Arthgal ap Dyfnwal
King of Alt Clut
Refer to caption
Arthgal's title as it appears on folio 25v of Oxford Bodleian Library Rawlinson B 489 (the Annals of Ulster).[1]
Reign×872
PredecessorDyfnwal ap Rhydderch
SuccessorRhun ab Arthgal
Died872
FatherDyfnwal ap Rhydderch

Arthgal ap Dyfnwal (died 872) was a ninth-century King of Alt Clut.[note 1] He descended from a long line of rulers of the British Kingdom of Alt Clut. Either he or his father, Dyfnwal ap Rhydderch, King of Alt Clut, may have reigned when the Britons are recorded to have burned Pictish ecclesiastical site of Dunblane in 849.

In 870, the seat of Arthgal's realm—the island fortress of Alt Clut—was besieged by the Viking kings Amlaíb and Ímar. After four months, the fortress fell to the Vikings, who are recorded to have transported a vast prey of British, Pictish, and English captives back to Ireland. The fall of Alt Clut marked a watershed in the history of Arthgal's realm. Afterwards, the capital of the kingdom appears to have relocated up the River Clyde to the vicinity of Govan and Partick, and became known as the Kingdom of Strathclyde.

Two years after the fall of Alt Clut, Arthgal is recorded to have been assassinated at the behest of Causantín mac Cináeda, King of the Picts. The circumstances surrounding Arthgal's death or uncertain. Whilst it is possible he was captured by the Vikings in 870 and slain whilst still in captivity, it is also possible that he was reigning as king when he died. The fact that Arthgal's succeeding son, Rhun, was Causantín's brother-in-law could be evidence that Arthgal was killed to make way for Rhun. Another possibility is that, following the destruction of Alt Clut, Arthgal ruled as a puppet king under Vikings. If so, this could also account for Causantín's actions. On the other hand, Causantín may have merely acted out of sheer opportunism, and Rhun may have succeeded to the throne without his assistance. In any event, either Arthgal or Rhun could have been the first kings to rule as King of Strathclyde.

Family

Map of Britain and Ireland
Locations relating to Arthgal's life and times.

According to a pedigree preserved within a collection of tenth-century Welsh genealogical material known as the Harleian genealogies, Arthgal descended from a long line of kings of Alt Clut.[11] The genealogy specifies that Arthgal was the son of Dyfnwal ap Rhydderch, King of Alt Clut,[12] an otherwise unknown ruler.[13]

In about 849, the ninth- to twelfth-century Chronicle of the Kings of Alba reports that Britons burned Dunblane, a Pictish ecclesiastical centre seated on the southern Pictish border.[14] This attack took place during the reign of Cináed mac Ailpín, King of the Picts,[15] and may have been overseen by either Arthgal[16] or Dyfnwal.[13] This notice of penetration into Pictish territory is the first record of British activity since the midpoint of the eighth century.[17][note 2] The razing of Dunblane could be evidence that the British Kingdom of Alt Clut was in the process of extending its authority at the expense of the Pictish regime. If so, the kings of Alt Clut would appear to have seized upon the chaos wrought by contemporaneous Viking attacks upon the Picts.[18]

King of Alt Clut

Photograph of geological formation of Alt Clut
The fortress of Alt Clut occupied Alt Clut ("the rock of the Clyde").[19] The mediaeval citadel that sat atop this geological formation formed the capital of the Kingdom of Alt Clut before it was captured and destroyed by Amlaíb and Ímar.

In 870, the fifteenth- to sixteenth-century Annals of Ulster,[20] and the eleventh-century Fragmentary Annals of Ireland reveal that the insular Scandinavian kings Amlaíb and Ímar laid siege to Alt Clut, and succeeded in capturing the fortress after a blockade of four months.[21][note 3] The destruction of Alt Clut is also documented by Welsh sources such as the eleventh- to thirteenth-century Annales Cambriæ,[24] and the thirteenth- and fourteenth-century texts Brenhinedd y Saesson[25] and Brut y Tywysogyon.[26] The fact that such far-off sources make note of the event may exemplify the alarm caused by the Vikings' successes throughout Britain.[27] According to Fragmentary Annals of Ireland, Alt Clut only fell to attacks after the well went dry.[28] One possibility is that the Vikings had successfully secured control of the well that saddles Dumbarton Rock, thereby denying the Britons access to fresh water.[13][note 4]

The following year, the twelfth-century Chronicon Scotorum,[30] the Annals of Ulster,[31] and the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland reveal that Amlaíb and Ímar returned to Ireland with a fleet of two hundred ships, and a mass of captives identified as English, British, and Pictish.[32][note 5] The exportation of these people to Ireland is also attested by Annales Xantenses, a ninth-century German source.[34] The captives could have been meant for ransom,[35] or may have been intended for the Dublin slave market.[36] It is possible that Arthgal and his family were amongst those imprisoned.[37]

Refer to caption
The name and title of Arthgal's adversary Amlaíb as it appears on folio 25r Oxford Bodleian Library Rawlinson B 489.[38] The Viking kings of Dublin were accorded the Gaelic title rí Gall ("king of the Foreigners").[39]

The reasons behind the attack are uncertain. On one hand, it is possible that Alt Clut was targeted because it was regarded as a rich target.[40] On the other hand, the remarkable duration of the siege could indicate that, instead of merely plundering Arthgal's realm, Amlaíb and Ímar specifically sought and succeeded in capturing the capital.[41][note 6] It could be that Amlaíb and Ímar regarded the kings of Alt Clut as an active threat to their maritime interests,[43] and that the fortress of Alt Clut served the Britons much like how longphuirt were utilised as naval bases by the Vikings in Ireland.[44] The destruction of the citadel may have allowed the Vikings to gain unrestricted access into central Scotland.[45] On one hand, the recorded ethnicity of the Vikings' captives could reveal that the Britons of Alt Clut possessed many English and Pictish slaves or subjects.[46] On the other hand, the recorded ethnicities may be evidence that Alt Clut's fall was the only recorded incident in what may have been a series of coeval Viking campaigns in the region,[47] and may indicate that Amlaíb and Ímar not only established overlordship over the Strathclyde British, but that they also asserted power not only over the English of Lothian but throughout the Pictish realm.[48][note 7] Although it is possible that the Scandinavians sought a connecting route between Dublin and York,[52] the fact that there are no waterways or suitable portages that bridge the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth may well be evidence against this.[44] The fact that the Fragmentary Annals of Ireland seems to show that Amlaíb promptly returned to Britain in about 872 could be evidence that the assault on Alt Clut was undertaken in the context of territorial conquest/control rather than the mere acquisition of portable wealth.[53][note 8]

Death and succession

Refer to caption
The name of Causantín mac Cináeda, the brother-in-law of Arthgal's son, and the man who instigated Arthgal's death, as it appears on folio 29v of Paris Bibliothèque Nationale Latin 4126 (the Poppleton manuscript): "Constantinus filius Kinet".[55]

Arthgal died in 872.[56] The Annals of Ulster,[57] and Chronicon Scotorum reveal that he was slain at the behest of Causantín mac Cináeda, King of the Picts.[58][note 9] Rhun, Arthgal's only known son,[61] is the last king to be listed in the Harleian pedigree that pertains to Arthgal.[62]

If Rhun succeeded Arthgal—as seems likely[63]—it is uncertain how long he outlived him.[64] Despite Causantín's part in Arthgal's demise, Rhun is otherwise known to have married a sister of Causantín at some point.[65][note 10] Although the circumstances surrounding Arthgal's assassination are unknown,[67] the familial relationship between Causantín and Rhun could be evidence that Arthgal's demise was orchestrated to allow Rhun gain the throne.[68] One possibility is that Rhun had been exiled from his father's realm, and had been living in exile at the Pictish royal court when Amlaíb and Ímar commenced their campaign.[69] This could mean that Causantín acted to offset any rival Rhun had in regard to the British kingship.[70] Conversely, if there was no strife between Rhun and Arthgal, Causantín's actions against the latter could have been carried out in the context of an intrusive and aggressive neighbour.[69]

