|• Mayor||Daniel Panov (GERB)|
|• Town||30.379 km2 (11.729 sq mi)|
|• Urban||885.3 km2 (341.8 sq mi)|
|Elevation||220 m (720 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново, romanized: Veliko Tǎrnovo, pronounced [vɛˈliko ˈtɤrnovo]; "Great Tarnovo") is a town in north central Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province.
Often referred as the "City of the Tsars", Veliko Tarnovo is located on the Yantra River and is famously known as the historical capital of the Second Bulgarian Kingdom, attracting many tourists with its unique architecture. The old part of the town is situated on three hills, Tsarevets, Trapezitsa, and Sveta Gora, rising amidst the meanders of the Yantra. On Tsarevets are the palaces of the Bulgarian emperors and the Patriarchate, the Patriarchal Cathedral, and also a number of administrative and residential edifices surrounded by thick walls.
Trapezitsa is known for its many churches and as the former main residence of the nobility. During the Middle Ages, the town was among the main European centres of culture and gave its name to the architecture of the Tarnovo Artistic School, painting of the Tarnovo Artistic School, and to literature. Veliko Tarnovo is an important administrative, economic, educational, and cultural centre of Northern Bulgaria.
The most widespread theory for the name's origin holds that its original names of Tarnovgrad (Търновград) and Tarnovo (Търново) come from the Old Bulgarian тръневъ (tranev) or тръновъ (tranov), meaning "thorny". The suffix "grad" means "city" in Bulgarian and in many Slavic languages. In 1965, the word велико (veliko), meaning "great", was added to the original name in honour of the town's status as an old capital of Bulgaria. This also helps distinguish it from the town of Malko Tarnovo. In Ottoman Turkish, it was called طرنوه (Modern Turkish: Tırnova).
Veliko Tarnovo has an area of 60.9 km². The area which is assigned to the town is 30.379 km². It is located on the river Yantra. The town has always had a strategic position. It is located on main roads which connect West Balkans with Black sea and East Europe with Middle East. In the East and North-East the town borders with the Arbanassi Bardo. North – with the Orlovets locality, to the west with the Kozludzha locality and to the south with the area Dalga laka.
The relief of the Municipality of Veliko Tarnovo is diverse – plain-hilly and mountainous. It is situated at 208 m above sea level.
The water catchment area of the river Yantra is 7862 km². There are several springs in the area of the town. The main drinking source is the Yovkovtsi hydro power plant.
There are places around the town that keep their names for many years. Sini Vir is located to the west of the Cholakovtsi neighborhood in the Yantra River valley outside the town. Dervent is located in the Yantra River Gorge, near the Preobrazhenie Monastery. The Hill Golemyat duvar(Big Fort) with the highest peak 363 m. It is located between Veliko Tarnovo and the village Prisovo.
Veliko Tarnovo is situated on several hills. The Tsarevets, Trapezitsa, Momina krepost were the main centers of kings and boyars during the Second Bulgarian State, when the town was a capital. Sveta Gora (Holy Mountain) hill was a spiritual and literary center, and part of the today's Rectorate of Veliko Tarnovo University. The Garga Bair hill lies north of Trapezitsa. On the Orlovets hill are the Varusha neighborhood and the Akatsion and Kartala districts, the highest point is 241 m above sea level. The Troshana Hill is located south of Sveta Gora and west of the Motela dam, and Veliko Tarnovo Hills is being built on it.
Veliko Tarnovo has a humid continental climate (Dfa), according to the Köppen climate classification, experiencing warm summers and cold, snowy winters. The average minimum temperature in the coldest month, January, is about −7 °C (19 °F), while the average maximum in August, the hottest month 30 °C (86 °F). The highest recorded temperature was 41.1 °C (106 °F), while the lowest was −28.1 °C (−19 °F).
|Climate data for Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria (1961–1990, records 1926–1970)|
|Record high °C (°F)||20.4
|Average high °C (°F)||2.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−2.3
|Average low °C (°F)||−6.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−20.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||48
Flora and fauna
The deciduous forests (88%) predominate in Veliko Tarnovo – beech, hornbeam, oak, cherry, lime, poplar, etc. There are woods of coniferous vegetation. They predominate fir tree, Pine, Abies grandis, Scots pine, Abies pinsapo and other. Near the river, the springs and the marshlands are seen: Green algae, Diatom and others. Over 25 types of mushrooms are encountered: Boletus edulis, Agaricus campestris, Macrolepiota procera, Chanterelle and others.
