Yevpatoria

Summary

Yevpatoria
Євпаторія (Ukrainian)
Евпатория (Russian)
Kezlev  (Crimean Tatar)
Кезлев (Crimean Tatar)
Yevpatoria panorama
Yevpatoria panorama
Flag of Yevpatoria
Coat of arms of Yevpatoria
Yevpatoria is located in Crimea
Yevpatoria
Yevpatoria
Location of Yevpatoria within Crimea
Coordinates: 45°11′38″N 33°22′5″E / 45.19389°N 33.36806°E / 45.19389; 33.36806Coordinates: 45°11′38″N 33°22′5″E / 45.19389°N 33.36806°E / 45.19389; 33.36806
CountryDisputed:
RegionCrimea
Area
 • Total120 km2 (50 sq mi)
Elevation
10 m (30 ft)
Population
 (2014)
105,719
 • Density1,618.37/km2 (4,191.6/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK)
Postal code
97400 — 97490
Area code(s)+7-36569
ClimateCfa
Websitemy-evp.ru

Yevpatoria (Ukrainian: Євпаторія, romanizedYevpatoriia; Russian: Евпатория, romanizedYevpatoriya; Crimean Tatar: Kezlev, Кезлев) is a city of regional significance in Western Crimea, north of Kalamita Bay. Yevpatoria serves as the administrative center of Yevpatoria Municipality, one of the districts (raions) into which Crimea is divided. Population: 105,719 (2014 Census).[1]

History

Greek settlement

The first recorded settlement in the area, called Kerkinitis (Κερκινίτις), was built by Greek colonists around 500 BCE. Along with the rest of the Crimea, Kerkinitis formed part of the dominions of King Mithridates VI Eupator (r. 120–63 BCE), from whose nickname, Eupator "of noble father" the city's modern name derives.

Khanate period

From roughly the 7th through the 10th centuries, Yevpatoria was a Khazar settlement; its name in Khazar language was probably Güzliev (literally "beautiful house").[2] It was later subject to the Cumans (Kipchaks), the Mongols and the Crimean Khanate. During this period the city was called Kezlev by Crimean Tatars and Gözleve by Ottoman Turks. The Russian medieval name Kozlov is a Russification of the Crimean Tatar name. For a short period between 1478 and 1485, the city was administrated by the Ottoman Empire. Afterwards, it became an important urban center of the Crimean Khanate.

The 400-year-old Juma-Jami Mosque is one of the many designed by the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. It was built from 1552 until 1564. 35-metre minarets rose on the flanks of the building. The mosque was of great state significance. It was here that a ceremony of the declaration of rights of the Crimean Khans was held at their enthronement. Only after that they went to their capital, the city of Bakhchysarai.

Entrance to one of the Eupatorian Kenassas

Yevpatoria became a residence of the spiritual ruler of the Crimean Karaites, the Ḥakham. In this connection here, a complex of two praying houses was built under the supervision of the Rabovich brothers, in which forms of the Renaissance and Muslim architecture entwined in a most unusual manner. The ensemble organically incorporates three courtyards. The entrance to it is marked by the gates, built in 1900, which look like a refined triumphal arch.

Russian rule

USSR road sign on P25 road in Crimea

In 1783, along with the rest of the Crimea, Kezlev was captured by the Russian Empire. Its name was officially changed to Yevpatoriya in 1784. This spelling of the city name came to the French, German, Spanish and English languages at the end of the 18th сentury.

Polish poet Adam Mickiewicz visited the town in 1825 and wrote one of his Crimean Sonnets here; it was later translated into Russian by Mikhail Lermontov.

The city was occupied in September 1854 by British, French and Turkish troops during the Crimean War prior to the Allied landing in Kalamita Bay, after which the Battle of the Alma south of the bay followed. It became a garrison of Ottoman troops later during the war and was the site of the Battle of Eupatoria in February 1855, which was the largest military clash in the Crimean theatre outside the Sevastopol area.