Black and white photograph of a mounted warrior inscribed upon a stone sarcophagus
A mounted warrior displayed upon the Govan sarcophagus.[71] This monument is perhaps the finest example of the so-called 'Govan School' of sculpture. The sarcophagus could to be that of Arthgal's adversary, Causantín.[72]

Arthgal's elimination may have been carried out in the context of an attempt by Causantín to capitalise upon the political turmoil wrought by the Viking onslaught.[73] The destruction of Alt Clut marks the last time the fortress appears on record until the thirteenth century.[74][note 11] Although the site could have served as a Viking military base following the British defeat,[76] there is no archaeological evidence evincing its use as a seat of lordship until later centuries.[77] Perhaps the site was discredited, and came to be regarded as unsuitable to the ruling dynasty thereafter.[78] Certainly, the British capital appears to have shifted up the River Clyde to the vicinity of Govan[79] and Partick.[80] Whilst the former site—on the north bank of the River Clyde—appears to have utilised by Arthgal's eighth-century predecessors,[81] the latter site—on the south bank—could well have been used at least a century earlier.[82]

Black and white sketch of the banks of the River Clyde in the eighteenth century showing a hill upon the bank
An eighteenth-century engraving of the southern bank of the River Clyde at Govan. The scene shows a now-nonexistent artificial hill that could to have been the royal assembly site of the Kingdom of Strathclyde following the fall of Alt Clut.[83][note 12]

This relocation of the capital seems to be borne out by surviving documentary sources. Until the fall of Alt Clut, for example, the rulers of the realm were styled after the fortress. After the loss of this site, the Kingdom of Alt Clut came to be known as the Kingdom of Strathclyde in consequence of its reorientation towards Ystrat Clut (Strathclyde), the valley of the River Clyde.[86] Arthgal himself is styled King of the Strathclyde Britons upon his death in 872[87]—the first use of this terminology by Irish sources.[88] Whilst it is possible that Arthgal met his end in Ireland at the hands of his Viking captors,[89] the title accorded to him on his death could be evidence that had instead been ruling the new Kingdom of Strathclyde.[90] In fact, it is possible that he or Rhun was the first monarch to rule this realm.[91]

There is also reason to suspect that Arthgal's death occurred in the context of conflict with the Picts.[92] For example, the twelfth-century Prophecy of Berchán attributes four victories to Causantín, with the fourth described as that of Cath Lures—a location possibly identical to Glasgow—where he overcame the "king of the Britons of the green mantles". This source, coupled with Arthgal's obituaries, could indicate that Causantín had Arthgal executed or assassinated after defeating him in battle.[93] Such an event may account for the specific records of Causantín's role in Arthgal's demise.[94] Another possibility is that, following the conquest of Alt Clut, Arthgal ruled as a puppet king under Amlaíb and Ímar. Certainly, the Vikings utilised royal puppets in the conquered English kingdoms of Northumbria and East Anglia. A similar relationship between Arthgal and Viking power could explain Causantín's role in Arthgal's demise, and could explain how Rhun succeeded to the throne. There is also reason to suspect that, as a result of Rhun's assumption of power, Causantín gained overlordship over the kingdom.[95] In any event, Arthgal's apparent elimination at Causantín's instigation would appear to have removed the Picts of a neighbouring adversary, and would have served to increase Causantín's authority and reputation.[96]

Ancestry

Notes

  1. ^ Since the 1990s, academics have accorded Arthgal various names in English secondary sources: Artgal,[2] Arthal,[3] and Arthgal.[4] Since the 1990s, academics have accorded Arthgal various patronyms in English secondary sources: Arthal ap Dyfnwal,[5] Arthgal ap Dyfnwal,[6] Arthgal map Dumnagual,[7] and Arthgal map Dyfnwal.[8] Arthgal's name—Artgal (Old Irish), Arthgal (Old Welsh), Arthal (Middle Welsh)—is possibly derived from the Old Celtic *Artogalno-, a personal name meaning "having the vigour of a bear", "vigorous like a bear".[9] As such, Artgal can be taken to mean "one who is fierce or valorous as a bear".[10]
  2. ^ Alt Clut was earlier attacked by a combined force of Picts and Northumbrians in about 756, and when Arthgal's predecessor, Dyfnwal ap Tewdwr, King of Alt Clut, died in 760.[17]
  3. ^ The attack is also reported by the reconstructed Chronicle of Ireland.[22] The attack is the first notice of the fortress since the report by the Annals of Ulster that Alt Clut was burned on 1 January 780.[23]
  4. ^ The fall of Alt Clut may have been the subject of a particular prímscél ("chief tale")—Argain Sratha Cluada—that is mentioned by the thirteenth-century Book of Leinster.[29]
  5. ^ The triumphant return of Amlaíb and Ímar with their prisoners is also reported by the reconstructed Chronicle of Ireland.[33]
  6. ^ Alt Clut had evidently been the principal stronghold of the Strathclyde Britons since the fifth century.[42]
  7. ^ Another possibility is that the notice of English captives refers to prisoners seized in Anglo-Saxon England by the Great Army.[49] Whilst there is reason to suspect that Ímar is identical to Ingware, an apparent leader of the Great Army,[50] such an indentification is nevertheless uncertain.[51]
  8. ^ The Fragmentary Annals of Ireland specifically states that Amlaíb travelled to Lochlainn. Although this term (and variants of this term) certainly refers to Norway by the eleventh century, there is reason to suspect that, in this instance, it refers to a Scandinavian-dominated part of Scotland.[54]
  9. ^ Arthgal's death is also reported by the reconstructed Chronicle of Ireland.[59] His recorded fate echoes that of Cathalán mac Indrechtaig, a contemporaneous King of the Ulaid who appears to have been killed at instigation of Áed Findliath, a claimant to the Irish high-kingship.[60]
  10. ^ This marital alliance may have been contracted in the context of repairing relations between the Britons of Alt Clut and the Picts following the attack on Dunblane in 849.[66]
  11. ^ Over time, the fortress came to be known in Gaelic as *Dún Bretan (Scottish Gaelic Dùn Breatann), meaning "the fort of the Britons".[75]
  12. ^ This site—identified in local tradition as "Doomster Hill"—was destroyed in the nineteenth century.[84] The stepped sides of the hill are similar to those of some Scandinavian assembly sites in Britain and Ireland.[85]