The territory of the region has a rich variety of the animal world – 350 species of birds and 35 species of animals. Mammals include Hare, Fox, Deer, Wild boar, Hedgehogs, European ground squirrel. Birds include: Grey partridge, Crow, Common quail, Pheasant, White stork, Eurasian eagle-owl, Goose and others. Over 180 species of insects are encountered: Cockchafer, Grasshopper, Firefly and others. There are also reptiles: Turtles, Snakes, Lizards and others. Local fish include Wels catfish, European perch, Common carp, Common barbel.
Prehistory and antiquity
Veliko Tarnovo is one of the oldest settlements in Bulgaria, with a history of more than five millennia. The first traces of human presence, dating from the 3rd millennium BC, were discovered on Trapezitsa Hill.
Medieval Bulgarian rule
Veliko Tarnovo, originally Tarnovgrad (Търновград), grew quickly to become the strongest Bulgarian fortification and most prosperous city during the second half of the High and the Late Middle Ages and also most important political, economic, cultural and religious centre of the empire. In the 14th century, the city was described by Bulgarian cleric Gregory Tsamblak as "a very large city, handsome and surrounded by walls, with 12,000 to 15,000 inhabitants"., the fortress of Tsarevets being primary fortress and strongest bulwark from 1185 to 1393, housing the royal and the patriarchal palaces.
As the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire, Tarnovo was a quasi-cosmopolitan city, with many foreign merchants and envoys. Tarnovo is known to have had Armenian, Jewish and Roman Catholic ("Frankish") merchant quarters, besides a dominant Bulgarian population. The discovery of three Gothic heads of statuettes indicates there may have also been a Catholic church.
The political upsurge and spiritual development of Tarnovo were halted when the Ottoman Empire captured the city on 17 July 1393. The siege lasted for three months, with the Bulgarian Patriarch Evtimiy leading the defence. Three years later, the Ottomans conquered the entire Bulgarian Empire.
Bulgarian resistance against Ottoman rule remained centred in Tarnovo (then known as Tırnova) until the end of the 17th century. Two major anti-Ottoman uprisings – in 1598 and in 1686 – started in the city. Tarnovo was consecutively a district (sanjak) capital in the Rumelia Eyalet, in the Silistria Eyalet, and finally in the Danube Vilayet.
Tarnovgrad, along with the rest of present-day Bulgaria, remained under Ottoman rule until the 19th century, when national identity and culture reasserted themselves as a strengthening resistance movement. The goal of the establishment of an independent Bulgarian church and nation motivated the 1875 and 1876 uprisings in the city. On 23 April 1876, the April uprising marked the beginning of the end of the Ottoman occupation. It was soon followed by the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878).
Third Bulgarian State
On 7 July 1877, Russian general Joseph Vladimirovich Gourko liberated Veliko Tarnovo, ending the 480-year rule of the Ottoman Empire. In 1878, the Treaty of Berlin created a Principality of Bulgaria between the Danube and the Stara Planina range, with its seat at the old Bulgarian capital of Veliko Tarnovo.
On 17 April 1879, the first National Assembly convened in Veliko Tarnovo to ratify the state's first constitution, known as the Tarnovo Constitution, resulting in the transfer of Parliament from Tarnovgrad to Sofia, which today remains the Bulgarian capital.
In deference to the city's past, Tsar Ferdinand, of the house of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, chose the Forty Holy Martyrs Church in Veliko Tarnovo as the place to declare the complete independence of Bulgaria on 5 October 1908.
In 1965, the city, then officially known as Tarnovo, was renamed Veliko Tarnovo (Great Tarnovo) to commemorate its rich history and importance.
People's Republic of Bulgaria
During Communist rule, the city underwent considerable changes, with some 10,000 of its population thought to have become members of the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) by the end of the 1940s. A number of its churches and private enterprises were closed, while the major industries were nationalized. In the early 1950s, the city underwent an intensive process of urbanization, expanding to the west. From the same period also dates the idea of creating a large urban area in Northern Bulgaria encompassing the neighboring city of Veliko Tarnovo and the towns of Gorna Oryahovitsa and Lyaskovets (popularly known as "Targolyas").
In 1963, the University of Veliko Tarnovo "St. Cyril and St. Methodius" opened as one of the largest institutions of higher education in the country. Urbanization continued during the 1970s, as the engineering, electronic, medical, computer, and furniture industries expanded in the region, adding the neighborhoods of Akacia and Kartala to the city's landscape.
