When Worlds Collide (1951 film)

Summary

When Worlds Collide
Worldcollide.jpg
Directed byRudolph Maté
Screenplay bySydney Boehm
Based onthe novel When Worlds Collide
by Edwin Balmer and Philip Wylie
Produced byGeorge Pal
StarringRichard Derr
Barbara Rush
Peter Hansen
John Hoyt
CinematographyJohn F. Seitz
W. Howard Greene
Edited byArthur P. Schmidt
Music byLeith Stevens
Color processTechnicolor
Production
company
Paramount Pictures
Distributed byParamount Pictures
Release date
  • November 15, 1951 (1951-11-15)[1]
Running time
83 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$936,000 (estimated)
Box office$1.6 million (US/Canada rentals, 1951)[2]

When Worlds Collide is a 1951 American science fiction disaster film, produced by George Pal, directed by Rudolph Maté, and starring Richard Derr, Barbara Rush, Peter Hansen, and John Hoyt. It was distributed by Paramount Pictures. The film is based on the 1933 science fiction novel of the same name, co-written by Philip Wylie and Edwin Balmer.[3]

The plot concerns the coming destruction of the Earth by a rogue star[Note 1] called Bellus and the desperate efforts to build a space ark to transport a group of men and women to Bellus' single planet, Zyra.

Plot

In the prologue, quotes from the Book of Genesis are shown and narrated, describing God's decision to wipe out humanity.

Pilot David Randall flies top-secret photographs from South African astronomer Dr. Emery Bronson to Dr. Cole Hendron in the United States. Hendron, with the assistance of his daughter Joyce, confirms their worst fears: Bronson has discovered that a rogue star named Bellus is on a collision course with Earth.

Hendron warns the United Nations that the end of the world is little more than eight months away. He pleads for the construction of "arks" to transport a lucky few to Zyra, the sole planet orbiting Bellus, in the faint hope that the human race can be saved from extinction. Other scientists scoff at his claims, and his proposal is rejected by the delegates.

Hendron receives help from wealthy humanitarians, who arrange for a lease on a former proving ground to build an ark. To finance the construction, Hendron meets wheelchair-bound business magnate Sidney Stanton. Stanton demands the right to select the passengers in exchange for financing, but Hendron insists that he is not qualified to make those choices; all he can buy is a seat aboard the ark. Stanton eventually capitulates.

Joyce, attracted to Randall, persuades her father to keep him around, much to the annoyance of her boyfriend, medical doctor Tony Drake. As Bellus nears, governments prepare for the inevitable. Groups in other nations begin to build their own spaceships. Martial law is declared, and residents in coastal regions are evacuated to inland cities.

Zyra makes a close approach first, causing massive earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis that wreak havoc around the world. Several people are killed at the camp, including Dr. Bronson after a construction crane collapses. Afterward, Drake and Randall travel by helicopter to drop off supplies to people in distress in the surrounding area. When Randall gets off to rescue a little boy stranded on a rooftop in a flooded area, Drake flies away, but reconsiders and returns.

As the day of doom approaches, the spaceship is loaded with food, medicine, microfilmed books, equipment, and animals. The passengers are selected by lottery, though Hendron reserves seats for himself, Stanton, Joyce, Drake, pilot Dr. George Frey, and Randall, for his daughter's sake. He also includes the young boy who was rescued, raising the number of passengers to 45. Randall, feeling he lacks any necessary skills, rejects this arrangement; he pretends to draw a lottery number, but Hendron knows better. For Joyce's sake, Drake tells Randall that Frey has a "heart condition" that may render him unable to survive the blackout during liftoff, convincing Randall he is needed as the co-pilot.

The cynical Stanton, knowing human nature, fears what the desperate lottery losers might do, so he has stockpiled weapons. When a young man turns in his winning number because his sweetheart was not selected, Stanton's much-abused assistant, Ferris, claims the number at gunpoint, only to be shot dead by Stanton. Hendron then agrees to the precaution of having the selected women board the ship, while the chosen men wait outside.

Shortly before blastoff, many of the lottery losers riot, seizing Stanton's weapons to try to force their way aboard. Hendron triggers the launch prematurely while he and Stanton are still outside so the ship will consume less fuel on the journey. With an effort born of ultimate desperation, Stanton stands up and walks in a futile attempt to board the departing spaceship.

The crew are rendered unconscious by the g-force of acceleration and do not witness Earth's destruction. When Randall comes to and sees Dr. Frey already awake and piloting the ship, he realizes he has been deceived.

As the spaceship enters Zyra's atmosphere, the fuel runs out; Randall takes control and glides it to a safe landing. The crew disembark and find Zyra to be habitable. David Randall and Joyce Hendron walk hand-in-hand down the ramp as a new day dawns.

Cast

Production

Originally, producer-director Cecil B. DeMille considered adapting the novels When Worlds Collide and its sequel After Worlds Collide when they were first serialized in Blue Book magazine in 1933. Film rights accordingly were held by Paramount, who often worked with De Mille.