Citations

  1. ^ The Annals of Ulster (2017) § 872.5; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 872.5; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 489 (n.d.).
  2. ^ Evans (2015); Clarkson (2014); Woolf (2010); Woolf (2007); Calise (2002); Ó Corráin (1998a); Ó Corráin (1998b); Williams; Smyth; Kirby (1991).
  3. ^ Charles-Edwards (2013); Downham (2007); Dumville (1999).
  4. ^ Edmonds (2015); Edmonds (2014); Hudson, B (2014); Walker (2013); Clarkson (2012a); Clarkson (2012b); Oram (2011); Clarkson (2010); Clancy (2009); Woolf (2007); Clancy (2006a); Clancy (2006b); Clancy (2006c); Broun (2004a); Broun (2004b); Hicks (2003); Hudson, BT (2002); Hudson, BT (1998); Macquarrie (1998); Hudson, BT (1994).
  5. ^ Charles-Edwards (2013).
  6. ^ Clarkson (2010); Bartrum (2009).
  7. ^ Clancy (2006a).
  8. ^ Macquarrie (1990).
  9. ^ Zimmer (2009) p. 133.
  10. ^ Ó Corráin; Maguire (1981) pp. 24–25.
  11. ^ Guy (2016) pp. 22–23; Clarkson (2014) chs. genealogical tables, 1; Edmonds (2014) p. 201; Clarkson (2010) chs. genealogical tables, 2, 8; Bartrum (2009) p. 29; Clancy (2006c); Dumville (1999) p. 110; Macquarrie (1998) pp. 3–12; Woolf (1998) pp. 159–160; Williams; Smyth; Kirby (1991) p. 134; Macquarrie (1990) p. 7; Anderson, AO (1922) pp. clvii–clviii; Phillimore (1888) pp. 172–173; Skene (1867) p. 15.
  12. ^ Clarkson (2014) chs. genealogical tables; Clarkson (2010) ch. genealogical tables; Bartrum (2009) pp. 29, 241; Dumville (1999) p. 110; Macquarrie (1998) p. 12; Anderson, AO (1922) pp. clvii–clviii; Phillimore (1888) pp. 172–173; Skene (1867) p. 15.
  13. ^ a b c Macquarrie (1998) p. 12.
  14. ^ Evans (2015) p. 150; McNiven (2014) p. 53; Clarkson (2010) ch. 8 ¶ 19; Downham (2007) p. 162; Woolf (2007) pp. 93–95; Davidson (2002) p. 126, 128 n. 75; Macquarrie (1998) p. 12; Hudson, BT (1998) pp. 148, 153; Anderson, AO (1922) p. 288; Skene (1867) p. 8.
  15. ^ Evans (2015) p. 150; Clarkson (2012a) ch. 8 ¶ 19; Clarkson (2010) ch. 8 ¶ 19; Downham (2007) p. 162; Woolf (2007) p. 101; Anderson, MO (2004); Macquarrie (1998) p. 12 n. 3.
  16. ^ Macquarrie (1998) p. 12; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 52; Macquarrie (1990) p. 7.
  17. ^ a b Gough-Cooper (2015a) p. 16 § a320.2, p. 16 n. 102; Gough-Cooper (2015b) p. 33 § b789.2; Woolf (2007) p. 101; Macquarrie (1990) pp. 6–7; Anderson, AO (1922) p. 243, 243 n. 5; Anderson, AO (1908) p. 57; Arnold (1885) pp. 40–41; Stevenson (1855) p. 448.
  18. ^ Downham (2007) p. 162.
  19. ^ Yorke (2009) p. 49.
  20. ^ Jorgensen (2017) 48, 48 n. 145; The Annals of Ulster (2017) § 870.6; Gough-Cooper (2015a) p. 22 n. 145; Gough-Cooper (2015b) p. 38 n. 99; McLeod, S (2015) pp. 3, 11; Edmonds (2014) p. 200; Hudson, B (2014) p. 203; Charles-Edwards (2013) p. 480; Downham (2013) p. 17; Fraser (2012) p. 71; McLeod, SH (2011) pp. 123–124; Clarkson (2010) ch. 8 ¶ 20; Davies (2009) p. 73, 73 n. 35; Ó Corráin (2008) p. 430; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 870.6; Downham (2007) pp. 66–67, 142, 240, 258; Woolf (2007) p. 109; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 88; Costambeys (2004); Hicks (2003) p. 34; Valante (1998–1999) p. 245; Driscoll, ST (1998a) p. 112; Macquarrie (1998) p. 12; Ó Corráin (1998a) § 38; Ó Corráin (1998b) p. 331; Crawford (1997) p. 50; Smyth (1989) p. 215; Holm (1986) p. 321; Brooks (1979) p. 6; McTurk, RW (1976) p. 117 n. 173; Alcock (1975–1976) p. 106; Anderson, AO (1922) p. 301; Beaven (1918) p. 337 n. 36.
  21. ^ Walker (2013) ch. 1 ¶ 40; Downham (2011) p. 192; Gigov (2011) p. 23; Clarkson (2010) ch. 8 ¶ 20; Fragmentary Annals of Ireland (2010) § 388; Fragmentary Annals of Ireland (2008) § 388; Downham (2007) p. 142; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 88; Macquarrie (1998) p. 12; Ó Corráin (1998a) § 38 n. 141; Ó Corráin (1998b) p. 331 n. 149; Crawford (1997) p. 50; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 50; Cowan (1981) p. 10; Anderson, AO (1922) p. 302.
  22. ^ Edmonds (2014) p. 200; Charles-Edwards (2006) p. 322 § 870.6.
  23. ^ The Annals of Ulster (2017) § 780.1; Bartrum (2009) p. 29; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 780.1; Cowan (1981) p. 10; Alcock (1975–1976) p. 106.
  24. ^ Gough-Cooper (2015a) p. 22 § a432.1; Gough-Cooper (2015b) p. 38 § b897.1; Lathe; Smith (2015) § 19; Edmonds (2014) p. 200; Charles-Edwards (2013) p. 480; McLeod, SH (2011) pp. 171–172 n. 339; Clarkson (2010) ch. 8 ¶ 20; Davies (2009) p. 73, 73 n. 35; Downham (2007) p. 203; Hicks (2003) p. 16; Macquarrie (1998) p. 12; Ó Corráin (1998a) § 38 n. 141; Ó Corráin (1998b) p. 331 n. 149; Cowan (1981) p. 10; Alcock (1975–1976) p. 106; Anderson, AO (1922) p. 302.
  25. ^ Edmonds (2014) p. 200; Downham (2007) p. 203; Alcock (1975–1976) p. 106; Anderson, AO (1922) p. 302 n. 7; Jones; Williams; Pughe (1870) p. 655.
  26. ^ Downham (2007) p. 203; Rhŷs; Evans (1890) p. 259; Williams Ab Ithel (1860) pp. 14–15.
  27. ^ Downham (2007) p. 203.
  28. ^ Walker (2013) ch. 1 ¶ 40; Clarkson (2010) ch. 8 ¶ 20; Fragmentary Annals of Ireland (2010) § 388; Downham (2007) p. 142; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 88; Fragmentary Annals of Ireland (2008) § 388; Macquarrie (1998) p. 12; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 50; Alcock (1975–1976) p. 106; Anderson, AO (1922) p. 302.
  29. ^ Edmonds (2014) pp. 207–208, 208 n. 69; Hudson, B (2014) p. 203; Book of Leinster (2012) §§ 24980–24985; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 50 Macquarrie (1994) p. 200.