Since 1930s

Hydro-massage on Lake Moynaki

In 1930s it was a question about the medical profile resort of Yevpatoria. Natural factors create excellent conditions for the treatment of osteo-articular tuberculosis and other children's diseases. In 1933, at a scientific conference in Yalta, it was agreed that among the Soviet resort towns Yevpatoria, Odessa, Anapa, or one of the South Coast of Crimea - the most suitable for the organization of children's resort is Yevpatoria. In Yevpatoria there is a perfect combination of climatic and balneological factors contributing to the healing of the most serious diseases of this time like tuberculosis  [citation needed]. An additional positive factor is the lack of mosquitoes in Yevpatoria, as on the southern coast of Crimea, or mosquitoes as in Anapa.

In 1936, the government decided to determine the place of construction of the All-Union children's resort in Yevpatoria. In 1938, the approved plan of general reconstruction of the city. During World War II, sanatoriums were used as military hospitals. By July 1, 1945 in Yevpatoria operated 14 sanatoriums, have taken 2,885 people. By 1980s, in city operated 78 sanatoriums for 33 thousand people. About one million vacationers visited Yevpatoria in summer time without the purpose of treatment.

Today Yevpatoria is a major Black Sea port, a rail hub, and resort town. The population swells greatly during the summer months, with many residents of northern cities visiting for beach recreation. As such, local residents are heavily employed during summer months but are often underemployed during the winter. The main industries include fishing, food processing, wine making, limestone quarrying, weaving, and the manufacture of building materials, machinery, furniture manufacturing and tourism.

Yevpatoria has spas of mineral water, salt and mud lakes. These resorts belong to a vast area with curative facilities where the main health-improving factors are the sunshine and sea, air and sand, brine and mud of the salt lakes, as well as the mineral water of the hot springs. The population of the town is sure to have known about the curative qualities of the local mud that can be found here from time immemorial, which is witnessed by the manuscripts of Pliny the Elder, a Roman scholar (ca. 80 BC).

On December 24, 2008 a blast destroyed a five-story building in the town. 27 people were killed. President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko declared December 26 to be a day of national mourning.[3][4][5][6][7]

Two beaches in Yevpatoria have been Blue Flag beaches since May 2010, these were the first beaches (with two beaches in Yalta) to be awarded a Blue Flag in a CIS member state.[8]

In 2014 due to the military operation of Russian language forces, the city of Yevpatoria was annexed by the Russia with the entire Crimean peninsula. The UN General Assembly condemned Russian operation and considered annexation the temporary occupation of part of the territory of Ukraine—the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the City of Sevastopol.[9]

Economy and Industry

71-411 tram.
  • Industry, Engineering
  • Agriculture
  • AO Vympel NPO (MicroElectronics and Electronics, circuits microchips IC, Electrical parts, connectors, optoelectronics television and other devices and machinery, metallurgy engineering technology)
  • Eupatoria Aircraft Plant and Repair EupAZ EARZ (An, Mi, Ka, Su, MiG, Yak, Il, Be, Tu; An-22, Su-25, MiG-31, Yak-38, Be-12, transport aircraft and amphibious)
  • Construction, Building

Education

Demographics

Ethnic composition of Yevpatoria in 2001 according to the Ukrainian census:

  1. Russians: 64,9%
  2. Ukrainians: 23,3%
  3. Crimean Tatars: 6,9%
  4. Belarusians: 1,5%
  5. Armenians: 0,5%
  6. Jews: 0,4%
  7. Tatars (excluding Crimean Tatars): 0,2%
  8. Poles: 0,2%
  9. Moldovans: 0,2%
  10. Azerbaijanis: 0,2%

Climate

Yevpatoria has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) under the Köppen climate classification with cool winters and warm to hot summers.

Climate data for Yevpatoria (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
4.9
(40.8)
8.3
(46.9)
14.6
(58.3)
20.7
(69.3)
25.7
(78.3)
28.9
(84.0)
28.8
(83.8)
23.1
(73.6)
16.9
(62.4)
10.5
(50.9)
6.1
(43.0)
16.1
(61.0)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.5
(34.7)
1.6
(34.9)
4.6
(40.3)
10.3
(50.5)
15.9
(60.6)
21.0
(69.8)
23.9
(75.0)
23.6
(74.5)
18.4
(65.1)
12.7
(54.9)
7.0
(44.6)
3.2
(37.8)
12.0
(53.6)
Average low °C (°F) −1.1
(30.0)
−1.3
(29.7)
1.7
(35.1)
6.8
(44.2)
12.0
(53.6)
17.0
(62.6)
19.5
(67.1)
19.0
(66.2)
14.2
(57.6)
9.0
(48.2)
4.1
(39.4)
0.6
(33.1)
8.5
(47.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 30.5
(1.20)
31.1
(1.22)
28.9
(1.14)
29.3
(1.15)
25.1
(0.99)
39.7
(1.56)
31.1
(1.22)
41.4
(1.63)
46.4
(1.83)
33.6
(1.32)
38.8
(1.53)
37.5
(1.48)
413.4
(16.28)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.5 6.3 6.4 4.7 5.0 5.2 3.5 4.1 5.2 4.8 6.7 6.6 65.0
Average relative humidity (%) 83.4 80.8 78.2 74.1 71.8 70.2 64.8 63.9 70.2 76.8 81.9 83.3 75.0
Source: World Meteorological Organization[10]

