Vanadyl nitrate


Vanadyl nitrate, also called vanadium oxytrinitrate or vanadium oxynitrate is an inorganic compound of vanadium in the +5 oxidation state with nitrate ligands and oxygen. The formula is VO(NO3)3. It is a pale yellow viscous liquid.[2]

Vanadyl nitrate
Other names
  • 16017-37-1 ☒N
3D model (JSmol)
  • Interactive image
  • 67496691 ☒N
  • 135096579
  • InChI=1S/3NO3.O.V/c3*2-1(3)4;;/q3*-1;;+3
  • [V](O[N+]([O-])=O)(O[N+]([O-])=O)(O[N+]([O-])=O)=O
Molar mass 252.953 g/mol
Appearance yellow liquid.
Melting point 2 °C (36 °F; 275 K)[1]
Boiling point 86 to 91 °C (187 to 196 °F; 359 to 364 K) at 0.7mm Hg
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
Related compounds
Related compounds
titanium nitrate, vanadyl perchlorate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references


It is made by soaking vanadium pentoxide in liquid dinitrogen pentoxide for durations around two days at room temperature. The yield for this method is about 85%.[3]

V2O5 + 3 N2O5 → 2 VO(NO3)3.

Purification can be achieved by vacuum distillation.[3]

Mononitratodioxovanadium (VO2NO3) is an intermediate in this synthesis. It is a brick red solid.[4][5]

Vanadyl nitrate can also be made from vanadyl trichloride VOCl3 and dinitrogen pentoxide.[6]


VO(NO3)3 has a distorted pentagonal bipyramid shape with idealized Cs (mirror) symmetry. The vanadium oxygen bond (157.2 pm) is typical for vanadyl(V). Two nitrate groups in the pentagonal plane are bidentate (V-O distances range from 199 to 206 pm). The third nitrate spans the pentagonal plane (197 pm) to the position trans to oxo (223 pm).[7][8]


Vanadyl nitrate dissolves in dichloromethane, nitromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and saturated hydrocarbons.[1] 1-Hexene, or other unsaturated hydrocarbons ignite upon contact with vanadyl nitrate.[3][9] Upon contact with water, it irreversibly hydrolyzes, releasing nitric acid.[3] Nitric acid is formed as a result of the reaction with water.[10]

The ultraviolet spectrum of the liquid shows an absorption band peaking at 208 nm with a shoulder at 242 nm. At 55 °C the gaseous vanadyl nitrate has absorption bands also at 486, 582 and 658 nm in the visual light spectrum.[10] in the infrared region, liquid vanadyl nitrate absorbs at 1880, 1633, 1612, 1560, 1306, 1205, 1016, 996, 965, 895, 783, 632, 457, 357, 301, 283, 234, 193, 133, 93 and 59 cm−1.[10] Gaseous vanadyl nitrate has absorption bands at 775, 783, 786, 962.5, 994.4, 997.5, 1000.5, 1006.2, 1012, 1016.3, 1020, 1198, 1211, 1216.3, 1564, 1612, 1629, 1632, 1635, 1648 and 1888 cm−1.[2] Many of these bands are due to stretching in nitrogen–oxygen bonds, but 1016.3 cm−1 is due to the double vanadium–oxygen bond. 786 is due to out of phase wagging in N-O, and 775 is due to deformation in O-N=O in the mirror plane.[2]


It is a nitrating agent for aromatic compounds. Reactions proceed at room temperature. Often dichloromethane is used as an inert solvent.[1] Nitrotoluene, methyl benzoate and benzoic acid are nitrated by prolonged exposure over a few days.[1] Benzonitrile does not react.[1] [11]