  30. ^ Edmonds (2014) p. 200; Chronicon Scotorum (2012) § 871; Chronicon Scotorum (2010) § 871; Broun (2007) p. 80; Downham (2007) pp. 240, 259; Kelly; Maas (1999) p. 144; Anderson, AO (1922) p. 303 n. 1.
  31. ^ The Annals of Ulster (2017) § 871.2; Wadden (2016) p. 176; McLeod, S (2015) pp. 3, 11; Edmonds (2014) p. 200; Hudson, B (2014) p. 204; Downham (2013) p. 17, 17 n. 38; Gigov (2011) p. 23; McLeod, SH (2011) pp. 123–124, 171–172 n. 339; Clarkson (2010) ch. 8 ¶ 20; Ó Corráin (2008) p. 430; Sheehan (2008) p. 289; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 871.2; Broun (2007) p. 80; Downham (2007) pp. 22–23, 66–67, 142, 240, 259; Woolf (2007) p. 109; Costambeys (2004); Hicks (2003) p. 34; Hudson, BT (2002) p. 33; Sawyer (2001) p. 10; Kelly; Maas (1999) p. 144; Driscoll, ST (1998a) p. 112; Macquarrie (1998) p. 12; Ó Corráin (1998a) § 38; Ó Corráin (1998b) p. 331; Smyth (1989) p. 215; Holm (1986) p. 321, 321 n. 10; Pelteret (1980) p. 106, 106 n. 64; Ó Corráin (1979) p. 319; Alcock (1975–1976) p. 106; Anderson, AO (1922) pp. 302–303; Beaven (1918) p. 337 n. 36.
  32. ^ Downham (2011) p. 192; Fragmentary Annals of Ireland (2010) § 393; Fragmentary Annals of Ireland (2008) § 393; Downham (2007) pp. 142, 240, 259; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 88; Kelly; Maas (1999) p. 144; Macquarrie (1998) p. 12; Ó Corráin (1998a) § 38 n. 142; Ó Corráin (1998b) p. 331 n. 150; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 51; Ó Murchadha (1992–1993) p. 59; Anderson, AO (1922) p. 303 n. 1.
  33. ^ Edmonds (2014) p. 200; Charles-Edwards (2006) p. 322 § 871.2.
  34. ^ Sheehan (2008) p. 294 n. 64; Holm (1986) p. 321, 321 n. 11; De Simon (1909) p. 30 § 871.
  35. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 88.
  36. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 9; McLeod, SH (2011) p. 124; Sheehan (2008) p. 289; Downham (2007) p. 23; Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) p. 88; Crawford (1997) pp. 50–51; Holm (1986) p. 321.
  37. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 3; Clarkson (2012a) ch. 8 ¶ 21; Clarkson (2012b) ch. 11 ¶ 45; Oram (2011) ch. 2; Clarkson (2010) ch. 8 ¶¶ 20–21; Macquarrie (1998) p. 12; Macquarrie (1990) p. 7.
  38. ^ The Annals of Ulster (2017) § 864.2; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 864.2; Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 489 (n.d.).
  39. ^ Charles-Edwards (2013) p. 541.
  40. ^ McLeod, SH (2011) p. 171; Downham (2007) p. 142; Woolf (2007) p. 110.
  41. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 3; McLeod, SH (2011) p. 171.
  42. ^ Fraser (2012) p. 70 fig. 2.2.
  43. ^ Woolf (2007) p. 110; Macquarrie (1998) p. 18.
  44. ^ a b Woolf (2007) p. 110.
  45. ^ Forte; Oram; Pedersen (2005) pp. 88–89.
  46. ^ Hicks (2003) p. 34 n. 74.
  47. ^ McLeod, S (2015) p. 11 n. 65; McLeod, SH (2011) p. 124; Hicks (2003) p. 34 n. 74; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 51.
  48. ^ McLeod, SH (2011) p. 171; Ó Corráin (2008) p. 430; Ó Corráin (2006) pp. 56–57; Ó Corráin (2001b) p. 21.
  49. ^ McLeod, SH (2011) p. 124.
  50. ^ McTurk, R (2015) pp. 42, 46, 49; Downham (2013) p. 16, 16 n. 33; Downham (2011) p. 192; Gigov (2011) pp. 24–25; McLeod, SH (2011) pp. 127–128; Downham (2007) p. 66; McTurk (2006) p. 681; Costambeys (2004); Keynes; Lapidge (2004) ch. 21 n. 44; Keynes (2001) p. 54; Jaski (1995) p. 318 n. 29; Brooks (1979) p. 6, 6 n. 22; Ó Corráin (1979); McTurk, RW (1976) pp. 93, 117–119; Whitelock (1969) p. 227; Stenton (1963) pp. 247–248.
  51. ^ Downham (2011) p. 192; McLeod, SH (2011) pp. 127–128; Downham (2007) p. 66; Keynes; Lapidge (2004) ch. 21 n. 44; Keynes (2001) p. 54; Jaski (1995) p. 318 n. 29; Ó Corráin (1979); McTurk, RW (1976) pp. 93, 118; Whitelock (1969) p. 227; Stenton (1963) p. 248.
  52. ^ Hadley (2009) p. 110; Woolf (2007) p. 110; Crawford (2000) pp. 125, 126 fig. 1.
  53. ^ Fragmentary Annals of Ireland (2010) § 400; Fragmentary Annals of Ireland (2008) § 400; Downham (2007) pp. 142, 240; Ó Corráin (1998a) §§ 39–40; Ó Corráin (1998b) p. 332.
  54. ^ Downham (2007) pp. 15, 142, 240; Ó Corráin (1998a); Ó Corráin (1998b).
  55. ^ Howlett (2000) p. 65; Skene (1867) p. 131; Lat. 4126 (n.d.) fol. 29r.
  56. ^ Guy (2016) p. 5 n. 15; Edmonds (2015) p. 60; Evans (2015) p. 150; Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 11, 3 n. 10; Edmonds (2014) p. 200; Walker (2013) ch. 1 ¶ 42; Woolf (2010) p. 225; Bartrum (2009) p. 29; Downham (2007) p. 163; Clancy (2006a); Clancy (2006c); Hicks (2003) pp. 16, 30; Calise (2002) p. 197; Dumville (1999) pp. 110–111; Macquarrie (1998) p. 12; Ó Corráin (1998a) § 38; Ó Corráin (1998b) p. 331; Hudson, BT (1994) pp. 52, 174 n. 1.
  57. ^ The Annals of Ulster (2017) § 872.5; Edmonds (2015) p. 60; Evans (2015) p. 150; Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 11, 3 n. 10; Edmonds (2014) p. 200; Walker (2013) ch. 1 ¶ 42; Woolf (2010) p. 225; Bartrum (2009) p. 29; Clancy (2009) p. 28; Davies (2009) p. 73, 73 n. 36; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 872.5; Downham (2007) p. 163; Clancy (2006a); Clancy (2006c); Hicks (2003) pp. 16, 30; Calise (2002) p. 197; Davidson (2002) p. 126; Hudson, BT (2002) p. 41; Dumville (1999) pp. 110–111; Macquarrie (1998) p. 12; Hudson, BT (1994) pp. 52, 174 n. 1; Ó Murchadha (1992–1993) p. 60; Macquarrie (1990) p. 7; Anderson, AO (1922) p. 304.
