|Country of origin||USSR|
|Operator||Soviet space program|
|Applications||Carry passengers and supplies to low Earth orbit and back|
|Regime||Low Earth orbit|
The Zarya spacecraft (Russian: Заря, lit. 'Dawn') was a secret Soviet project of the late 1980s aiming to design and build a large crewed vertical-takeoff, vertical-landing (VTVL) reusable space capsule, a much larger replacement for the Soyuz (spacecraft). The project was developed during 1985 - 1989 years by Energia corporation until it was shelved in 1989, "on the eve of the Soviet Union's collapse" due to lack of funding. The name of the project was later reused by the Zarya space station module which served as the first component of International Space Station in 1998.
The Zarya spacecraft would have differed from all previous spacecraft by having an array of a dozen rockets engines for making a soft landing upon return to Earth, without using a parachute.
Zarya spacecraft would have brought crew and supplies to Mir, or supplies only in automated mode. It would have had a normal crew of one or two, and offered the possibility of carrying a maximum of eight to twelve if used as a Mir lifeboat.
RKK Energia, ... in the 1980s ... worked on a highly classified project to develop a large manned capsule, called Zarya ("Dawn"), for a wide range of civilian and military missions.