William P. Lawrence
Lawrence in September 1983
|Born||January 13, 1930|
Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.
|Died||December 2, 2005 (aged 75)|
Crownsvile, Maryland, U.S.
|Service/||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1951–1986|
|Commands held||U.S. Pacific Fleet|
Superintendent, U.S. Naval Academy
U.S. Third Fleet
Chief of Naval Personnel
Fighter Squadron 143
|Awards||Distinguished Service Medal (4)|
Silver Star (3)
Legion of Merit
Distinguished Flying Cross
Purple Heart (2)
Air Medal (3)
|Relations||Captain Wendy B. Lawrence (daughter)|
|Other work||President of the Association of Naval Aviation|
William Porter "Bill" Lawrence (January 13, 1930 – December 2, 2005), was a decorated United States Navy vice admiral and Naval Aviator who served as Superintendent of the U.S. Naval Academy from 1978 to 1981.
Lawrence was a noted pilot, the first Naval Aviator to fly twice the speed of sound in a naval aircraft, and one of the final candidates for the Mercury space program. During the Vietnam War, Lawrence was shot down while on a combat mission and spent six years as a prisoner of war, from 1967 to 1973. During this time, he became noted for his resistance to his captors.
Early life and education
Lawrence's parents and grandparents were from Tennessee. His father Robert Landy "Fatty" Lawrence (1903–1976) attended Vanderbilt University, where he was a noted student-athlete who graduated in 1924. He was born in Nashville, and attended local schools. Lawrence distinguished himself as a student athlete at Nashville's West High School, and in 1947 turned down a scholarship for Yale University to attend the United States Naval Academy.
Lawrence stood out as a varsity athlete in three sports at the Naval Academy: football, basketball, and baseball. During his time at the Academy, he held several high-ranking midshipman offices, including Commander of the Brigade of Midshipmen, President of the Class of 1951, while also graduating 8th academically out of a class of 725. His other major accomplishments included helping to establish the honor concept governing midshipman's conduct. He graduated from the Naval Academy in 1951. Ensign Lawrence continued on at the Naval Academy as Aide to the Commandant of Midshipmen until September 1951, when he reported to flight training.
Lawrence received his "Wings of Gold" as a Naval Aviator in 1952 and became a test pilot. After completing advanced flight training, All Weather Flight School, and Jet Training, then-Lieutenant Lawrence served as an F2H Banshee pilot with VF-193 at NAS Moffett Field from March 1953 to October 1955. During this time, he deployed to Korea aboard the aircraft carrier USS Oriskany (CVA-34) from March to April 1953. He attended the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School at the Naval Air Test Center, Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, where he received the Outstanding Student Award with the Test Pilot School Class 16. When the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) established the manned spaceflight program, Lawrence became part of Project Mercury and made it to the final round of candidates. He was released from the program only because of a small heart murmur discovered during flight training.
In 1967, then-Commander Lawrence was serving as commanding officer of Fighter Squadron 143 (VF-143), aboard the aircraft carrier USS Constellation (CV-64). On 28 June 1967, Lawrence and his radar intercept officer, Lieutenant, junior grade James W. Bailey, were flying an F-4B Phantom II aircraft, Bureau Number 152242, while leading an anti-aircraft suppression section during a raid northwest of Nam Dinh, North Vietnam. Their aircraft was struck by an 85 mm round while rolling in on target. Despite failing hydraulics, Lawrence and Bailey released their bombs, but part of the aircraft's tail section separated while attempting to pull out of a dive. Both officers were forced to eject, were captured, and were held as prisoners of war at the Hỏa Lò Prison – which the prisoners nicknamed the "Hanoi Hilton" – until 1973, during which time they suffered repeated torture and beatings. Along with fellow prisoner, Naval Aviator and Commander (later Vice Admiral) James Stockdale, Lawrence became noted for his resistance to his captors. Additionally, he memorized every POW by name and rank while in captivity. He developed a code by tapping on the prison walls to communicate with other prisoners. Bailey was released on 18 February 1973 and Lawrence on 4 March 1973. Another fellow inmate was future presidential candidate and Senator John McCain, who was also a Navy commander and Naval Aviator at the time. In Lawrence's obituary in the Los Angeles Times, Senator McCain stated, "He's probably the greatest man I've ever known in my life," and that it was the former's "...constant, steadfast, inspirational, yet very rational leadership that guided many of us through some very difficult times." He was among the 591 Americans released as part of "Operation Homecoming." Lawrence tells of his POW's experience in Al Santoli's "Everything We Had".
After promotion to rear admiral in July 1974, Lawrence served as Commander, Light Attack Wing, U.S. Pacific Fleet at Naval Air Station Lemoore, California. Subsequently, he served as the Director, Aviation Programs Division and Assistant Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air Warfare) in the Pentagon. He was promoted to vice admiral on August 1, 1980. Lawrence assumed command of the U.S. Third Fleet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, in September 1981. In 1983, he won the Hawaii Armed Forces singles tennis championship in the seniors division (over 45).
Admiral Lawrence served as Superintendent of the U.S. Naval Academy from August 1978 to August 1981. The Naval Academy was opened to women starting with the Class of 1980 (inducted July 1976). His daughter Wendy Lawrence was part of the Class of 1981, the second USNA class to include female graduates.
He retired in 1986.
Author of Tennessee State poem
While a prisoner of war, Lawrence mentally composed poetry to help keep up his spirits. During a 60-day period of solitary confinement, he composed, by memory, the poem "Oh Tennessee, My Tennessee," in honor of his native state. In 1973, the Tennessee State Legislature adopted the poem as Tennessee's official state poem.