  58. ^ Edmonds (2015) p. 60; Evans (2015) p. 150; Edmonds (2014) p. 200; Chronicon Scotorum (2012) § 872; Chronicon Scotorum (2010) § 872; Calise (2002) p. 197; Anderson, AO (1922) p. 304 n. 2.
  59. ^ Edmonds (2015) p. 60; Evans (2015) p. 150; Edmonds (2014) p. 200; Charles-Edwards (2006) p. 324 § 872.5.
  60. ^ The Annals of Ulster (2017) § 871.1; The Annals of Ulster (2008) § 871.1; Woolf (2007) pp. 110–111.
  61. ^ Bartrum (2009) p. 29.
  62. ^ Guy (2016) pp. 22–23; Clarkson (2014) chs. genealogical tables, 1 ¶ 23, 1 n. 56, 2 ¶¶ 21–22, 3 ¶ 19; Edmonds (2014) p. 201; Charles-Edwards (2013) p. 571; Clarkson (2010) chs. genealogical tables, introduction ¶ 12, 2 ¶ 35–36, 4 ¶ 44, 8 ¶ 23, 9 ¶ 4; Bartrum (2009) p. 642; Woolf (2007) p. 28; Charles-Edwards (2006) p. 324 n. 1; Broun (2004b) p. 117; Ó Corráin (1998a) § 38; Ó Corráin (1998b) p. 331; Dumville (1999) p. 110; Woolf (1998) pp. 159–160, 160–161 n. 61; Williams; Smyth; Kirby (1991) p. 134; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 72; Macquarrie (1986) p. 21; Anderson, AO (1922) pp. clvii–clviii; Phillimore (1888) pp. 172–173; Skene (1867) p. 15.
  63. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 11; Bartrum (2009) p. 642; Woolf (2007) p. 111; Macquarrie (1998) p. 13.
  64. ^ Broun (2004b) p. 127 n. 61.
  65. ^ Edmonds (2015) p. 60; Clarkson (2014) ch. 3; Clarkson (2012a) ch. 8; Clarkson (2012b) ch. 11 ¶ 38; Oram (2011) chs. 2, 5; Clarkson (2010) ch. 8; Bartrum (2009) pp. 286, 642; Downham (2007) p. 163; Anderson, MO (2004); Broun (2004a); Broun (2004b) pp. 127, 135; Hudson, BT (1998) pp. 149, 154; Ó Corráin (1998a) § 38; Ó Corráin (1998b) p. 331; Hudson, BT (1996) p. 206; Hudson, BT (1994) pp. 52, 55, 169 genealogy 2, 173 genealogy 6, 174 n. 3; Macquarrie (1990) pp. 7, 13; Smyth (1989) pp. 64 tab. 2, 215–216.
  66. ^ Clarkson (2012a) ch. 8 ¶ 19; Clarkson (2012b) ch. 11 ¶ 38.
  67. ^ Clancy (2006a); Hudson, BT (1994) p. 52.
  68. ^ Downham (2007) p. 163; Macquarrie (1998) pp. 12–13.
  69. ^ a b Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 18.
  70. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 18; Walker (2013) ch. 1 ¶ 42; Clarkson (2012a) ch. 8 ¶ 21.
  71. ^ Driscoll, S (2006); Driscoll, ST (1998a) pp. 108–109; Renwick; Lindsay (1921) pp. 38–39 pl. 10.
  72. ^ Driscoll, ST (2014).
  73. ^ Downham (2007) p. 163; Broun (2004a); Hudson, BT (1994) p. 52.
  74. ^ Clancy (2009) p. 28; Woolf (2007) p. 109; Driscoll, ST (2003) p. 81; Driscoll, ST (2001a); Duncan (1996) p. 90.
  75. ^ Clancy (2017).
  76. ^ Macquarrie (1998) p. 18; Duncan (1996) p. 90.
  77. ^ Oram (2008) pp. 168–169, 185 n. 10.
  78. ^ Oram (2008) p. 169; Driscoll, ST (1998b) p. 40.
  79. ^ Foley (2017); Driscoll, ST (2015) pp. 5, 7; Clarkson (2014) chs. 1 ¶ 23, 3 ¶ 11–12; Edmonds (2014) p. 201; Charles-Edwards (2013) pp. 480–481; Clarkson (2012a) ch. 8 ¶ 23; Clarkson (2012b) ch. 11 ¶ 46; Clarkson (2010) ch. 8 ¶ 22; Davies (2009) p. 73; Oram (2008) p. 169; Downham (2007) p. 169; Clancy (2006c); Driscoll, S (2006); Forsyth (2005) p. 32; Ewart; Pringle; Caldwell et al. (2004) pp. 8, 10; Driscoll, ST (2003) pp. 81–82; Hicks (2003) pp. 32, 34; Driscoll, ST (2001a); Driscoll, ST (2001b); Driscoll, ST (1998a) p. 112.
  80. ^ Driscoll, ST (2015) pp. 5, 7; Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 13; Clarkson (2012a) ch. 8 ¶ 23; Clarkson (2012b) ch. 11 ¶ 46; Clarkson (2010) ch. 8 ¶ 22; Ewart; Pringle; Caldwell et al. (2004) pp. 8, 10.
  81. ^ Clarkson (2014) chs. 2 ¶ 50, 3 ¶ 12.
  82. ^ Clarkson (2014) chs. 2 ¶ 30, 3 ¶ 13.
  83. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 13; Crawford (2014) p. 77; Driscoll, S (2006); Driscoll, ST (2003) p. 80 ill. 32.
  84. ^ Clarkson (2014) chs. 2 ¶ 50, 3 ¶ 13; Driscoll, ST (2003) p. 80; Driscoll, ST (2001b); Driscoll, ST (1998a) p. 101.
  85. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 13; Driscoll, S (2006); Driscoll, ST (2001b); Driscoll, ST (1998a) pp. 102–103.
  86. ^ Driscoll, ST (2015) p. 5; Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 11; Edmonds (2014) pp. 200–201; Clarkson (2012a) ch. 8 ¶ 23; Clarkson (2012b) ch. 11 ¶ 46; Clarkson (2010) ch. 8 ¶ 26; Davies (2009) p. 73; Downham (2007) p. 162 n. 158; Clancy (2006c); Ewart; Pringle; Caldwell et al. (2004) p. 8; Hicks (2003) pp. 15, 16, 30.
  87. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 11; Edmonds (2014) p. 200; Clancy (2009) p. 28; Charles-Edwards (2013) p. 480; Davies (2009) p. 73, 73 n. 36; Charles-Edwards (2006) p. 322 n. 4; Clancy (2006c); Hicks (2003) pp. 16, 30.
  88. ^ Woolf (2010) p. 225; Davies (2009) p. 73.
  89. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 18; Walker (2013) ch. 1 ¶ 42; Oram (2011) ch. 2; Clarkson (2010) ch. 8 ¶ 20.
  90. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶¶ 17–18.
  91. ^ Clarkson (2014) chs. 1 ¶ 23, 3 ¶ 18.
  92. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 21, 3 n. 21; Davidson (2002) p. 126; Hudson, BT (2002) p. 41; Hudson, BT (1998) p. 154 n. 23; Hudson, BT (1996) pp. 203–204; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 52; .
  93. ^ Clarkson (2014) ch. 3 ¶ 21, 3 n. 21; Hudson, BT (2002) p. 41; Durkan (1998) p. 129; Hudson, BT (1998) p. 154 n. 23; Hudson, BT (1996) pp. 43 § 128, 84–85 § 128, 203–204; Hudson, BT (1994) p. 52; Anderson, AO (1930) p. 39 § 126; Anderson, AO (1922) p. 335; Skene (1867) p. 85.
  94. ^ Hudson, BT (2002) p. 41; Hudson, BT (1996) pp. 203–204.
  95. ^ Walker (2013) ch. 1 ¶ 42.
  96. ^ Clarkson (2012b) ch. 11 ¶ 46.
  97. ^ a b c d e Clarkson (2014) ch. genealogical tables.

