Wright Aeronautical

Summary

Wright Aeronautical (1919–1929) was an American aircraft manufacturer headquartered in Paterson, New Jersey.[1] It was the successor corporation to Wright-Martin.[1] It built aircraft and was a supplier of aircraft engines to other builders in the golden age of aviation.[1] Wright engines were used by Amelia Earhart and Charles Lindbergh.[1] In 1929, the company merged with Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Corporation to form Curtiss-Wright.[1][2]

Wright Aeronautical
PredecessorWright-Martin
Founded1919 (1919)
FounderFrederick B. Rentschler
Defunct1929 (1929) (remained a division)
FateMerged
SuccessorCurtiss-Wright
Key people
Charles Lawrance
ParentCurtiss-Wright
(after 1929)

HistoryEdit

 
Wright Aeronautical building, November 2014

In 1916, the Wright brothers' original aviation firm, the Wright Company, merged with Glenn L. Martin's firm, the Glenn L. Martin Company of California, to form the Wright-Martin Aircraft Corporation.[1] In September 1917, Martin resigned from Wright-Martin and re-formed an independent Glenn L. Martin Company of Ohio (later of Maryland). After World War I in 1919, Wright-Martin was renamed Wright Aeronautical.[1][2] It moved to Patterson, New Jersey in 1919.[1]

In February 1919, an airplane with a Wright engine broke the world's speed record at 163 2–3 miles per hour.[3] In November 1920, an airplane with an 300 horsepower Wright engine came in second place in the first Pulitzer Trophy Race in Long Island, New York.[3] Other planes using Wright engines came in fourth and fifth place in the race.[3]

In 1920, Wright produced a canon engine for the Army that allowed shells to be fired through the airplane's propeller.[3] In 1921, a 300 horsepower engine by Wright again came in second place at the Pulitzer Trophy Race in Omaha, Nebraska.[3] In 1921, Wright developed a new six-cylinder dirigible engine with 400 horsepower, testing it for nine months.[3] In 1922, a plane with a Wright H-2 engine won the Mitchell Trophy Race.[3]

In May 1923, Wright Aeronautical purchased the Lawrance Aero Engine Company, acquiring Charles Lawrance's J-1 radial engine.[4][1][5] Lawrance became a vice president of Wright.[1] In 1925, Wright's president, Frederick B. Rentschler, left the company to found Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company; Lawrance replaced him as company president.[5] Rentschler poached several talented personnel from Wright to join his new firm.

Working off Lawrance's designs, Wright Aeronautical developed an air-cooled engine, the Model J Whirlwind series.[1][6][3] In 1925, a Wright-Bellanca airplane won the Pulitzer Trophy Race using a Wright Whirlwind engine.[3] In 1927, a Wright J-5C Whirlwind engine was used by Charles Lindbergh in the Spirit of St. Louis when he flew from New York City to Paris.[1][5][7] Wright engines were also used by other famed aviators, including Richard E. Byrd, Clarence Chamberlin, and Amelia Earhart.[1]

Wright Aeronautical merged with the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company on July 5, 1929, to become the Curtiss-Wright Corporation.[1][2] Their engine divisions merged in 1931.[5]

During World War II, the Patterson plant had 24,000 employees, working in three daily shifts.[8] They made some 75,000 engines for the B-25, the Boeing B-17, and other aircraft.[8] Wright also made engines for 44 commercial airlines and rocket engines for space travel.[8] However, the Patterson plant closed in 1946.[8]

ProductsEdit

 
The Wright name on the rocker cover of one of their radial engines

AircraftEdit

Model name First flight Number built Type Reference
Wright Vought [3]
Wright Apache 1926 biplane [3]
Wright F2W 1923 2 Single engine biplane racer
Dayton-Wright XO-3 1 Single engine biplane observation airplane
Wright XF3W 1926 1 Single engine biplane racer
Navy-Wright NW-1 1922 2 Single engine monoplane racer
Navy-Wright NW-2 1922 1 Single engine biplane racer
Wright-Bellanca WB-1 1925 1 Single engine monoplane utility airplane [3]
Wright-Bellanca WB-2 Columbia 1926 1 Single engine monoplane utility airplane
Bellanca 77-140 Bomber 1934 Twin engine monoplane bomber
Wright WP-1 1922 1 License built single engine monoplane fighter
 