In 1949 it was announced George Pal had purchased the screen rights. The film was to be directed by Irving Pichel who had just made The Great Rupert for Pal and was about to make Destination Moon for the producer.[4] In December Rip Van Ronkel, who wrote Destination Moon, was hired to do the script.[5]

In February 1950 it was announced the movie would be made at Paramount.[6]

In August Pal said the movie would be the first under a three-picture deal with Paramount, the others being The Last Man in the World and a musical.[7] (The latter two were never made.)

When George Pal began his adaptation years later, he initially wanted to make a more lavish production with a larger budget, but he wound up being forced to scale back his plans.[8]

Douglas Fairbanks Jr. was first considered for the role of Dave Randall, but Richard Derr was finally hired for the part.[9]

Chesley Bonestell worked as an adviser.[10] He is credited with the artwork used for the film; he created the design for the space ark that was constructed. The final scene in the film, the sunrise landscape on Zyra, was taken from a Bonestell sketch. Because of budget constraints, the director was forced to use this color sketch rather than a finished matte painting. The sketch has visible artificial structures in the distance to the left and right as David Randall and Joyce Hendron leave the ark, suggesting an alien civilization.[11][12]

Filming started 14 December 1950 under the direction of Rudolph Mate.[13] "I tried to make the story as realistic as I could," said Mate. Filming of the live action scenes took 27 days with the effects taking twice as long.[14]

The additional poor quality still image showing a drowned New York City is often attributed to Bonestell, but was not actually drawn by him.[15]

UCLA's differential analyzer is shown briefly near the beginning of the film; it verifies the initial hand-made calculations confirming the coming destruction of the Earth. "There is no error".[8]

Producer George Pal considered making a sequel based on the second novel, After Worlds Collide, but the box office failure of his 1955 Conquest of Space made that impossible.[8]

Reception

Critical

When Worlds Collide was reviewed by Bosley Crowther of The New York Times, who noted that George Pal had followed up on his other prophetic epic, Destination Moon: "... this time the science soothsayer, whose forecasts have the virtue, at least, of being represented in provocative visual terms, offers rather cold comfort for those scholars who would string along with him. One of the worlds which he arranged to have collide is ours".[16] He reported that "Except for a rustle of applause to salute a perfect pancake landing, the drowsy audience at the Globe, where the film opened yesterday, showed slight interest. It appeared skeptical and even bored. Mr. Pal barely gets us out there, but this time he doesn't bring us back".[16]

Freelance writer Melvin E. Matthews calls the film a "doomsday parable for the nuclear age of the '50s".[17] Emory University physics professor Sidney Perkowitz notes that When Worlds Collide is the first in a long list of films where "science wielded by a heroic scientist confronts a catastrophe". He calls the special effects exceptional.[18]

Librarian and filmographer Charles P. Mitchell was critical of the "... scientific gaffes that dilute the storyline" and a "failure to provide consistent first-class effects". He summarizes that "the large number of plot defects are annoying and prevent this admirable effort from achieving top-drawer status".[9]

Awards

When Worlds Collide won an Honorary Academy Award for Special Effects at the 24th Academy Awards. John F. Seitz and W. Howard Greene were also nominated for Best Cinematography-Color,[19] losing to Alfred Gilks and John Alton for An American in Paris.

Comic book adaptation

The film was adapted into a comic book by George Evans.[20]

In popular culture

  • When Worlds Collide is one of the many films referenced in the opening theme ("Science Fiction/Double Feature") of both the stage musical The Rocky Horror Show (1973) and its cinematic counterpart, The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975).[21]
  • In the feature film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan (1982), two cargo containers can be seen labeled "Bellus" and "Zyra" in the Genesis Cave.[22]
  • In the film adaptation of L.A. Confidential (1997), tabloid writer Sid Hudgens arranges for the publicity-loving detective officer Jack Vincennes to arrest a young actor on the night of the premiere of When Worlds Collide. This results in photos being taken of the arrest, with the fictional El Cortez Theatre (actually an abandoned bank building at 5620 Hollywood Blvd.) redressed as a movie theatre marquee in the background, accompanied by the headline "Movie Premiere Pot Bust" (the scene is set in 1953, long after the actual 1951 premiere).[23]
  • When Worlds Collide is the title of a 1975 album (the related single is "Did Worlds Collide?") by Richard Hudson and John Ford, their third release after leaving Strawbs.[24]
  • "When Worlds Collide" is the title of a single by the heavy metal band Powerman 5000 from the 1999 album Tonight the Stars Revolt![25]
  • In Terry Pratchett and Stephen Baxter's 2013 novel The Long War, scientists have named the theoretical space object which obliterated one of the alternate Earths "Bellos", which the character Sally Linsay describes as "Some dumb old movie reference".[26]

Remake

The 1998 film Deep Impact originated as a combination of a remake of When Worlds Collide and an adaptation of the 1993 Arthur C. Clarke novel The Hammer of God, and the project was originally acknowledged as such, although the finished film did not acknowledge any of its sources since it was judged as being different enough to not require it.[27]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In the novel, the object that destroys the Earth is another planet. The change to a star makes the film's title inaccurate, as is the movie poster's wording: "Planets destroy Earth!"

