1836 United States House of Representatives elections

← 1834 July 4, 1836 – November 7, 1837 1838 →

All 242 United States House of Representatives seats
Majority: 122 seats
  Majority party Minority party
  James Knox Polk by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg JohnBellSecretaryofWar.png
Leader James K. Polk John Bell
Party Democratic Whig
Leader's seat Tennessee-9th Tennessee-7th
Last election 143 seats 75 seats
Seats won 128[1][Note 1] 100[1][Note 1]
Seat change Decrease 15 Increase 25

  Third party Fourth party
 
Leader Thomas Henry John K. Griffin
Party Anti-Masonic Nullifier
Leader's seat Pennsylvania-22nd South Carolina-9th
Last election 16 seats 8 seats
Seats won 7 6[Note 1]
Seat change Decrease 9 Decrease 2

Speaker before election

James K. Polk
Democratic

Elected Speaker

James K. Polk
Democratic

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 25th Congress were held at various dates in different states from July 1836 to November 1837.

Though Democrat Martin Van Buren was elected President in November 1836, Democrats lost seats. The newly organizing Whigs benefited from regional candidacies and issues and voter fatigue with outgoing two-term President Andrew Jackson. Jackson, a flamboyant public personality with a record of high-profile leadership and historic military success, often clashed with Congress and the Supreme Court. By comparison, Van Buren, a brilliant partisan organizer and political operative, was less charismatic in looks and demeanor. Voter support for the minor Anti-Masonic and Nullifier parties ebbed, but remained significant. One Independent, John Pope, was elected from Kentucky.[2]

Election summaries

128 6 7 1 100
Democratic N AM I Whig
State Type Date Total
seats
Democratic[Note 2] Whig[Note 3] Anti-Masonic Nullifier Independent
Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change Seats Change
Louisiana District July 4–6, 1836 3 1 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District August 1, 1836 3 3 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Missouri At-large August 1, 1836 2 2 Increase1 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont District September 6, 1836 5 1 Increase1 4 Increase1 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maine District September 12, 1836 8 6 Steady 2 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Georgia At-large October 3, 1836 9 8 Decrease1 1 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
South Carolina District October 10–11, 1836 9 2 Steady 1 Increase1 0 Steady 6 Decrease1 0 Steady
Ohio District October 11, 1836 19 8 Decrease1 11 Increase2 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
Pennsylvania District (25)[Note 4] October 11, 1836 28 18 Increase1 3 Steady 7 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady
New York District (33)[Note 5] November 7–9, 1836 40 30 Decrease1 10 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Delaware At-large November 8, 1836 1 0 Steady 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District November 14, 1836 12 2 Increase1 10 Increase2 0 Decrease3 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Jersey At-large November 16, 1836 6 0 Decrease6 6 Increase6 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
New Hampshire At-large March 14, 1837 5 5 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Connecticut District[Note 6] April 3, 1837 6 6 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Virginia District April 27, 1837 21 15 Decrease1 6 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large July 17–18, 1837[Note 7]
2 2 Increase1 0 Decrease1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Maryland District (7)[Note 8] July 26, 1837 8 4 Steady 4 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Tennessee District August 3, 1837 13 3 Decrease1 10 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Indiana District August 7, 1837 7 1 Decrease5 6 Increase5 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Kentucky District August 7, 1837 13 1 Decrease3 11 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady 1[Note 9] Increase1
Alabama District August 8, 1837 5 3 Steady 2 Increase1 0 Steady 0 Decrease1 0 Steady
North Carolina District August 10, 1837 13 5 Decrease2 8 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Michigan At-large August 22, 1837 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Rhode Island At-large August 29, 1837 2 0 Steady 2 Increase2 0 Decrease2 0 Steady 0 Steady
Arkansas At-large October 2, 1837 1 1 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Mississippi At-large November 6–7, 1837[Note 10]
April 23–24, 1838[Note 11]
2 0 Decrease2 2 Increase2 0 Steady 0 Steady 0 Steady
Total[Note 12] 242 128
52.9%
Decrease15 100
41.3%
Increase25 7
2.9%
Decrease9 6
2.5%
Decrease2 1
0.4%
Increase1
House seats
Democratic
52.89%
Whig
41.32%
Anti-Masonic
2.89%
Nullifier
2.48%
Independent
0.41%