Veliko Tarnovo today
Today, Veliko Tarnovo is the center of one of the largest urban areas in Bulgaria and is one of the few cities in the country with a growing population. It is a foremost educational and cultural center, and the home of two major universities and extensive artistic activity. The city is a leading tourist attraction, boasting a steady increase in visitors for the last two decades. During the same period, it has also consistently attracted foreign settlers, and today, the city and its surroundings have become the home of the largest foreign expat community in Bulgaria. In the late 1990s the southern road junction was completed. In 2007 the construction of residential district Veliko Tarnovo began. In 2019 the city was declared the historical and spiritual capital of Bulgaria.
According to the 2011 census, Veliko Tarnovo had a population of 68,783 as of February 2011, while the Veliko Tarnovo Municipality, including the villages, had 88,670. The number of residents of the city reached its peak in the period 1986–1991, when it exceeded 70,000. The following table presents the change of the population after 1887.
|Highest number 69,173 in 1985|
|Sources: National Statistical Institute, citypopulation.de, pop-stat.mashke.org, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences|
- Bulgarians: 59,649 (95.5%)
- Turks: 2,225 (3.6%)
- Roma (Gypsies): 123 (0.2%)
- Others: 258 (0.4%)
- Indefinable: 198 (0.3%)
- Romanians: 100
- Undeclared: 6,330 (9.2%)
- "Buzluđa" (Bulgarian: "Бузлуджа") – 19,500 people
- "Kolio Ficheto" or "Triagalnika" ("Кольо Фичето"/"Триъгълника") – 17,000 people
- "Shirok centar" ("Широк център") – 10,000 people
- "Tsentar" ("Център") – 8000 people
- "Zona B" ("Зона Б") – 8000 people
- "Kartala" ("Картала") – 4800 people
- "Akatsia" ("Акация") – 3200 people
- "Cholakovtsi" ("Чолаковци") – 4200 people
- "Sveta gora" ("Света гора") – 3140 people
- "Varusha North" ("Варуша Север") – 900 people
- "Varusha South" ("Варуша Юг") – 300 people
- "Asenov" ("Асенов") – 800 people
- "Zona A" ("Зона А") – 200 people (also ville zone)
- "Slanchev dom" ("Слънчев дом") – 80 people
- "Veliko Tarnovo hills" – (being constructed)
- Ville zone "Derven" ("Дервен") – 80 people
More than 90% of the residents are Eastern Orthodox. In Veliko Turnovo there is a mosque, a Catholic church, a community of the Evangelical Methodist Episcopal Church, and representatives of other Christian teachings. During the Middle Ages, the seat of the Patriarchate of Veliko Turnovo, the Diocese of Veliko Turnovo and Veliko Turnovo's spiritual districts was in Turnovo.
Holy Forty Martyrs church
It was built and painted by the Bulgarian ruler Ivan Assen II in honor of the great victory of the Bulgarians at Klokotnitsa. In the 13th-14th centuries the church "St. Forty Martyrs "was the main church of the Great Lavra Monastery, located at the foot of Tsarevets on the left bank of Yantra.
Church of St Demetrius of Thessaloniki
The rebellion of the Asen and Peter brothers, which led to the restoration of the Bulgarian state in 1186, was announced in the church.
Church of Saints Peter and Paul
In the Church of Saints Peter and Paul the relics of St. John of Polivotsky were transferred to the church by Tsar Kaloyan in the capital city of Turnovo in 1204. Subsequently, a monastery complex was formed around the church. It was built according to the will and priesthood of Anna-Maria (1221–1237), wife of Tsar Ivan Assen II. During the Ottoman rule, hundreds of manuscripts from the royal library were placed there. Many of them were destroyed in 1842 by the Greek ruler.
The Patriarchal Church was restored and completed in 1981 to mark 1300 years since the foundation of the Bulgarian state under the plan of Arch. Boyan Kuzupov. The interior decoration is the work of the artist Theophanes Sokerov. The murals were completed in 1985.
Saint Georgi Church
The church was built in 1616. Donors for its construction are Mr. Paraskeva and wife Irini. The construction was under Metropolitan Gabriel. The church dates from the late Middle Ages and is painted by Greek artists.
Church of Saints Constantine and Helena
Veliko Tarnovo has two universities, Veliko Tarnovo University (one of the biggest universities in Bulgaria) and Vasil Levski National Military University. The Veliko Tarnovo University currently has around 18,000 students. Vasil Levski National Military University is one of the oldest military universities in Bulgaria.