Vanadyl nitrate form a solid pale yellow adduct with boron trifluoride.[3] An adduct is also formed with acetonitrile.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f Dove, Michael F. A.; Berthold Manz; John Montgomery; Gerald Pattenden; Simon A. Wood (1998). "Vanadium(V) oxytrinitrate, VO(NO3)3. A powerful reagent for the nitration of aromatic compounds at room temperature under non-acidic conditions". Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 1 (10): 1589–1590. doi:10.1039/A801771I. ISSN 0300-922X.
  2. ^ a b c Brandán, Silvia A.; C. Socolsky; Aida Ben Altabef (2009). "DFT Calculations of the Molecular Force Field of Vanadyl Nitrate, VO(NO3)3". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie. 635 (3): 582–592. doi:10.1002/zaac.200801244. ISSN 0044-2313.
  3. ^ a b c d e Harris, Arlo D.; John C. Trebellas (26 April 1962). "AD296097 Experimental Studies of the Reactions of N2O5 with Metal Acid Anhydrides and BF3". Arlington Hall Station: Armed Services Technical Information Agency. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  4. ^ Cotton, F. Albert; Wilkinson, Geoffrey (1966). Advanced Inorganic Chemistry A Comprehensive Text (5 ed.). John Wiley. p. 814.
  5. ^ Pantonin, John A.; Albert K. Fischer; Edward A. Heintz (1960). "The preparation of mononitratodioxovanadium(V), VO2NO3". Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry. 14 (1–2): 145–147. doi:10.1016/0022-1902(60)80220-5. ISSN 0022-1902.
  6. ^ Schmeisser, Martin (1955). "Die Chemie der anorganischen Acylnitrate (ein Problem des Nitrylchlorids) und Acylperchlorate (ein Problem des Dichlorhexoxyds)". Angewandte Chemie (in German). 67 (17–18): 493–501. doi:10.1002/ange.19550671708. ISSN 0044-8249.
  7. ^ Smart, Bruce A.; Heather E. Robertson; David W. H. Rankin; Eric G. Hope; Colin J. Marsden (1999). "What is the coordination number of vanadium in vanadyl nitrate, VO(NO3)3? A Study of its Molecular Structure in the Gas Phase by Electron Diffraction and ab initio calculations". Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions (3): 473–478. doi:10.1039/A806710D. ISSN 0300-9246. (free download)
  8. ^ Davidson, G. (2000-01-01). Spectroscopic Properties of Inorganic and Organometallic Compounds. Royal Society of Chemistry. pp. 516–517. ISBN 9780854044269. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  9. ^ Fedoroff, Basil T; Sheffield, Oliver E. Encyclopedia of Explosives and Related Items Vol 10 of 10- U to Z. Vol. 10. p. V4.
  10. ^ a b c Brandán, S.A.; A. Ben Altabef, E.L. Varetti; Varetti, E. L. (1995). "Vibrational and electronic spectra of vanadyl nitrate, VO(NO3)3". Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 51 (4): 669–675. Bibcode:1995AcSpA..51..669B. doi:10.1016/0584-8539(94)00154-4. ISSN 1386-1425.
  11. ^ Aitken, R. Alan; Alajarin, Mateo; Allen, D. W.; Mikael Begtrup; Daniel Bellus; J. Berna-Canovas; H. Boeckemeier; Stefan Bräse; I.R. Butler; Jose Chiara; Henri-J. Cristau; I. Gorrell; D. Keck; Terence Kee; Carmen Lopez-Leonardo; T. Muller; Patrick J. Murphy; Patrick O'Leary; Beate Priewisch; L.K. Rasmussen; Karola Rück-Braun; Bjoern Schlummer; Andreas Schmidt; Paul James Stevenson; J.C. Tebby; David Virieux (2014-05-14). Science of Synthesis: Houben-Weyl Methods of Molecular Transformations Vol. 31b: Arene-X (X=N, P). Georg Thieme Verlag. p. 1215. ISBN 9783131720719. Retrieved 29 September 2014.

Other readingEdit

  • Gmelin, Syst No 48, Teil A & Teil B (Lieferung 1 & 2) (1967); Teil A (Lieferung 1) & Teil A (Lieferung 2) (1968);& Erganzungwerk (Band2)(1971)
  • M. Schmeisser, "Chemical Abstracts", (1955), 49, 10873
  • L. Bretherick, Ed, "Hazards in the Chemical Laboratory", Royal Society of Chemistry, London, Engl (1979), pg. 1160