Wolstonian Stage

Summary

The Wolstonian Stage is a middle Pleistocene stage of the geological history of Earth from approximately 374,000 until 130,000 years ago. It precedes the Eemian Stage in Europe and follows the Hoxnian Stage in the British Isles.

Wolstonian
.374 – .130 Ma
Usage information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional usageRegional
Used byUnited Kingdom United Kingdom
Definition
Chronological unitAge
Stratigraphic unitStage

It is also approximately analogous to the Warthe and Saalian stages in northern Europe; the Riss glaciation in the Alps; and the Illinoian Stage in North America.

It is equivalent to Marine isotope stages 6 through 10.

It is named after Wolston in the English county of Warwickshire.

DescriptionEdit

The Wolstonian Stage is a middle Pleistocene stage of the geological history of Earth that precedes the Ipswichian Stage (Eemian Stage in Europe) and follows the Hoxnian Stage in the British Isles. The Wolstonian Stage apparently includes three periods of glaciation. The Wolstonian Stage is temporally analogous to the Warthe Stage and Saalian Stage in northern Europe and the Riss glaciation in the Alps, and temporally equivalent to all of the Illinoian Stage and the youngest part of the Pre-Illinoian Stage in North America. It is contemporaneous with the North American Pre-Illinoian A, Early Illinoian, and Late Illinoian glaciations.[1][2][3]

The Wolstonian Stage is equivalent to Marine isotope stages 6 through 10.[2][3]

It started 374,000 years ago and ended 130,000 years ago.[4][5]

EtymologyEdit

The Wolstonian Stage was named after the site of Wolston in the English county of Warwickshire where corresponding deposits were first identified.

ArchaeologyEdit

Acheulian flint tools have been found in Wolstonian deposits.

Pleistocene glaciationEdit

Historical names of the "four major" glacials in four regions.
Region Glacial 1 Glacial 2 Glacial 3 Glacial 4
Alps Günz Mindel Riss Würm
North Europe Eburonian Elsterian Saalian Weichselian
British Isles Beestonian Anglian Wolstonian Devensian
Midwest U.S. Nebraskan Kansan Illinoian Wisconsinan
Historical names of interglacials.
Region Interglacial 1 Interglacial 2 Interglacial 3
Alps Günz-Mindel Mindel-Riss Riss-Würm
North Europe Waalian Holsteinian Eemian
British Isles Cromerian Hoxnian Ipswichian
Midwest U.S. Aftonian Yarmouthian Sangamonian

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Richmond, G.M.; Fullerton, D.S. (1986). "Summation of Quaternary glaciations in the United States of America". Quaternary Science Reviews. 5: 183–196. Bibcode:1986QSRv....5..183R. doi:10.1016/0277-3791(86)90184-8.
  2. ^ a b McMillan, A.A. (2005). "A provisional Quaternary and Neogene lithostratigraphic framework Great Britain". Netherland Journal of Geosciences. 84 (2): 87–107. doi:10.1017/S0016774600022988.
  3. ^ a b Gibbard, P.L.; Boreham, S.; Cohen, K.M.; Moscariello, A. (2007). "Global chronostratigraphical correlation table for the last 2.7 million years" (JPG 844 kb). Cambridge UK: Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy, Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.
  4. ^ Lisiecki, L.E., 2005, Ages of MIS boundaries. LR04 Benthic Stack Boston University, Boston, MA
  5. ^ Lisiecki, L.E.; Raymo, M.E. (2005). "A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic d18O records" (PDF). Paleoceanography. 20: PA1003. Bibcode:2005PalOc..20.1003L. doi:10.1029/2004PA001071. hdl:2027.42/149224.

External linksEdit

  • Aber, J.S. (2006). "Regional Glaciation of Kansas and Nebraska". Emporia KS: Emporia State University.
  • Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy (2007). "Global correlation tables for the Quaternary". Cambridge UK: Department of Geography, University of Cambridge.
  • Gibbard, P., 2008a, Map 6. (Fluvial) Palaeogeography during the Saalian (Drenthe Substage) / Wolstonian glacial maximum. North West European Rivers, Quaternary Palaeoenvironments Group, Cambridge, England. (includes PDF file of map)
  • Gibbard, P. (2008). "Map 7: Maximum extent of the glaciation during the Saalian / Drenthe / Dneipr Stage (late Middle Pleistocene)". Cambridge UK: North West European Rivers, Quaternary Palaeoenvironments Group. (includes PDF file of map)
  • Gibbard, P. (2008). "Map 8: Latest Saalian to early Weichselian drainage during sea level lowstand". Cambridge UK: North West European Rivers, Quaternary Palaeoenvironments Group. (includes PDF file of map)
  • Hallberg, G.R. (1980). "Illinoian and Pre-Illinoian stratigraphy of southeast Iowa and adjacent Illinois" (PDF). Technical information Series. no. 11. Ames IA: Iowa Geological Survey Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF 19.3 Mb) on 2010-07-13.
  • Shotton, F.W., nd, East Anglia and the English Midlands. Ice Age Britain. The Shotton Project, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, England.

Further readingEdit

  • Bowen, D.Q. (1978). Quaternary geology: a stratigraphic framework for multidisciplinary work. Oxford UK: Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-020409-3.
  • Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L., eds. (2004). Quaternary Glaciations: Extent and Chronology 2: Part II North America. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-51462-7.
  • Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L.; Rose, J., eds. (1991). Glacial deposits in Great Britain and Ireland. Rotterdam: Balkema. ISBN 978-90-6191-875-2.
  • Mangerud, J.; Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L., eds. (2004). Quaternary Glaciations : Extent and Chronology 1: Part I Europe. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-51462-7.
  • Sibrava, V.; Bowen, D.Q; Richmond, G.M. (1986). "Quaternary Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere". Quaternary Science Reviews. 5: 1–514. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(86)80002-6.