Veliko Tarnovo currently has four secondary schools: Secondary School Emiliyan Stanev (main subject: music, art, informatics), Secondary School Vela Blagoeva (main subject: informatics), Secondary School Georgi Sava Rakovski (main subject: sports) and Secondary School Vladimir Komarov. There are ten high schools: Vasil Drumev School of Natural Sciences and Math (biology, chemistry, math), Professor Asen Zlatarov School (foreign languages), Honorary Old School of Economics, St. Cyril and Methodius School of Humanities (literature, history, Bulgarian language), A.S. Popov School of Electronics (computers, electronics), Kolyo Ficheto School of Building Construction (buildings), Angel Popov School of Architecture and Surveying (architecture, surveying), Professor Vasil Beron School of Tourism (cooking, restaurant, hotel), Vocational School of Fashion Design (sewing, design), and the American college, Arcus.
The city has five primary schools, named "St. Patriarch Euthymius" (since 1969), "Dimitar Blagoev", "Petko R. Slaveykov" and "Bacho Kiro". The schools educate students from ages 6 to 14. The subjects are Bulgarian language, math, biology, chemistry, physics, music, art, and others. The most popular sports include football, volleyball, basketball and handball, among others. Beginning with their first class, children learn English, and after four years they can study languages such as Russian, French, German, and Italian.
Culture in the city is still developing when the city is a capital city.
- Regional Library Petko Slaveykov
- Communication center "Nadezhda 1869"
- Musical-dramatic theater "Konstantin Kisimov"
- Art Gallery "Boris Denev"
In Veliko Tornovo you can see fragments and foundations that are part of the architecture of the Second Bulgarian State. In the old part of the city and Asenova Mahala there can be seen Churches and houses that were dated through the Ottoman rule. In the whole old part, houses from the Renaissance era were built. Characteristic of them are the ornate elements. Baroque architecture can be seen in most of the public buildings built in the early 20th century. In the central and the new part there are public buildings and residential buildings built in Baroque, Stalin Baroque style and Modernist style.
- The annual celebrations of the Veliko Tarnovo celebration, celebrated on 22 March
- International Folklore Festival
- The celebration of the declaration of the Independence of Bulgaria on 22 September
- Fest "Balkan Folk"
- The "Stage of the Ages" Festival in August, with the openings of Tsarevets
- Monument to the Asen Dynasty (built in 1985)
- Monument of Mother Bulgaria (built in 1930)
- Monument of Independence
- Monument of Vasil Levski
- Monument of Stefan Stambolov
- Monument of Nikola Pickolo
- Monument of Todor Lefterov
- Monument of Hristo Ivanov
- Monument Velchova Zavera
- Monument of Nikola Gabrovski and Dimitar Blagoev
- Monument of Ivan Semerdzhiev
The first newspaper in Tarnovo was printed during the middle of the 19th century. The first issue of the Tarnovo humorous newspaper "Draca" was published on 8 October 1884. In 1900, the first newspaper devoted to theater art – "Tarnovski Theatre".
- Regional newspaper "Borba"
- Regional newspaper "Yantra dnes"
- Radio channel "Veliko Tarnovo"
- Radio channel "Favorit"
- Regional television "Evrokom Tsarevets"
- Regional television "Videosat"
Veliko Tarnovo is home to the Regional Hospital "Doctor Stefan Cherkezov," one of the largest medical facilities in North Bulgaria.
In Veliko Tarnovo are crossed two main roads: Varna - Sofia and Rousse - Stara Zagora. The most important traffic roads are South road junction (constructed in 2000) and Western road junction (constructed in 1978). The city has two bus stations.
In 2013, 450,000 tourists visited the city. The most popular landmark is the historic hill Tsarevets, which held the capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire. A number of other sites also attract tourists, including the historic hill Trapezitza, the Samovodskata Charshiya, numerous medieval and Bulgarian Renaissance churches, and the ancient Roman fortress of Nicopolis ad Istrum.
In the city are located the architectural reserves: Tsarevets, Trapezitsa and Momina krepost. The Regional historical museum in the town were established in 1871. In the town are located the House Museum of the Bulgarian writers Petko Rachov Slaveykov and House Museum of the writer Emilian Stanev. Next to the Regional Library is located the Archaeological Museum.