Area attractions

Famous attractions within or near Yevpatoria are:

The garden at the Karaite Kenasa in Yevpatoria

Famous people from Yevpatoria

Names of asteroid number 6489 and number 24648

Asteroid number 6489 has a name Golevka, which has a complicated origin. In 1995, Golevka was studied simultaneously by three radar observatories across the world: Goldstone in California, Eupatoria RT-70 radio telescope (Yevpatoriya is sometimes romanized as Evpatoria or Eupatoria (Russian origin)) and Kashima in Japan. 'Gol-Ev-Ka' comes from the first few letters of each observatory's name; it was proposed by the discoverer following a suggestion by Alexander L. Zaitsev.

Asteroid 24648 Evpatoria was discovered 1985 Sept. 19 by Nikolai Chernykh and Lyudmila Chernykh at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, and named in honor of Evpatoria (transliteration from Russian to English, thus Yevpatoriya). The minor planet marked the occasion of the 2500th anniversary of the town in 2003.[12]

Twin towns – sister cities

Arms City Nation Since
Ioannina  Greece 1989
FIG.png Figueira da Foz  Portugal 1989
Wappen Ludwigsburg.svg Ludwigsburg  Germany 1992
Zakynthos  Greece 2002
POL Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski COA.svg Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski  Poland 2004
Coat of arms of Krasnogorsky rayon (Moscow oblast).png Krasnogorsky District  Russia 2006
Lambie  Greece 2009
Coat of Arms of Belgorod.svg Belgorod  Russia 2010

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2014). "Таблица 1.3. Численность населения Крымского федерального округа, городских округов, муниципальных районов, городских и сельских поселений" [Table 1.3. Population of Crimean Federal District, Its Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, Urban and Rural Settlements]. Федеральное статистическое наблюдение «Перепись населения в Крымском федеральном округе». ("Population Census in Crimean Federal District" Federal Statistical Examination) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 4, 2016.
  2. ^ Brutzkus, Julius (1944). "The Khazar Origin of Ancient Kiev", Slavonic and East European Review, p. 118
  3. ^ UPDATE: 26 Killed, 5 Hospitalized After Crimea House Blast[permanent dead link], Ukrainian News Agency (December 26, 2008)
  4. ^ Death toll of Crimean blast reaches 27, says Emergencies Ministry, Interfax-Ukraine (December 26, 2008)
  5. ^ Friday Declared Mourning Day In Ukraine For Victims Of Yevpatoriya Gas Explosion Archived 2012-09-13 at archive.today, Ukrainian News Agency (December 26, 2008)
  6. ^ Ukraine mourns Crimea blast dead, BBC News (December 26, 2008)
  7. ^ 27 dead after Ukrainian apartment blast, CNN (December 26, 2008)
  8. ^ Four beaches in Crimea receive international certificates of cleanliness, Kyiv Post (May 12, 2010)
  9. ^ "A/RES/71/205 – E – A/RES/71/205". undocs.org.
  10. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  11. ^ fr:Sémion Ezrovitch Douvan
  12. ^ JPL Small-Body Database, NASA

External links

  • http://evpatoriya-history.info/
  • https://evp.rk.gov.ru/ru/index
  • Yevpatoriya Photo gallery - (in Russian)
  • The murder of the Jews of Yevpatoria during World War II, at Yad Vashem website.
  • https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-12-07/biden-says-illegal-russian-occupation-of-crimea-must-end
  • http://www.kalamit.info/