United States military deployments

Summary

The military of the United States is deployed in most countries around the world, with between 150,000 to 200,000 of its active-duty personnel stationed outside the United States and its territories.[1] This list consists of deployments excepting active combat deployments, which consist of troops in Iraq[2] and Syria.[3] The exact number of these troops is currently in flux due to troop withdrawals.[4][5]

Outside of active combat, US personnel are typically deployed as part of several peacekeeping missions, military attachés, or are part of embassy and consulate security. Nearly 40,000 are assigned to classified missions in locations that the US government refuses to disclose.[6]

Current deployments

The following regional tables provide detail of where personnel from the five major branches of the US military are currently deployed. These numbers do not include any military or civilian contractors or dependents. Additionally, countries in which US military are engaged in active combat operations are not included. The numbers are based on the most recent United States Department of Defense statistics as of September 30, 2021.[1]

Americas

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 United States
(excl. Alaska & Hawaii)
1,132,549 400,948 293,658 140,881 261,091 35,971
 Alaska 20,715 10,193 43 25 8,673 1,781
Guantanamo Bay 629 156 435 32 6
 Honduras 372 209 2 17 143 1
 Puerto Rico 161 86 31 22 22
 Canada 143 12 36 14 76 5
 Greenland 140 140
 Mexico 79 10 5 56 5 3
 Colombia 65 28 17 18 2
 Bahamas 61 1 41 8 11
other 442 79 98 202 49 14
Total 1,155,356 411,722 294,349 141,274 270,217 37,794

East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Pacific Ocean

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Japan 56,010 2,519 20,739 19,815 12,917 20
 Hawaii 41,815 15,493 12,571 6,940 5,534 1,277
South Korea 25,593 16,994 356 211 8,031 1
 Guam 6,273 211 3,764 133 2,165
 Australia 1,768 32 66 1,591 78 1
 Singapore 187 10 149 8 16 4
 Philippines 126 11 9 97 8 1
 Palau 111 111
 Thailand 99 30 11 36 22
other 296 55 33 178 26 4
Total 132,278 35,355 37,698 29,120 28,797 1,308

Europe

US military bases in Germany in 2014
Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Germany 35,468 21,585 431 432 13,009 11
 Italy 12,436 4,081 3,497 114 4,742 2
United Kingdom 9,576 164 273 52 9,074 13
 Spain 3,234 26 2,578 246 383 1
 Belgium 1,143 627 92 38 386
 Greece 429 6 368 29 26
 Netherlands 422 130 31 15 216 30
 Portugal 259 4 50 19 186
 Poland 167 44 83 9 31
 Romania 132 17 93 9 13
 Norway 81 22 10 16 33
 Hungary 77 7 3 6 61
 France 75 22 18 17 18
other 429 65 37 271 51 5
Total 63,928 26,800 7,564 1,273 28,229 62

West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, and Indian Ocean

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
 Bahrain 4,031 17 3,237 384 20 373
 Kuwait 2,614 633 3 1,938 40
 Turkey 1,753 169 5 29 1,550
 Saudi Arabia 1,396 206 21 1,095 64 10
 Qatar 487 190 3 83 211
 Egypt 292 237 7 26 22
Diego Garcia 223 223
United Arab Emirates 200 29 21 70 80
 Israel 106 59 6 28 13
 Kenya 97 17 4 69 7
 Jordan 88 48 2 24 14
 Djibouti 68 3 2 61 2
 Pakistan 67 6 2 53 6
other 916 146 61 627 82
Total 12,338 1,760 3,597 4,487 2,111 383

Unspecified

Jurisdiction Total Army Navy USMC USAF USCG
Domestic
(50 states and District of Columbia)
6,136 6,135 1
Overseas
(incl. unincorporated US territories)
5,890 235 15 3,523 1,177 940
Total 12,026 6,370 15 3,524 1,177 940

Analysis

Effects of Military Deployments on Host Economy and Community

The stated benefits of hosting a US military base, especially for underdeveloped countries, include learning new marketing strategies, development of modern technology found in the US, and increased security from the presence of a large-scale military. Moreover, the initial creation of the base creates brief economic growth as materials are purchased from the local markets, and construction jobs are out-sourced to the local residents.[7] One year, 2005, upwards of 80,000 locals were employed by US bases in foreign countries.[8] As long as it is not central to the US global defense, and thus the US does not have a strong incentive to stay under the presence of human rights violations, the host state may also show increased respect for human rights.[9]

The negative effects include relocation of and violence against native residents, which may also lead to destruction of local government; negative environmental impacts including the destruction of native landscape; and economic dependence created by the newly implemented marketing strategies and technology.[10] The presence of US military can also have direct effects on increase in prostitution and sex-trafficking, because of the greater demand for adult entertainment created through the surge of mainly male residents in these areas.[11] Moreover, the significant physical space taken up by the base could instead be used for schools, businesses or housing amenities which can support the local economy and increase skilled workers.[12]

Effects of Military Deployments on the United States

In addition to impacts on the host country, there are also many impacts of military deployments on military families. In the United States, about 1.4 million children have a parent in the military.[13] In many studies of military deployments, it is proven that there are negative impacts on not only the soldier, but also the military spouse and children. Military deployments are associated with higher suicide rates, behavioral problems in children, and a higher risk of divorce.[14] In a study of 1,507 children aged 11–17 with a deployed parent, it was found that these children had more emotional difficulties than children in national samples.[15]

Veteran families may experience conflict from actions or feelings of withdrawal, numbing, and irritability that are caused by post-traumatic stress disorder. Generally, these families also struggle with role ambiguity from the parent or partner that was deployed, due to anxiety and/or post-traumatic stress disorder.[16]

Impact on Childhood Development

Notably, the number of spouses/partners and children of deployed military personnel far outnumber the actual number of service members. These families must navigate long or extended deployment separations, relocations, destruction of familial routines or role changes, and the threat posed against their loved one. This combined with contextual factors, such as living arrangements during deployment, stress levels of the parent who remains home, and frequency of contact with the deployed parent can positively or adversely impact the family members, and lead to increased rate of mental health issues, work/academic issues, internal familial conflict, or maltreatment. These stressors pose a significant threat to the development of the children, depending on how old they are when they occur. For instance, young children may not fully understand the implications and threats posed on their loved one during deployment, but their definite absence in an indefinite amount of time can be highly stressful.