- Museum "Revival and Constituent Assembly"
- Museum "New and New History"
- Museum Zatvor
- Museum "Sarafkin House"
- Museum of Wax Figures.
The Samovodska charshia developed as a business center during the Bulgarian revival. They are there many craft shops, which have preserved a centuries-old tradition of craftsmanship.
Gurko Street is one of the most picturesque streets in the old town. It is named in memory of the Russian General Iosif Vladimirovich Romeyko-Gurko. As commander of the Forward Force of the Imperial Russian Army in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) he liberated Tarnovo on 7 July 1877 (another street in the city is named "The 7th of July"). General Gurko is commemorated with a bust in the Marno Pole Park in the city center. Annually on that date he is celebrated with an official honour guard by cadets from the city's National Military University and the local branch of the "Traditsiya" ("Tradition") Historical Society re-enacts the event.
The Stambolov bridge is an arch bridge, designed by an Italian architect, Giovanni Musutti (also the designer of the Monument to Vasil Levski). It was constructed in 1897. Bishop's (Vladishki's) bridge is the oldest bridge, built around the 1800s in Asenova mahava (Old town). The king's bridge (also known as Stone bridge) was constructed in 1930 in Asenova mahala, as a connection to Veliko Tarnovo - Gorna Oryahovitsa.
Tarnovgrad has been an important craft and administrative center for centuries. Important roads passed through the city from east to west and north to south. During the Renaissance, there were 42 khans in the city and 72 were reached by the Liberation. One of the largest inns in the city is the one of Inn of Hajji Nicoli and restored by American patron Edmont Beck. Another masterpiece of Renaissance architecture is the Stambolov khan built in the 1940s by Stefan Stambolov's father - Nikola Stambolov. Other notable inns were the Dryanovo inn today, where the Modern Theater cinema was built in 1901, the Bala Bona's inn again on the Samovodskaya Charshia the Tarnovo inn (called before the Turkish inn), located under Tsarevets, the Grand inn, also known as the Arnautski or Sinjir inn, located near the Korshum Mosque, the Abadji inn, and others.
The city is separated to 4 Industrial zones: Central, North, South and West.
Veliko Tarnovo is the biggest producer of plastic bags in Bulgaria.
The main brewery in the city was established in 1987. Today it is called Bolyarka AD and is located in the Central industrial zone. It was a leading national brand in the 1960s and 1970s. The Pepsi soft drinks plant in the Central industrial zone produces drinks for Bulgaria and for export to the Balkans.
Twin towns – Sister cities
- Vagharshapat, Armenia
- Azerbaijan Nakhchivan (city),Azerbaijan
- CHN Xi'an,China
- Asti, Italy
- Ferrara, Italy
- Bayonne, France
- Bitola, North Macedonia
- Cetinje, Montenegro
- Colonia Tovar, Venezuela
- Iaşi, Romania
- Kraków, Poland
- Niš, Serbia
- Ohrid, North Macedonia
- Poltava, Ukraine
- Serres, Greece
- Tarxien, Malta
- Zadar, Croatia
- Czech Republic Opava, Czech Republic
- Toledo, Spain
- Tver, Russia
Ivaylo Stadium is the biggest football stadium in the city. The stadium is home of all the sports teams in Veliko Tarnovo which are called Etar. Ground was broken for the stadium in 1957 and it was completed in 1958. It has been rebuilt in the 21st century and now has seats for 18,000. Veliko Tarnovo has teams in football, basketball, volleyball, handball, athletics and other sports.
- FC Etar 1924 Veliko Tarnovo – football team
The Vasil Levski Palace of Culture and Sports is the biggest sports hall in Veliko Tarnovo. The hall was completed on 15 November 1985. The hall has 1600 seats and courts for basketball and volleyball.
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- Jean W. Sedlar (31 March 1994). East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500. University of Washington Press. pp. M1 113. ISBN 978-0-295-97290-9.
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- Bulgarian National Statistical Institute – towns in 2009
- (in Bulgarian) Bulgarian Academy of Sciences Archived 6 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
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- Official website of Veliko Tarnovo
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- "Градове - партньори". veliko-tarnovo.bg (in Bulgarian). Veliko Tarnovo. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- НАЦИОНАЛНО СДРУЖЕНИЕ НА ОБЩИНИТЕ В РЕПУБЛИКА БЪЛГАРИЯ namrb.org
- Veliko Tarnovo at Curlie
- Official website of Veliko Tarnovo