Zenit-2 rocket ready for launch at Baikonur.
|Founded||July 21, 1944Dnipropetrovsk, USSRin|
|Headquarters||1, Kryvorizhska street,|
|Products||Launch vehicles, ballistic missiles, rocket engines, spacecraft, landing gears, tractors, trolleybuses, castings, forgings|
|Parent||State Space Agency of Ukraine|
The Production Association Yuzhny Machine-Building Plant named after A.M. Makarov, PA Pivdenmash or PA Yuzhmash (Ukrainian: Виробниче Об'єднання Південний Машинобудівний Завод імені А.М. Макарова; Russian: Производственное Объединение Южный Машиностроительный Завод имени А.М. Макарова; literally: Production Union Southern Machine-Building Plant named after A.M. Makarov) is a Ukrainian state-owned aerospace manufacturer. It produces spacecraft, launch vehicles (rockets), liquid-propellant rockets, landing gears, castings, forgings, tractors, tools, and industrial products. The company is headquartered in Dnipro, and reports to the State Space Agency of Ukraine. It works with international aerospace partners in 23 countries.
Yuzhmash operated initially as "plant 586" in the Soviet Union. In 1954 Russian aviation engineer Mikhail Yangel established the autonomous design bureau designated OKB-586, from the former chief designer's division of plant 586. Yangel had previously headed OKB-1 (today RKK Energiya) and was primarily a supporter of liquid fuel technology – unlike Sergei Korolev at OKB-1, who was a supporter of missiles using cryogenic fuels. To pursue development of ballistic missiles using storable liquid fuels, Mikhail Yangel had received authorization to convert the chief designer's division of the plant into an autonomous design bureau. Following this, OKB-586 was designated Southern Design Bureau (better known as Pivdenne) and plant 586 was renamed Southern Machine-Building Plant in 1966, with a focus on the design and production of ballistic missiles. The plant was later renamed Southern Machine-Building Production Union, or Yuzhmash.
Missiles produced at Yuzhmash included the first nuclear armed Soviet rocket R-5M (SS-3 'Shyster'), the R-12 Dvina (SS-4 'Sandal'), the R-14 Chusovaya (SS-5 'Skean'), the first widely deployed Soviet ICBM R-16 (SS-7 'Saddler'), the R-36 (SS-9 'Scarp'), the MR-UR-100 Sotka (SS-17 'Spanker'), and the R-36M (SS-18 'Satan'). During the Soviet era, the plant was capable of producing of up to 120 ICBMs a year. In the late 1980s, Yuzhmash was selected to be the main production facility of the RT-2PM2 Topol-M ICBM (SS-27 "Sickle B").
One line of products added after 1992 are trolleybuses. Models include the articulated YuMZ T1 (1992–2008), its non-articulated brother YuMZ T2 (1993–2008) and more modern YuMZ E-186 (2005–2006) which features a low floor cabin.
In addition to production facilities in Dnipro, Pivdenne Production Association includes the Pavlohrad Mechanical Plant, which specializes in producing solid-fuel missiles. Pivdenmash's importance was further bolstered by its links to Ukraine's former President Leonid Kuchma, who worked at Pivdenmash between 1975 and 1992. He was the plant's general manager from 1986 to 1991.
In February 2015, following a year of strained relations, Russia announced that it would sever its "joint program with Ukraine to launch Dnepr rockets and [was] no longer interested in buying Ukrainian Zenit boosters, deepening problems for [Ukraine's] space program and its struggling Yuzhmash factory."
With the loss of Russian business some thought that the only hope for the company was increased international business which seemed unlikely in the time frame available. Bankruptcy seemed certain as of February 2015, but was averted.
On August 14, 2017, the Institute of International Strategic Studies issued a report presenting evidence that "North Korea has acquired a high-performance liquid-propellant engine from illicit networks in Russia and Ukraine", likely produced by Yuzhmash facilities. Both the company and the Ukrainian government denied the allegation.
An Antares rocket using a Yuzhmash core was launched from Wallops Island in October 2016 to deliver supplies to the ISS. A Zenit rocket was launched in December 2017, after a two-year hiatus, to deliver AngoSat 1.
In March February 2018 Yuzhmash announced plans to develop a testing platform for Hyperloop that was scheduled for completion in 2019 in Dnipro. In September 2019 the (new) Minister of Infrastructure of Ukraine, Vladyslav Krykliy, cancelled this (according to him "absurd") project.
Yuzhmash is known for its military and space industry products, and earned the city of Dnipro the nickname of "Rocket City".
Created in 1944 as Dnipropetrovsk Tractor Factory, it was later expanded.
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