References

Primary sources

  • Anderson, AO, ed. (1908). Scottish Annals From English Chroniclers, A.D. 500 to 1286. London: David Nutt. OL 7115802M – via Internet Archive.
  • Anderson, AO, ed. (1922). Early Sources of Scottish History, A.D. 500 to 1286. Vol. 1. London: Oliver and Boyd. OL 14712679M – via Internet Archive.
  • Anderson, AO (1930). "The Prophecy of Berchan". Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie. 18 (1): 1–56. doi:10.1515/zcph.1930.18.1.1 – via De Gruyter Online.
  • Arnold, T, ed. (1885). Symeonis Monachi Opera Omnia. Rerum Britannicarum Medii Ævi Scriptores. Vol. 2. London: Longmans & Co – via Google Books.
  • "Bodleian Library MS. Rawl. B. 489". Early Manuscripts at Oxford University. Oxford Digital Library. n.d. Retrieved 19 February 2017.
  • "Book of Leinster, Formerly Lebar na Núachongbála". Corpus of Electronic Texts (14 February 2012 ed.). University College Cork. 2012. Retrieved 14 February 2017.
  • Charles-Edwards, T, ed. (2006). The Chronicle of Ireland. Translated Texts for Historians (series vol. 44). Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. ISBN 978-0-85323-959-8.
  • "Chronicon Scotorum". Corpus of Electronic Texts (24 March 2010 ed.). University College Cork. 2010. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  • "Chronicon Scotorum". Corpus of Electronic Texts (14 May 2012 ed.). University College Cork. 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  • De Simon, B, ed. (1909). Annales Xantenses et Annales Vedastini. Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Scriptores Rerum Germanicarum in Usum Scholarum Separatim Editi (series vol. 12). Hanover: Hahn. ISSN 0343-0820 – via Bavarian State Library.
  • "Fragmentary Annals of Ireland". Corpus of Electronic Texts (5 September 2008 ed.). University College Cork. 2008. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  • "Fragmentary Annals of Ireland". Corpus of Electronic Texts (21 March 2010 ed.). University College Cork. 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
  • Gough-Cooper, HW, ed. (2015a). Annales Cambriae: The A Text From British Library, Harley MS 3859, ff. 190r–193r (PDF) (November 2015 ed.) – via Welsh Chronicles Research Group.
  • Gough-Cooper, HW, ed. (2015b). Annales Cambriae: The B Text From London, National Archives, MS E164/1, pp. 2–26 (PDF) (September 2015 ed.) – via Welsh Chronicles Research Group.
  • Howlett, D (2000). Caledonian Craftmanship: The Scottish Latin Tradition. Dublin: Four Courts Press. ISBN 1 85182 455 3 – via Google Books.
  • Hudson, BT (1996). Prophecy of Berchán: Irish and Scottish High-Kings of the Early Middle Ages. Contributions to the Study of World History (series vol. 54). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29567-0. ISSN 0885-9159 – via Google Books.
  • Hudson, BT (1998). "'The Scottish Chronicle'". Scottish Historical Review. 77 (2): 129–161. doi:10.3366/shr.1998.77.2.129. eISSN 1750-0222. ISSN 0036-9241. JSTOR 25530832.
  • Jones, O; Williams, E; Pughe, WO, eds. (1870). The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales. Denbigh: Thomas Gee. OL 6930827M – via Internet Archive.
  • Lat. 4126. n.d. – via Gallica.
  • Phillimore, E (1888). "The Annales Cambriæ and Old-Welsh Genealogies From Harleian MS 3859". Y Cymmrodor. 9: 141–183 – via Internet Archive.
  • Rhŷs, J; Evans, JG, eds. (1890). The Text of the Bruts From the Red Book of Hergest. Oxford. OL 19845420M – via Internet Archive.
  • Skene, WF, ed. (1867). Chronicles of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots, and Other Early Memorials of Scottish History. Edinburgh: H.M. General Register House. OL 23286818M – via Internet Archive.
  • Stevenson, J, ed. (1855). The Church Historians of England. Vol. 3, pt. 2. London: Seeleys. OL 7055940M – via Internet Archive.
  • "The Annals of Ulster". Corpus of Electronic Texts (29 August 2008 ed.). University College Cork. 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  • "The Annals of Ulster". Corpus of Electronic Texts (6 January 2017 ed.). University College Cork. 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  • Williams Ab Ithel, J, ed. (1860). Brut y Tywysigion; or, The Chronicle of the Princes. Rerum Britannicarum Medii Ævi Scriptores. London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts. OL 24776516M – via Internet Archive.
  • Woolf, A (1998). "Pictish Matriliny Reconsidered". The Innes Review. 49 (2): 147–167. doi:10.3366/inr.1998.49.2.147. eISSN 1745-5219. ISSN 0020-157X.