Wright R-1820
 
Wright R-2600
 
Wright J65

Aircraft enginesEdit

Model name Introduced Type Horsepower Cooling Reference
Wright A circa 1919 V-8 150 water [9][10]
Wright B V-4 75 water [10]
Wright C V-8 200 water [10]
Wright D V-8 200 water [10]
Wright D-1 1920 L-6 350 water [6]
Wright E 1919 V-8 150 hp water [11][10]
Wright E-1M Hurricane 1925 - 1926 V-8 240 marine [6][11]
Wright E-2 Before 1921 V-8 180 water [9][3][11]
Wright E-3 V-8 189 water [10]
Wright E-4 Tempest 1922 - 1923 V-8 200 water [3][6][11]
Wright E-4M Gold Cup V-8 200-240 marine [3][11]
Wright F V-9 150 water [10][12]
Wright H 1920 300 water [9][3]
Wright H-2 1920 V-8 320 water [9][6]
Wright H-2 Super Fighter Before 1921 360 water [9]
Wright H-3 Before 1921 V-8 300 water [9][3][13]
Wright H-3 Super Fighter Before 1921 360 water [9]
Wright I 1920 150 water [9][3]
Wright J-I 1923 air [3]
Wright J-3 1924 R-9 200 air [3][6]
Wright J-4 Whirlwind 1924 R-9 200 air [3][6]
Wright J-4B Whirlwind 1925 R-9 200 air [6]
Wright J-5 Whirlwind / Wright R-790 1925 - 1926 R-9 200 air [6][14][15][2]
Wright J-6 Whirlwind 5 / Wright R-540 1928 - 1930 R-5 165-175 air [3][16][6]
Wright J-6 Whirlwind 7 / Wright R-760 1925 R-7 225-320 air [3][16][6]
Wright J-6 Whirlwind 9 / Wright R-975 1928 R-9 300-420 air [3][16][6]
Wright J-6 Cyclone circa 1928 525 air [3]
Wright K water [10]
Wright K-2 water [10]
Wright L-3 Gale circa 1923 R-3 60 air [17]
Wright L-4 Gale circa 1923 R-3 60 air [3]
Wright P-1 1925 R-9 406 air [6][3]
Wright P-2 1925 - 1926 R-9 435 air [6]
Wright R-1 1920 - 1923 R-9 350 air [3][6]
Wright R-1200 Simoon 1925 - 1926 R-9 325 air [3][6]
Wright R-1300 Cyclone 1939 R-7 600 air [6]
Wright R-1510 Whirlwind 1933 R-14 600 air [18]
Wright R-1670 Whirlwind circa 1935 R-14 800 air [18]
Wright R-1750 Cyclone 1927 - 1930 R-9 525 air [3][6]
Wright R-1820 Cyclone 1931 R-9 1,000 air [19]
Wright R-2160 Tornado 1940 R-42 2,350 air [20]
Wright R-2600 1937 R-14 1,750 air [21]
Wright R-3350 Cyclone 1937 R-18 2,200 air [22]
Wright R-4090 Cyclone 1940s R-22 3,000 air [23]
Wright T V-12 525 water [3]
Wright T-1 Tornado V-12 600 water [3]
Wright T-1M Typhoon 1924 V-12 500 marine [6]
Wright T-2 Tornado 1922 - 1923 V-12 525 water [3][6]
Wright T-3 Tornado / Wright V-1950 1923 V-12 675 water [3][6]
Wright T-3A 1924 - 1925 V-12 525 water [6]
Wright T-3M Typhoon 600 marine [3]
Wright V-1460 1928 V-12 600 liquid or air [6][24]
Wright V-1560 1929 - 1930 V-12 600 air [6]
Wright Gipsy 1929 - 1931 L-4 85 air [6]
Wright-Gipsy L-320 1927 L-4 98 air [25][26]
Wright Morehouse WM-80 1926 O-2 29 air [6]
Wright J65 1951 Turbojet 7,239 lbf [27]
Wright J67 1950s, not produced Turbojet est. 15,000 lbf
Wright TJ32
Wright TJ38 Zephur not produced Turbojet

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "The Wright Years". The Paterson Museum. 2018-11-13. Retrieved 2022-05-07.
  2. ^ a b c d "Curtiss-Wright Corporation - Company - History". www.curtisswright.com. Retrieved 2022-05-07.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Van DeVenter, John H. Jr. "The Story of Wright Aero: Tracing the Growth of the Wright Aeronautical Corporation"." Air Transportation, December 22, 1928. via Internet Archive.
  4. ^ Gunston, Bill (2006). World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines (5th ed.). Phoenix Mill, Gloucestershire, England, UK: Sutton Publishing Limited. pp. 125, 244. ISBN 0-7509-4479-X.
  5. ^ a b c d "Wright Aeronautical". Ken's Aviation Photography. Web Archive. 14 July 2003. Archived from the original on September 1, 2019. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "Curtiss, Lawrance and Wright Specifications, 1913 ~ 1940". Aircraft Engine Historical Society. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  7. ^ Wraga, William. "The Wright Wirlwind 1919-1927". www.charleslindbergh.com. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  8. ^ a b c d Deitch, Joseph (1986-06-08). "Wright Aero, Silent Since '46, is Reborn at Peterson Museum". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Cautley, J. R. ed. (1921). Wright Aircraft Engines: Complete Instructions for their installation, operation and maintenance. Paterson, N.J.: Wright Aeronautical Corporation. via Hathi Trust.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Welshans, Terry (October 5, 2017). "The Wright Aeronautical Model H3 Construction Details" (PDF). American Engine Historical Society. Retrieved May 8, 2022.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Wright-Hispano E". 2003-08-19. Archived from the original on November 29, 2010. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  12. ^ "The Wright Cyclone Engine". Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology. 7 (4): 91–94. 1935. doi:10.1108/eb029923.
  13. ^ "Wright H-3 V-8 Engine | National Air and Space Museum". airandspace.si.edu. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  14. ^ "Wright J-5 Whirlwind". Ken's Aviation Photography. 2003-10-07. Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  15. ^ "Wright Whirlwind R-790-A (J-5) Radial 9 Engine | National Air and Space Museum". airandspace.si.edu. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  16. ^ a b c "Wright J-6 Whirlwind". 2003-10-05. Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  17. ^ "Lawrance L-3 Radial Engine - Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum". 2011-04-02. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 2022-05-10.
  18. ^ a b "Wright R-1510 Whirlwind". www.all-aero.com. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  19. ^ "Wright R-1820 Cyclone 9". Ken's Aviation Photography. Internet Archive. 2003-08-17. Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  20. ^ "Wright R-2160 Tornado". www.all-aero.com. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  21. ^ "Wright R-2600". Ken's Aviation Photography. Web Archive. 2003-10-06. Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  22. ^ "Wright R-3350 Cyclone 18". Ken's Aviation Photography. Web Archive. 2003-10-06. Archived from the original on March 4, 2015. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  23. ^ "Wright R-4090 Cyclone". all-aero.com. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  24. ^ "Wright V-1460". Ken's Aviation Photography. Web Archive. 2003-10-06. Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  25. ^ "Wright L-320 "Gipsy"". National Museum of the United States Air Force™. Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  26. ^ "Wright "Gipsy I" L-320 Engine (1927) – Wings Of History Air Museum". Retrieved 2022-05-08.
  27. ^ "Wright J65". Ken's Aviation Photography. 2003-10-06. Archived from the original on December 20, 2010. Retrieved 2022-05-08.

More informationEdit

  • Eden, Paul; Moeng, Soph, eds. (2002). The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Bradley's Close, 74-77 White Lion Street, London, NI 9PF: Amber Books Ltd. ISBN 0-7607-3432-1.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location (link)

External linksEdit

  Media related to Wright Aeronautical at Wikimedia Commons