Children under five experience the most significant physical, emotional, and cognitive advancements because this occurs during this first five years of life, and they also make up the largest group of children with deployed service members (i.e., parents). Children above three with a deployed parent, are more likely to display behavior problems, such as need for attention, clinginess, temper tantrums, questions regarding deployed parents, defiance, appetite changes, and sleep problems or nightmares.

Elementary school-aged children may also be hindered by their limited coping/problem-solving skills regarding their parent's absence. Middle school-aged children may be more heavily impacted due to pubertal transitions and elicited questions or increased responsibilities to help out at home. Within this age group, significant levels of anxiety, both separation anxiety and physical symptoms, were found, and a study of five- to twelve-year-olds showed that one-third was in high-risk range for “psychosocial morbidity”, according to the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Acute stress reaction/adjustments, mood, and behavioral disorders are also common.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Number of Military and DoD Appropriated Fund (APF) Civilian Personnel Permanently Assigned By Duty Location and Service/Component (as of September 30, 2021)". Defense Manpower Data Center. November 17, 2021.
  2. ^ "United States formally announces troop reduction in Iraq". Al Jazeera. September 9, 2020.
  3. ^ Bo Williams, Katie (November 2, 2020). "Outgoing Syria Envoy Admits Hiding US Troop Numbers; Praises Trump's Mideast Record". Defense One.
  4. ^ Brannen, Kate; Goodman, Ryan (October 7, 2020). "We're suing the Pentagon to find out where U.S. troops are deployed". The Washington Post.
  5. ^ "'Endless Wars,' Here's Where About 200,000 Troops Remain". The New York Times. October 21, 2019.
  6. ^ "America's Forever wars". The New York Times. 23 October 2017.
  7. ^ "U.S. Military Deployment and Host-Nation Economic Growth". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  8. ^ Johnson, Chalmers A.; Chalmers, Johnson (2007). Nemesis: The Last Days of the American Republic. Scribe Publications. ISBN 978-1-921215-76-6.
  9. ^ Bell, Sam R.; Clay, K. Chad; Martinez Machain, Carla (2017). "The Effect of US Troop Deployments on Human Rights". Journal of Conflict Resolution. 61 (10): 2020–2042. doi:10.1177/0022002716632300. S2CID 156333176. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  10. ^ MacLeish, Kenneth T. (2010). "The Bases of Empire: The Global Struggle against U.S. Military Posts edited by Catherine Lutz". American Ethnologist. 37 (2): 385–386. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1425.2010.01262_5.x. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  11. ^ Allen, Michael A; Flynn, Michael E (2013). "Putting our best boots forward: US military deployments and host-country crime". Conflict Management and Peace Science. 30 (3): 263–285. doi:10.1177/0738894213484055. ISSN 0738-8942. JSTOR 26275359. S2CID 41077614.
  12. ^ author., Vines, David, Base nation : how U.S. military bases abroad harm America and the world, ISBN 978-1-4945-6541-1, OCLC 956554400, retrieved 2021-03-05 {{citation}}: |last= has generic name (help)
  13. ^ a b Alfano, Candice A.; Lau, Simon; Balderas, Jessica; Bunnell, Brian E.; Beidel, Deborah C. (February 2016). "The impact of military deployment on children: Placing developmental risk in context". Clinical Psychology Review. 43: 17–29. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.11.003. ISSN 0272-7358. PMID 26655960.
  14. ^ Schell, Terry L.; Griffin, Beth Ann; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Friedman, Esther M.; Trail, Thomas E.; Beckman, Robin L.; Ramchand, Rajeev; Hengstebeck, Natalie; Troxel, Wendy M.; Ayer, Lynsay; Vaughan, Christine Anne (2016-04-15). "How Military Families Respond Before, During and After Deployment: Findings from the RAND Deployment Life Study". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ Creech, Suzannah K.; Hadley, Wendy; Borsari, Brian (December 2014). "The Impact of Military Deployment and Reintegration on Children and Parenting: A Systematic Review". Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 45 (6): 452–464. doi:10.1037/a0035055. ISSN 0735-7028. PMC 4383395. PMID 25844014.
  16. ^ McFarlane, Alexander (July 2009). "Military deployment: the impact on children and family adjustment and the need for care". Current Opinion in Psychiatry. 22 (4): 369–73. doi:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32832c9064. PMID 19424067. S2CID 33825488 – via Lippincott Research.

Further reading

  • Machain, Carla Martinez; Allen, Michael A.; Flynn, Michael E. "Why does the US pay so much for the defense of its allies? 5 questions answered". The Conversation. Retrieved 2021-07-28.
  • Allen, Michael A; Flynn, Michael E; Martinez Machain, Carla (2021). "US global military deployments, 1950–2020*". Conflict Management and Peace Science. doi:10.1177/07388942211030885. ISSN 0738-8942. S2CID 237722626.
  • Base Structure Report – Fiscal Year 2018 Baseline (PDF, 2.38MB) (Report). U.S. Department of Defense.