Voskhod (rocket)

Summary

Voskhod (R-7 11A57)
Voskhod Rocket.png
Voskhod rocket
FunctionCrew-rated
LEO carrier rocket
ManufacturerOKB-1
Country of originSoviet Union
Size
Height30.84 m (101.2 ft)
Diameter2.99 m (9.8 ft)
Mass298,400 kg (657,900 lb)
Stages2
Capacity
Payload to LEO
Mass5,900 kg (13,000 lb)
Associated rockets
FamilyR-7
Launch history
StatusRetired
Launch sitesBaikonur
Site 1 and Site 31
Plesetsk, Site 41
Total launches300
Success(es)287
Failure(s)13
First flight16 November 1963
Last flight29 June 1976
Notable payloadsVoskhod spacecraft
Zenit (satellite)
Boosters
No. boosters4
Engines1 RD-107
Thrust995.4 kN (223,800 lbf)
Total thrust3,981.6 kN (895,100 lbf)
Specific impulse257 seconds (2.52 km/s)
Burn time119 seconds
FuelRP-1 / LOX
First stage
Engines1 RD-108
Thrust941 kN (212,000 lbf)
Specific impulse248 seconds (2.43 km/s)
Burn time301 seconds
FuelRP-1 / LOX
Second stage
Engines1 RD-0107
Thrust294 kN (66,000 lbf)
Specific impulse330 seconds (3.2 km/s)
Burn time240 seconds
FuelRP-1 / LOX

The Voskhod rocket (Russian: Восход, "ascent", "dawn") was a derivative of the Soviet R-7 ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme but later used for launching Zenit reconnaissance satellites.[1][2] It consisted of the Molniya 8K78M third stage minus the Blok L.[3] In 1966, all R-7 variants were equipped with the uprated core stage and strap-ons of the Soyuz 11A511. The Blok I stage in the Voskhod booster used the RD-0107 engine rather than the crew rated and more powerful RD-0110 used on the Soyuz. The sole exception to this were the two manned Voskhod launches, which had RD-0108 engines, a crew-rated RD-0107 but with the same performance.

All 11A57s launched after 1965 were functionally a 11A511 without the Soyuz's payload shroud and launch escape system (with the exception of the second stage propulsion system as noted above). Around 300 were flown from Baikonur and Plesetsk through 1976 (various payloads, but Zenith IMINT satellites were the most common). The newer 11A511U core had been introduced in 1973, but the existing stock of 11A57s took another three years to use up.

The rocket had a streak of 86 consecutive successful launches between 11 september 1967 and 9 July 1970.

See also

References

  1. ^ Barensky, C. Lardier, Stefan (2013). The Soyuz launch vehicle the two lives of an engineering triumph. New York: Springer. p. 160. ISBN 978-1-4614-5459-5.
  2. ^ Hall, Rex; Shayler, David J. (2001). The rocket men : Vostok & Voskhod, the first Soviet manned spaceflights. London [u.a.]: Springer [u.a.] p. 226. ISBN 978-1-85233-391-1.
  3. ^ Kruse, Richard. "Historic Spacecraft - Soviet and Russian Rockets". HistoricSpacecraft.com. Historic Spacecraft. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
Interactive 3D model of the Voskhod rocket.