Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate


The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨d͡ʑ⟩, ⟨d͜ʑ⟩, ⟨ɟ͡ʑ⟩ and ⟨ɟ͜ʑ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_z\ and J\_z\, though transcribing the stop component with ⟨ɟ⟩ (J\ in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar may be omitted, yielding ⟨⟩ or ⟨ɟʑ⟩ in the IPA and dz\ or J\z\ in X-SAMPA.

Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
IPA Number216
Entity (decimal)ʥ
Unicode (hex)U+02A5
Audio sample
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Neither [d] nor [ɟ] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [d̠ʲ] (retracted and palatalized [d]), [ɟ̟] or [ɟ˖] (both symbols denote an advanced [ɟ]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_-' or d_-_j and J\_+, respectively. There is also a dedicated symbol ⟨ȡ⟩, which is not a part of the IPA. Therefore, narrow transcriptions of the voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate include [d̠ʲʑ], [ɟ̟ʑ], [ɟ˖ʑ] and [ȡʑ].

This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol ⟨ʥ⟩, which was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the sibilant equivalent of voiced palatal affricate.


Features of the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bengali খন [d͡ʑɔkʰon] 'when' See Bengali phonology
Catalan[1] All dialects mitjà [mɪ(d)ˈd͡ʑa] 'medium' See Catalan phonology
Valencian joc [ˈd͡ʑɔk] 'game'
Chinese Southern Min / ji̍t [d͡ʑit̚˧ʔ] 'sun'
Wu [d͡ʑy] 'he/she/it'
Irish Some dialects[2][3][4] Dia [d͡ʑiə] 'god' Realization of the palatalized alveolar stop /dʲ/ in dialects such as Erris, Teelin and Tourmakeady.[2][3][4] See Irish phonology
Japanese 知人 / chijin [t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean 편지 / pyeonji [pʰjɘːnd͡ʑi] 'letter' See Korean phonology
Malay Jambi توجوه / tujuh [tud͡ʑʊh] 'seven' See Jambi Malay
Polish[5] więk  [d͡ʑvʲɛŋk]  'sound' See Polish phonology
Romanian Banat dialect[6] des [d͡ʑes] 'frequent' Allophone of /d/ before front vowels. Corresponds to [d] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian дочь бы [ˈd̪o̞d͡ʑ bɨ] 'daughter would' Allophone of /t͡ɕ/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Sema[7] aji [à̠d͡ʑì] 'blood' Possible allophone of /ʒ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [ʑ ~ ʒ ~ d͡ʒ] instead.[7]
Serbo-Croatian[8][9] ђаво / đavo [d͡ʑâ̠ʋo̞ː] 'devil' Merges with /d͡ʒ/ in Kajkavian and Chakavian dialects. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Uzbek[10] [example needed]
Xumi Lower[11] [d͡ʑɐʔ˦] 'water'
Upper[12] [d͡ʑɐ̝˦]
Yi / jji [d͡ʑi˧] 'bee'

See alsoEdit



  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157
  • Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169
  • de Búrca, Seán (1958), The Irish of Tourmakeady, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-49-9
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
  • Mhac an Fhailigh, Éamonn (1968), The Irish of Erris, Co. Mayo, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 0-901282-02-2
  • Pavlík, Radoslav (2004), "Slovenské hlásky a medzinárodná fonetická abeceda" (PDF), Jazykovedný časopis, 55: 87–109
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, vol. 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
  • Teo, Amos B. (2014), A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland (PDF), Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5
  • Wagner, Heinrich (1959), Gaeilge Theilinn (in Ga), Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ISBN 1-85500-055-5
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7
  • Kordić, Snježana (2006), Serbo-Croatian, Languages of the World/Materials; 148, Munich & Newcastle: Lincom Europa, ISBN 978-3-89586-161-1
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 978-0-521-65236-0

External linksEdit

  • List of languages with [dʑ] on PHOIBLE