A special election was held in Mississippi on July 17–18, 1837. Its winners were Democrats John F. H. Claiborne and Samuel J. Gholson. The first session of the 25th Congress was a special session beginning on September 4, 1837, extending to October 16. In November, Mississippi held the regular election. Seargent Smith Prentiss, a Vicksburg lawyer and Whig, unexpectedly launched a vigorous, partisan campaign. He and fellow Whig Thomas J. Word won in an upset. Claiborne and Gholson then argued that the July result entitled them to serve full terms. With the Whig Party newly organizing, the closely divided House, in which Anti-Masons, Nullifiers, and the Independent tended to align more with Whigs and to oppose Democrats, agreed to hear Prentiss. He spoke for nine hours over three days, packing the gallery, drawing Senators, and earning a national reputation for oratory and public admiration from leading Whigs including Senators Clay and Webster. The Elections Committee then required a third election. Scheduled for April 1838, it confirmed the November result. Both Whigs were seated in May late in the second session, also serving for the third session.

Complete returns

Pennsylvania

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates[Note 13][3]
Pennsylvania 1 Joel B. Sutherland Jacksonian 1826 Lost re-election
Democratic hold
Lemuel Paynter (D) 55.3%
Joel B. Sutherland (W[Note 14]) 44.7%
Pennsylvania 2
Plural district with 2 seats
Joseph R. Ingersoll Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Retired
Whig hold
John Sergeant (W) 63.1%
George W. Toland (W) 63.0%

Read Longstreth (D) 37.7%
John M. Morris (D) 36.3%
James Harper Anti-Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Whig hold
Pennsylvania 3 Michael W. Ash Jacksonian 1834 Retired
Democratic hold
Francis J. Harper (D) 50.5%
Charles Naylor[Note 15] (W) 49.5%
Pennsylvania 4
Plural district with 3 seats
William Hiester Anti-Masonic 1830 Retired
Anti-Masonic hold
David Potts, Jr. (AM[Note 16]) 53.8%
Edward Darlington (AM[Note 16]) 53.6%
Edward Davies (AM[Note 16]) 53.6%