- Oh Tennessee, My Tennessee
What Love and Pride I Feel for Thee.
You Proud Ole State, the Volunteer,
Your Proud Traditions I Hold Dear.
- I Revere Your Heroes
Who Bravely Fought our Country's Foes.
Renowned Statesmen, so Wise and Strong,
Who Served our Country Well and Long.
- I Thrill at Thought of Mountains Grand;
Rolling Green Hills and Fertile Farm Land;
Earth Rich with Stone, Mineral and Ore;
Forests Dense and Wild Flowers Galore;
- Powerful Rivers that Bring us Light;
Deep Lakes with Fish and Fowl in Flight;
Thriving Cities and Industries;
Fine Schools and Universities;
Strong Folks of Pioneer Descent,
Simple, Honest, and Reverent.
- Beauty and Hospitality
Are the Hallmarks of Tennessee.
- And O'er the World as I May Roam,
No Place Exceeds my Boyhood Home.
And Oh How Much I Long to See
My Native Land, My Tennessee.
Awards and decorations
|Naval Aviator badge|
|Navy Distinguished Service Medal|
w/ four 5⁄16" Gold Stars
w/ two 5⁄16" Gold Stars
|Legion of Merit||Distinguished Flying Cross|
w/ Combat "V"
w/ one 5⁄16" Gold Star
w/ Strike/Flight Numeral 3
|Joint Service Commendation Medal||Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal
w/ Combat "V"
one 5⁄16" Gold Star
|Combat Action Ribbon|
|Navy Unit Commendation
w/ one 3⁄16" award star
|Prisoner of War Medal||National Defense Service Medal|
w/ one 3⁄16" Bronze Star
|Korean Service Medal||Vietnam Service Medal
w/ three 3⁄16" silver stars
|Republic of Vietnam Gallantry Cross Unit Citation|
w/ Palm and Frame
|United Nations Korea Medal||Vietnam Campaign Medal||Republic of Korea War Service Medal|
- In 1984, the NCAA selected him for their highest honor, the Theodore Roosevelt Award, recognizing Lawrence as one "For whom competitive athletics in college and attention to physical well-being have been important factors in a distinguished career of national significance and achievement."
- In 2000, the Naval Academy recognized Lawrence's contributions to his alma mater by presenting him with one of its Distinguished Graduate Awards.
- In 2004, Admiral Lawrence was inducted into the Tennessee Sports Hall of Fame in recognition of his athletic achievements both in high school and college.
- In 2009, the U.S. Navy named the Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS William P. Lawrence (DDG-110) in his honor, sponsored by his widow and daughters.
- On October 17, 2008, a bronze statue of Vice Admiral William P. Lawrence was dedicated at the Naval Academy. The statue was a gift of the Naval Academy graduate and business tycoon H. Ross Perot.
When Lawrence returned from captivity in Vietnam in 1973, he found that his wife had remarried. The following year, he married Diane Wilcox Rauch.
Lawrence died at home at the age of 75. He was survived by his second wife, daughters Wendy and Laurie, son William Jr. and stepson Frederick.
Wendy B. Lawrence followed her father into the Navy and attained the rank of captain. Like her father, she became a Naval Aviator. She later become a NASA astronaut and flew multiple Space Shuttle missions. Her sister, Dr. Laurie Lawrence, attended Vanderbilt University and is a physician at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
- William Bernstein (December 5, 2005). "William P. Lawrence Dies; Navy Admiral".
- Bradley Olson (December 13, 2005). "William Lawrence, 75; Held as POW for 6 Years During Vietnam War". Los Angeles Times.
- Vietnam Air Losses, Chris Hobson, Midland Publishing, Hinckley, UK, c2001, p. 106, ISBN 1-85780-115-6
- Al Santoli: Everything We Had (1981)
- "Tennessee: State Poem". Web Guides. Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- VADM Lawrence awards
- Theodore Roosevelt Award recipients
- "Photo Release -- Northrop Grumman-Built William P. Lawrence Christened; Legacy of Former POW Honored". GlobeNewswire. April 17, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
- dead link-->"Alumni Association Honors Distinguished Graduates." Shipmate (Sep 2001). Online. U.S. Naval Academy Alumni Association. Viewed 6 December 2005.
- Grossnick, Roy, William J. Armstrong et al. "Part 8. The New Navy 1954-1959." History of United States Naval Aviation, 4th ed. Washington, D.C.; Government Printing Office, 1997.
- Official WILLIAM P. LAWRENCE (DDG 110) Ship Web Site
- Navy News Stand - 12/6/2005 - Statement by Admiral Michael Mullen, USN, Chief of Naval Operations, on the passing of VADM William Lawrence
- Biography of VADM Lawrence - from an alumni website about the U.S. Military Academy at West Point
- History of the United States Naval Academy - 1970s
- History of the United States Naval Academy - 1980s
- Tennessee Sports Hall of Fame - VADM William P. Lawrence, USN (Ret)
- Lyrics and background to "Oh Tennessee, My Tennessee" - from the United States Library of Congress
- POW Network - Biography of VADM Lawrence
- William P. Lawrence Papers, 1863-2004 (bulk 1941-2001) MS 403 held by Special Collections & Archives, Nimitz Library at the United States Naval Academy
Kinnaird R. McKee
| Superintendent of United States Naval Academy
Edward C. Waller