Secondary sources

  • Alcock, L (1975–1976). "A Multi-Disciplinary Chronology for Alt Clut, Castle Rock, Dumbarton" (PDF). Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 107: 103–113. eISSN 2056-743X. ISSN 0081-1564 – via Archaeology Data Service.
  • Anderson, MO (2004). "Kenneth I (d. 858)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/7795. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  • Bartrum, PC (2009) [1993]. A Welsh Classical Dictionary: People in History and Legend up to About A.D. 1000. The National Library of Wales. Archived from the original on 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2017-03-04 – via The National Library of Wales.
  • Beaven, MLR (1918). "The Beginning of the Year in the Alfredian Chronicle (866–87)". English Historical Review. 33 (131): 328–342. doi:10.1093/ehr/XXXIII.CXXXI.328. eISSN 1477-4534. ISSN 0013-8266. JSTOR 551018.
  • Brooks, NP (1979). "England in the Ninth Century: The Crucible of Defeat". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. 29: 1–20. doi:10.2307/3679110. eISSN 1474-0648. ISSN 0080-4401. JSTOR 3679110.
  • Broun, D (2004a). "Constantine I (d. 876)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/6114. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
  • Broun, D (2004b). "The Welsh Identity of the Kingdom of Strathclyde c.900–c.1200". The Innes Review. 55 (2): 111–180. doi:10.3366/inr.2004.55.2.111. eISSN 1745-5219. ISSN 0020-157X.
  • Broun, D (2007). Scottish Independence and the Idea of Britain: From the Picts to Alexander III. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978 0 7486 2360 0.
  • Calise, JMP (2002). Pictish Sourcebook: Documents of Medieval Legend and Dark Age History. Documentary Reference Collections. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-32295-3.
  • Charles-Edwards, TM (2013). Wales and the Britons, 350–1064. The History of Wales (series vol. 1). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-821731-2.
  • Clancy, TO (2006a). "Cusantín mac Cinaeda (Constantine I of Scotland)". In Koch, JT (ed.). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. p. 523. ISBN 1-85109-445-8.
  • Clancy, TO (2006b). "Eochaid son of Rhun". In Koch, JT (ed.). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 704–705. ISBN 1-85109-445-8.
  • Clancy, TO (2006c). "Ystrad Clud". In Koch, JT (ed.). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 1818–1821. ISBN 1-85109-445-8.
  • Clancy, TO (2009). "The Cults of Saints Patrick and Palladius in Early Medieval Scotland". In Boardman, S; Davies, JR; Williamson, E (eds.). Saints' Cults in the Celtic World. Studies in Celtic History (series vol. 25). Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. pp. 18–41. ISBN 978-1-84383-432-8. ISSN 0261-9865.
  • Clancy, TO (2017). "The Etymologies of Pluscarden and Stirling" (PDF). The Journal of Scottish Name Studies. 11: 1–20. ISSN 2054-9385 – via Clann Tuirc.
  • Clarkson, T (2010). The Men of the North: The Britons and Southern Scotland (EPUB). Edinburgh: John Donald. ISBN 978-1-907909-02-3.
  • Clarkson, T (2012a) [2011]. The Makers of Scotland: Picts, Romans, Gaels and Vikings (EPUB). Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited. ISBN 978-1-907909-01-6.
  • Clarkson, T (2012b) [2008]. The Picts: A History (EPUB). Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited. ISBN 978-1-907909-03-0.
  • Clarkson, T (2014). Strathclyde and the Anglo-Saxons in the Viking Age (EPUB). Edinburgh: John Donald. ISBN 978-1-907909-25-2.
  • Costambeys, M (2004). "Ívarr (d. 873)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/49261. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  • Cowan, EJ (1981). "The Scottish Chronicle in the Poppleton Manuscript". The Innes Review. 32 (1): 3–21. doi:10.3366/inr.1981.32.1.3. eISSN 1745-5219. ISSN 0020-157X.
  • Crawford, BE (1997) [1987]. Scandinavian Scotland. Scotland in the Early Middle Ages (series vol. 3). Leicester: Leicester University Press. ISBN 0-7185-1197-2.
  • Crawford, BE (2000). "The Scandinavian Contribution to the Development of the Kingdom of Scotland". Acta Archaeologica. 71 (1): 123–134. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0390.2000.d01-10.x. eISSN 1600-0390. ISSN 0065-101X.
  • Crawford, BE (2014). "The Kingdom of Man and the Earldom of Orkney—Some Comparisons". In Sigurðsson, JV; Bolton, T (eds.). Celtic-Norse Relationships in the Irish Sea in the Middle Ages, 800–1200. The Northern World: North Europe and the Baltic c. 400–1700 AD. Peoples, Economics and Cultures (series vol. 65). Leiden: Brill. pp. 65–80. ISBN 978-90-04-25512-8. ISSN 1569-1462.
  • Davidson, MR (2002). Submission and Imperium in the Early Medieval Insular World (PhD thesis). University of Edinburgh. hdl:1842/23321 – via Edinburgh Research Archive.
  • Davies, JR (2009). "Bishop Kentigern Among the Britons". In Boardman, S; Davies, JR; Williamson, E (eds.). Saints' Cults in the Celtic World. Studies in Celtic History (series vol. 25). Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. pp. 66–90. ISBN 978-1-84383-432-8. ISSN 0261-9865.
  • Downham, C (2007). Viking Kings of Britain and Ireland: The Dynasty of Ívarr to A.D. 1014. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-903765-89-0.
  • Downham, C (2011). "Viking Identities in Ireland: It's not all Black and White". In Duffy, S (ed.). Medieval Dublin. Vol. 11, Proceedings of the Friends of Medieval Dublin Symposium 2009. Dublin: Four Courts Press. pp. 185–201 – via Academia.edu.
  • Downham, C (2013). "Annals, Armies, and Artistry: 'The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle', 865–96". No Horns on Their Helmets? Essays on the Insular Viking-Age. Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, and Scandinavian Studies (series vol. 1). Aberdeen: Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies and The Centre for Celtic Studies, University of Aberdeen. pp. 9–37. ISBN 978-0-9557720-1-6. ISSN 2051-6509.
  • Driscoll, S (2006). "Govan". In Koch, JT (ed.). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 839–841. ISBN 1-85109-445-8.
  • Driscoll, ST (1998a). "Church Archaeology in Glasgow and the Kingdom of Strathclyde". The Innes Review. 49 (2): 95–114. doi:10.3366/inr.1998.49.2.95. eISSN 1745-5219. ISSN 0020-157X.
  • Driscoll, ST (1998b). "Formalising the Mechanisms of State Power: Early Scottish Lordship From the Ninth to the Thirteenth Centuries". In Foster, S; Macinnes, A; MacInnes, R (eds.). Scottish Power Centres: From the Early Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. University of Glasgow Postgraduate School of Scottish Studies (series vol. 2). Glasgow: Cruithne Press. pp. 32–58. ISBN 1 873448 09 0 – via Enlighten: Publications.
  • Driscoll, ST (2001a). "Dumbarton". In Lynch, M (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford Companions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 180. ISBN 0-19-211696-7.
  • Driscoll, ST (2001b). "Govan". In Lynch, M (ed.). The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford Companions. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 274–275. ISBN 0-19-211696-7.
  • Driscoll, ST (2003). "Govan: An Early Medieval Royal Centre on the Clyde". In Breeze, DJ; Clancy, TO; Welander, R (eds.). The Stone of Destiny: Artefact and Icon. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland Monograph Series (series vol. 22). Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. pp. 77–83. ISBN 0903903229 – via Enlighten: Publications.
  • Driscoll, ST (2014). "The Govan Stones Revealed". History Scotland. 14 (1): 36–37. ISSN 1475-5270 – via Enlighten: Publications.
  • Driscoll, ST (2015). "In Search of the Northern Britons in the Early Historic Era (AD 400–1100)". Essays on the Local History and Archaeology of West Central Scotland. Resource Assessment of Local History and Archaeology in West Central Scotland. Glasgow: Glasgow Museums. pp. 1–15 – via Enlighten: Publications.
  • Dumville, DN (1999) [1993]. "Coroticus". In Dumville, DN (ed.). Saint Patrick, A.D. 493–1993. Woodbridge: The Boydell Press. pp. 107–115. ISBN 978-0-85115-733-7 – via Google Books.
  • Duncan, AAM (1996) [1975]. Scotland: The Making of the Kingdom. The Edinburgh History of Scotland (series vol. 1). Edinburgh: Mercat Press. ISBN 0 901824 83 6.
  • Durkan, J (1998). "Cadder and Environs, and the Development of the Church in Glasgow in the Twelfth Century". The Innes Review. 49 (2): 127–142. doi:10.3366/inr.1998.49.2.127. eISSN 1745-5219. ISSN 0020-157X.
  • Edmonds, F (2014). "The Emergence and Transformation of Medieval Cumbria". Scottish Historical Review. 93 (2): 195–216. doi:10.3366/shr.2014.0216. eISSN 1750-0222. ISSN 0036-9241 – via Academic Search Complete.
  • Edmonds, F (2015). "The Expansion of the Kingdom of Strathclyde". Early Medieval Europe. 23 (1): 43–66. doi:10.1111/emed.12087. eISSN 1468-0254 – via Wiley Online Library.
  • Evans, NJ (2015). "Cultural Contacts and Ethnic Origins in Viking Age Wales and Northern Britain: The Case of Albanus, Britain's First Inhabitant and Scottish Ancestor". Journal of Medieval History. 41 (2): 131–154. doi:10.1080/03044181.2015.1030438. eISSN 1873-1279. ISSN 0304-4181.
  • Ewart, G; Pringle, D; Caldwell, D; Campbell, E; Driscoll, S; Forsyth, K; Gallagher, D; Holden, T; Hunter, F; Sanderson, D; Thoms, J (2004). "Dundonald Castle Excavations, 1986–93". Scottish Archaeological Journal. 26 (1–2): i–x, 1–166. eISSN 1766-2028. ISSN 1471-5767. JSTOR 27917525.
  • Foley, A (2017). "Strathclyde". In Echard, S; Rouse, R (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Medieval Literature in Britain. John Wiley & Sons. p. 1. doi:10.1002/9781118396957.wbemlb665. ISBN 9781118396957.
  • Forsyth, K (2005). "Origins: Scotland to 1100". In Wormald, J (ed.). Scotland: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 9–37. ISBN 0-19-820615-1.
  • Forte, A; Oram, RD; Pedersen, F (2005). Viking Empires. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82992-2.
  • Fraser, JE (2012). "Warfare in Northern Britain, c. 500–1093". In Spiers, EM; Crang, JA; Strickland, MJ (eds.). A Military History of Scotland. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 65–93. ISBN 978 0 7486 3204 6.
  • Gigov, J (2011). Contextualizing the Vikings in Anglo-Saxon History and Literature (MA thesis). Charles University – via Charles University.
  • Guy, B (2016). "The Textual History of the Harleian Genealogies". The Welsh History Review. 28 (1): 1–25. doi:10.16922/whr.28.1.1. eISSN 0083-792X. ISSN 0043-2431.
  • Hadley, D (2009). "Viking Raids and Conquest". In Stafford, P (ed.). A Companion to the Early Middle Ages: Britain and Ireland, c.500–c.1100. Blackwell Companions to British History. Chichester: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 195–211. ISBN 978-1-405-10628-3.
  • Hicks, DA (2003). Language, History and Onomastics in Medieval Cumbria: An Analysis of the Generative Usage of the Cumbric Habitative Generics Cair and Tref (PhD thesis). University of Edinburgh. hdl:1842/7401 – via Edinburgh Research Archive.
  • Holm, P (1986). "The Slave Trade of Dublin, Ninth to Twelfth Centuries". Peritia. 5: 317–345. doi:10.1484/J.Peri.3.139. eISSN 2034-6506. ISSN 0332-1592.
  • Hudson, B (2014). The Picts. The Peoples of Europe. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-8678-0.
  • Hudson, BT (1994). Kings of Celtic Scotland. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-29087-3. ISSN 0885-9159 – via Questia.
  • Hudson, BT (2002). "The Scottish Gaze". In McDonald, R (ed.). History, Literature, and Music in Scotland, 700–1560. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. 29–59. ISBN 0-8020-3601-5 – via Google Books.
  • Jaski, B (1995). "The Vikings and the Kingship of Tara". Peritia. 9: 310–353. doi:10.1484/J.Peri.3.254. eISSN 2034-6506. ISSN 0332-1592.
  • Jorgensen, T (2017). The Scandinavian Trade Network in the Early Viking Age: Kaupang and Dublin in Context (MA thesis). University of Oslo. hdl:10852/58231 – via DUO Research Archive.
  • Kelly, E; Maas, J (1999). "The Vikings and the Kingdom of Laois". In Lane, PG; Nolan, W (eds.). Laois, History & Society: Interdisciplinary Essays on the History of an Irish County. Dublin: Geography Publications. pp. 123–159. ISBN 0 906602 46 7 – via Academia.edu.
  • Keynes, S (2001) [1997]. "The Vikings in England, c.790–106". In Sawyer, P (ed.). The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 48–82. ISBN 0-19-285434-8.
  • Keynes, S; Lapidge, M, eds. (2004) [1983]. Alfred the Great: Asser's Life of King Alfred and Other Contemporary Sources (EPUB). London: Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0-141-90942-4.
  • Lathe, R; Smith, D (2015). "Holocene Relative Sea-Level Changes in Western Scotland: The Early Insular Situation of Dun Add (Kintyre) and Dumbarton Rock (Strathclyde)". The Heroic Age: A Journal of Early Medieval Northwestern Europe. 16. ISSN 1526-1867.
  • Macquarrie, A (1986). "The Career of Saint Kentigern of Glasgow: Vitae, Lectiones and Glimpses of Fact". The Innes Review. 37 (1): 3–24. doi:10.3366/inr.1986.37.1.3. eISSN 1745-5219. ISSN 0020-157X.
  • Macquarrie, A (1990). "Early Christian Govan: The Historical Context". Records of the Scottish Church History Society. 24 (1): 1–17 – via Internet Archive.
  • Macquarrie, A (1994). "St Columba and his lay Contemporaries in Scotland and Ireland". Records of the Scottish Church History Society. 25 (2): 188–203 – via Internet Archive.
  • Macquarrie, A (1998) [1993]. "The Kings of Strathclyde, c. 400–1018". In Grant, A; Stringer, KJ (eds.). Medieval Scotland: Crown, Lordship and Community. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 1–19. ISBN 0-7486-1110-X.
  • McLeod, S (2015). "The Dubh Gall in Southern Scotland: The Politics of Northumbria, Dublin, and the Community of St Cuthbert in the Viking Age, c. 870–950 CE". Limina: A Journal of Historical and Cultural Studies. 20 (3): 83–103. ISSN 1833-3419 – via Limina: A Journal of Historical and Cultural Studies.
  • McLeod, SH (2011). Migration and Acculturation: The Impact of the Norse on Eastern England, c. 865–900 (PhD thesis). University of Western Australia – via UWA Research Repository.
  • McNiven, P (2014). "Place-Names and the Medieval Church in Menteith" (PDF). The Journal of Scottish Name Studies. 8: 51–92. ISSN 2054-9385 – via Clann Tuirc.
  • McTurk, R (2006). "Kings and Kingship in Viking Northumbria" (PDF). In McKinnell, J; Ashurst, D; Kick, D (eds.). The Fantastic in Old Norse/Icelandic Literature: Preprint Papers of the 13th International Saga Conference, Durham and York 6th–12th August 2006. Vol. 1. Durham: Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Studies. pp. 681–688 – via The International Saga Conference.
  • McTurk, R (2015) [1991]. Studies in Ragnars Saga Loðbrókar and its Major Scandinavian Analogues. Medium Ævum Monographs (series vol. 15). Oxford: The Society for the Study of Mediæval Languages and Literature. ISBN 978-0-907570-08-0 – via Google Books.
  • McTurk, RW (1976). "Ragnarr Loðbrók in the Irish Annals?". In Almqvist, B; Greene, D (eds.). Proceedings of the Seventh Viking Congress: Dublin 15–21 August 1973. Viking Society for Northern Research. pp. 93–123.
  • Oram, RD (2008). "Royal and Lordly Residence in Scotland c 1050 to c 1250: An Historiographical Review and Critical Revision". The Antiquaries Journal. 88: 165–189. doi:10.1017/S0003581500001372. eISSN 1758-5309. ISSN 0003-5815.
  • Oram, RD (2011) [2001]. The Kings & Queens of Scotland. Brimscombe Port: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-7099-3 – via Google Books.
  • Ó Corráin, D (1979). "High-Kings, Vikings and Other Kings". Irish Historical Studies. 21 (83): 283–323. doi:10.1017/S002112140011315X. eISSN 2056-4139. ISSN 0021-1214. JSTOR 30008285.
  • Ó Corráin, D (1998a). "The Vikings in Scotland and Ireland in the Ninth Century". Chronicon: An Electric History Journal. 2. ISSN 1393-5259.
  • Ó Corráin, D (1998b). "The Vikings in Scotland and Ireland in the Ninth Century". Peritia. 12: 296–339. doi:10.1484/j.peri.3.334. eISSN 2034-6506. ISSN 0332-1592.
  • Ó Corráin, D (2001b). "The Vikings in Ireland". In Larsen, A-C (ed.). The Vikings in Ireland. Roskilde: The Viking Ship Museum. pp. 17–27. ISBN 87 85180 42 4.
  • Ó Corráin, D (2006) [1995]. "Ireland, Scotland and Wales, c.700 to the Early Eleventh Century". In McKitterick, R (ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History. Vol. 2, c.700–c.900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 43–63. ISBN 978-0-521-36292-4.
  • Ó Corráin, D (2008). "The Vikings and Ireland". In Brink, S; Price, N (eds.). The Viking World. Routledge Worlds. Milton Park, Abingdon: Routledge. pp. 428–433. ISBN 978-0-203-41277-0.
  • Ó Corráin, D; Maguire, F (1981). Gaelic Personal Names. Dublin: Academy Press. ISBN 0 906187 39 7 – via Google Books.
  • Ó Murchadha, D (1992–1993). "Nationality Names in the Irish Annals" (PDF). Nomina. 16: 49–70. ISSN 0141-6340.
  • Pelteret, D (1980). "Slave Raiding and Slave Trading in Early England". Anglo-Saxon England. 9: 99–114. doi:10.1017/S0263675100001125. eISSN 1474-0532. ISSN 0263-6751.
  • Renwick, R; Lindsay, J (1921). History of Glasgow. Vol. 1. Glasgow: Maclehose, Jackson & Co. OL 7092809M – via Internet Archive.
  • Sawyer, P (2001) [1997]. "The Age of the Vikings and Before". In Sawyer, P (ed.). The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1–18. ISBN 0-19-285434-8.
  • Sheehan, J (2008). "The Longphort in Viking Age Ireland". Acta Archaeologica. 79 (1): 282–295. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0390.2008.00120.x. eISSN 1600-0390. ISSN 0065-101X.
  • Smyth, AP (1989) [1984]. Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland, AD 80–1000. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0 7486 0100 7.
  • Stenton, F (1963). Anglo-Saxon England. The Oxford History of England (series vol. 2) (2nd ed.). Oxford: The Clarendon Press. OL 24592559M – via Open Library.
  • Valante, MA (1998–1999). "Taxation, Tolls and Tribute: The Language of Economics and Trade in Viking-Age Ireland". Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium. 18–19: 242–258. ISSN 1545-0155. JSTOR 20557344.
  • Wadden, P (2016). "Dál Riata c. 1000: Genealogies and Irish Sea Politics". Scottish Historical Review. 95 (2): 164–181. doi:10.3366/shr.2016.0294. eISSN 1750-0222. ISSN 0036-9241.
  • Walker, IW (2013) [2006]. Lords of Alba: The Making of Scotland (EPUB). Brimscombe Port: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-9519-4.
  • Whitelock, D (1969). "Fact and Fiction in the Legend of St. Edmund" (PDF). Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archæology. 31 (3): 217–233 – via Suffolk Institute of Archaeology & History.
  • Williams, A; Smyth, AP; Kirby, DP (1991). A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain: England, Scotland and Wales, c.500–c.1050. London: Seaby. ISBN 1-85264-047-2 – via Google Books.
  • Woolf, A (2007). From Pictland to Alba, 789–1070. The New Edinburgh History of Scotland (series vol. 2). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-1233-8.
  • Woolf, A (2010). "Reporting Scotland in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle". In Jorgensen, A (ed.). Reading the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: Language, Literature, History. Studies in the Early Middle Ages (series vol. 23). Turnhout: Brepols Publishers. pp. 221–239. doi:10.1484/M.SEM-EB.3.4457. ISBN 978-2-503-52394-1 – via Academia.edu.
  • Yorke, B (2009). "Britain and Ireland, c.500". In Stafford, P (ed.). A Companion to the Early Middle Ages: Britain and Ireland, c.500–c.1100. Blackwell Companions to British History. Chichester: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 41–56. ISBN 978-1-405-10628-3.
  • Zimmer, S (2009). "The Name of Arthur — A New Etymology". Journal of Celtic Linguistics. 3: 131–136. eISSN 2058-5063. ISSN 0962-1377 – via Academia.edu.

Media related to Arthgal ap Dyfnwal at Wikimedia Commons

Arthgal ap Dyfnwal
 Died: 872
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Dyfnwal ap Rhydderch
King of Alt Clut
×872
Succeeded by
Rhun ab Arthgal
as King of Strathclyde