References

  1. ^ ""When Worlds Collide"." Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved: July 20, 2013
  2. ^ "The Top Box Office Hits of 1951." Variety, January 2, 1952.
  3. ^ Wylie, Philip; Balmer, Edwin (1932). When Worlds Collide. New York City: Lippincott. ASIN B001DABHPS.
  4. ^ Pal Buys World's End Story; Gabriel Pascal Gets 'Androcles' Talent Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times 11 Oct 1949: A7.
  5. ^ 'Prisoner of War' Tells Unique Saga of Conflict; Monkey to Get Break Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times 29 Dec 1949: 15.
  6. ^ 'QUO VADIS' ROLE TO JEAN SIMMONS: Metro Names British Actress to Play the Part of Lygia-- McNulty Story Bought Of Local Origin By THOMAS F. BRADY Special to THE NEW YORK TIMES. 15 Feb 1950: 24.
  7. ^ Fred Zinnemann Likely 'Children' Director; Pal Will Do More Thrillers Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times 12 Aug 1950: 7.
  8. ^ a b c Warren 1982, pp. 151–163.
  9. ^ a b Mitchell 2001, pp. 252–254.
  10. ^ New Find Wins Break in 'Folsom Story;' Ewell Named for 'Stumblebum' Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times 28 Oct 1950: 11.
  11. ^ DARK DAYS FOR INDEPENDENTS: WAR DRAMA AND A MYSTERY By THOMAS F. BRADY. New York Times 21 Jan 1951: 85.
  12. ^ Letter From Hollywood By Frank Daugherty. The Christian Science Monitor 13 Feb 1951: 13.
  13. ^ 'Blue Veil' May Star Bette Davis; Lizabeth Scott Busy in 'Raiders' Schallert, Edwin. Los Angeles Times 15 Nov 1950: B7.
  14. ^ Realism Gives Reelism Trial Filming 'When Worlds Collide' Scheuer, Philip K. Los Angeles Times 4 Feb 1951: D1.
  15. ^ Miller et al. 2001, p. 65.
  16. ^ a b Crowther, Bosley. "Movie Review: When Worlds Collide (1951); The screen in review;George Pal's new film adventure into outer space, 'When Worlds Collide,' opens at the Globe". The New York Times, February 7, 1952.
  17. ^ Matthews, Melvin E. (2007). 1950s Science Fiction Films and 9/11. ISBN 9780875864990.
  18. ^ Perkowitz 2007, p. 9.
  19. ^ Sullivan et al. 2011, p. 21.
  20. ^ "George Evans". lambiek.net.
  21. ^ Miller 2011, p. 127.
  22. ^ "Star Trek cast and crew (August 6, 2002)." Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, The Directors Edition: Special Features (DVD; Disc 2/2): Paramount Pictures.
  23. ^ Veniere, James. "Director of L.A. Confidential hits stride. Boston Herald. September 14, 1997.
  24. ^ "Hudson-Ford – Worlds Collide." discogs.com. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  25. ^ "Tonight the Stars Revolt!" allmusic.com. Retrieved: January 9, 2015.
  26. ^ Terry Pratchett and Stephen Baxter. The Long War (Paperback (B format) ed.). Corgi Books. p. 222.
  27. ^ Shapiro, Mark (May 1998). "When Worlds Collide Anew (On Location for Deep Impact...)". Starlog. New York, US: Starlog Group, Inc. Retrieved July 15, 2017.

Bibliography

  • Hickman, Gail Morgan. The Films of George Pal. South Brunswick, New Jersey: A. S. Barnes and Company, Inc., 1977. ISBN 978-0-49801-960-9.
  • Matthews, Melvin E. Hostile Aliens, Hollywood, and Today's News: 1950s Science Fiction Films and 9/11. New York: Algora Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-0-87586-498-3.
  • Miller, Ron, Chesley Bonestell, Frederick C. Durant and Melvin H. Schuetz. The Art of Chesley Bonestell. New York: HarperCollins, 2001. ISBN 978-1-85585-884-8.
  • Miller, Scott. Sex, Drugs, Rock & Roll, and Musicals. Lebanon, New Hampshire: University Press of New England, 2011. ISBN 978-1-55553-761-6.
  • Mitchell, Charles P. A Guide to Apocalyptic Cinema. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-31331-527-5.
  • Perkowitz, S. Hollywood Science: Movies, Science, and the End of the World. New York: Columbia University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-23114-281-6.
  • Reginald, R. and Douglas Menville. Things to Come: An Illustrated History of Science Fiction Film. New York: Times Books, 1977. ISBN 978-0-81290-710-0.
  • Sullivan, III, C. W., Tobias Hochscherf, James Leggott, Donald E. Palumbo, et al., eds. British Science Fiction Film and Television: Critical Essays, Critical Explorations in Science Fiction and Fantasy 29. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2011. ISBN 978-0-78644-621-6.
  • Warren, Bill. Keep Watching the Skies, American Science Fiction Movies of the 50s, Vol. I: 1950 - 1957. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 1982. ISBN 0-89950-032-3.

External links