Samuel Leiper (D) 46.4%
John K. Findley (D) 46.3%
John W. Cunningham (D) 46.3%
Edward Darlington Anti-Masonic 1832 Re-elected
David Potts, Jr. Anti-Masonic 1830 Re-elected
Pennsylvania 5 Jacob Fry, Jr. Jacksonian 1834 Re-elected Jacob Fry, Jr. (D) 61.9%
Daniel M. Mulvaney (W) 38.1%
Pennsylvania 6 Mathias Morris Anti-Jacksonian 1834 Re-elected Mathias Morris (W) 51.4%
John Rockman (D) 48.6%
Pennsylvania 7 David D. Wagener Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected David D. Wagener (D) 73.7%
Jacob Weygandt (W) 26.3%
Pennsylvania 8 Edward B. Hubley Jacksonian 1834 Re-elected Edward B. Hubley (D) 54.2%
William Audenried (AM) 45.8%
Pennsylvania 9 Henry A. P. Muhlenberg Jacksonian 1828 Re-elected Henry A. P. Muhlenberg (D) 57.5%
Henry W. Smith (W) 42.5%
Pennsylvania 10 William Clark Anti-Masonic 1832 Retired
Democratic gain
Luther Reily (D) 50.8%
George W. Harris (W) 49.2%
Pennsylvania 11 Henry Logan Jacksonian 1834 Re-elected Henry Logan (D) 58.2%
Jacob Kirk (W) 41.8%
Pennsylvania 12 George Chambers Anti-Masonic 1832 Retired
Democratic gain
Daniel Sheffer (D) 50.5%
G. James McSherry (AM) 49.5%
Pennsylvania 13 Jesse Miller Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
Charles McClure (D) 57.5%
William Sharon (W) 42.5%
Pennsylvania 14 Joseph Henderson Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
William W. Potter (D) 59.6%
John Williamson (AM) 38.2%
John Ashman (AM) 2.2%
Pennsylvania 15 Andrew Beaumont Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
David Petrikin (D) 52.1%
John McReynolds (W) 47.9%
Pennsylvania 16 Joseph B. Anthony Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
Robert H. Hammond (D) 59.1%
Ebenezer Greenough (A) 40.9%
Pennsylvania 17 John Laporte Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
Samuel W. Morris (D) 60.2%
William Jessup (W) 39.8%
Pennsylvania 18 Job Mann Jacksonian 1832 Lost re-election
Anti-Masonic gain
Charles Ogle (AM) 51.7%
Job Mann (D) 48.3%
Pennsylvania 19 John Klingensmith, Jr. Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected John Klingensmith, Jr. (D) 58.0%
James Moorhead (W) 42.0%
Pennsylvania 20 Andrew Buchanan Jacksonian 1832 Re-elected Andrew Buchanan (D) 100%
Pennsylvania 21 Thomas M. T. McKennan Anti-Masonic 1830 Re-elected Thomas M. T. McKennan (AM) 52.2%
Thomas Ringland (D) 47.8%
Pennsylvania 22 Harmar Denny Anti-Masonic 1829 (special) Retired
Anti-Masonic hold
Richard Biddle (AM) 51.4%
Trevanion B. Dallas (D) 48.6%
Pennsylvania 23 Samuel S. Harrison Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
William Beatty (D) 56.5%
Joseph Buffington (W) 43.5%
Pennsylvania 24 Previous incumbent John Banks (AM) resigned April 2, 1836 Anti-Masonic hold Thomas Henry (AM) 56.1%
John R. Shannon (D) 43.9%
Pennsylvania 25 John Galbraith Jacksonian 1832 Retired
Democratic hold
Arnold Plumer (D) 54.4%
David Dick (W) 45.6%

Pennsylvania held two special elections during the 25th Congress. The first was in the 3rd district caused by the death of Francis J. Harper (D) on March 18, 1837. This vacancy was filled by Charles Naylor (W). The second was in the 9th district caused by the resignation of Henry A. P. Muhlenberg (D) on February 9, 1838. This vacancy was filled by George Keim (D).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Dubin (p. 119) records only 99 Whigs, with a vacancy in TN-04 (which was later filled by a Whig). Dubin also records 132 Democrats, and only 2 Nullifiers. Figures listed here defer to Martis (p. 94).
  2. ^ Previously Jacksonian
  3. ^ Previously Anti-Jacksonian
  4. ^ Includes two plural districts, one with three Representatives
  5. ^ Includes five plural districts, one with four Representatives
  6. ^ Changed from at-large
  7. ^ Special election
  8. ^ Includes one plural district
  9. ^ John Pope won as an Independent and would run later as a Whig
  10. ^ Regular election
  11. ^ Third election after disputed result, confirmed result of regular election
  12. ^ Does not foot state results listed above due to special election and Independent Representative
    Total reflects https://history.house.gov/Congressional-Overview/Profiles/25th/
  13. ^ For plural districts, percent is based on assumption that each voter cast as many votes as there are seats
  14. ^ Changed parties
  15. ^ Won subsequent special election
  16. ^ a b c Joint Whig/Anti-Masonic ticket

References

  1. ^ a b Martis, p. 94.
  2. ^ Dubin, p. 117; Martis, p. 94; Moore, p. 966.
  3. ^ Wilkes University Elections Statistics Project

Bibliography

  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External links

  • Office of the Historian (Office of Art & Archives, Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives)