Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Nverify (what is YN ?)
The acyclic form of xylose has chemical formulaHOCH 2(CH(OH))3CHO. The cyclic hemiacetal isomers are more prevalent in solution and are of two types: the pyranoses, which feature six-membered C 5O rings, and the furanoses, which feature five-membered C 4O rings (with a pendant CH 2OH group). Each of these rings is subject to further isomerism, depending on the relative orientation of the anomeric hydroxy group.
Xylose is the main building block for the hemicellulosexylan, which comprises about 30% of some plants (birch for example), far less in others (spruce and pine have about 9% xylan). Xylose is otherwise pervasive, being found in the embryos of most edible plants. It was first isolated from wood by Finnish scientist, Koch, in 1881, but first became commercially viable, with a price close to sucrose, in 1930.
High xylose intake on the order of approximately 100 g/kg of animal body weight is relatively well tolerated in pigs, and in a similar manner to results from human studies, a portion of the xylose intake is passed out in urine undigested.
In 2014 a low-temperature 50 °C (122 °F), atmospheric-pressure enzyme-driven process to convert xylose into hydrogen with nearly 100% of the theoretical yield was announced. The process employs 13 enzymes, including a novel polyphosphatexylulokinase (XK).
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