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  4. ^ Cau, A.; Beyrand, V.; Voeten, D.; Fernandez, V.; Tafforeau, P.; Stein, K.; Barsbold, R.; Tsogtbaatar, K.; Currie, P.; Godrfroit, P. (6 December 2017). "Synchrotron scanning reveals amphibious ecomorphology in a new clade of bird-like dinosaurs". Nature. 552 (7685): 395–399. Bibcode:2017Natur.552..395C. doi:10.1038/nature24679. PMID 29211712.
  5. ^ Hartman, Scott; Mortimer, Mickey; Wahl, William R.; Lomax, Dean R.; Lippincott, Jessica; Lovelace, David M. (2019). "A new paravian dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of North America supports a late acquisition of avian flight". PeerJ. 7: e7247. doi:10.7717/peerj.7247. PMC 6626525. PMID 31333906.