Treacle (/ˈtriːkəl/) is any uncrystallised syrup made during the refining of sugar. The most common forms of treacle are golden syrup, a pale variety, and a darker variety known as black treacle. Black treacle, or molasses, has a distinctively strong, slightly bitter flavour, and a richer colour than golden syrup. Golden syrup treacle is a common sweetener and condiment in British cookery, found in such dishes as treacle tart and treacle sponge pudding.
Historically, the Middle English term treacle was used by herbalists and apothecaries to describe a medicine (also called theriac or theriaca), composed of many ingredients, that was used as an antidote treatment for poisons, snakebites, and various other ailments. Triacle comes from the Old French triacle, in turn from (unattested and reconstructed) Vulgar Latin triacula, which comes from Latin theriaca, the latinisation of the Greek θηριακή (thēriakē), the feminine of θηριακός (thēriakos), "concerning venomous beasts", which comes from θηρίον (thērion), "wild animal, beast"..
Historically (in the UK at least) in verbal communications: Treacle was always Black and Golden Syrup wasn't. Golden Syrup is refined ie mostly "invert sugar". Modern usage makes all "treacle", and to distinguish it, Black Treacle carries the noir adjective. The Concise Oxford Dictionary (8th edition, 1990) treacle- b) molasses. Images shown on Pinterest and Ebay of Fowlers (sic) "Recipes for the Home" which makes the distinction re treacle and golden syrup.
Treacle is made from the syrup that remains after sugar is refined. Raw sugars are first treated in a process called affination. When dissolved, the resulting liquor contains the minimum of dissolved non-sugars to be removed by treatment with activated carbon or bone char. The dark-coloured washings[clarification needed] are treated separately, without carbon or bone char. They are boiled to grain (i.e. until sugar crystals precipitate out) in a vacuum pan, forming a low-grade massecuite (boiled mass) which is centrifuged, yielding a brown sugar and a liquid by-product—treacle.
In popular culture
In chapter 7 of Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, the Dormouse tells a story of Elsie, Lacie, and Tillie living at the bottom of a well, which confuses Alice, who interrupts to ask what they ate for sustenance. "The Dormouse again took a minute or two to think about it, and then said, 'It was a treacle-well.'" This is an allusion to the so-called "treacle well", the curative St. Margaret's Well at Binsey, Oxfordshire.
In the British comedy Jeeves and Wooster, treacle was used by Bertie Wooster as an adhesive on paper to silently break a window to effect an art heist. The viscous properties of treacle led to comedic results and the utter failure of Bertram's plan.
UK production is pretty much exclusively from Tate & Lyle. Black treacle - Fowlers and Blackie's both referred to it as treacle (cf Golden Syrup). Tate & Lyle acquired both companies. Treacle (black) before WW2 could be seen served from a barrel and transferred to the customers' container with a 'stick'.
- "treacle, n.", in the Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- "Treacle Origins and Uses at www.recipes4us.co.uk".
- Oxford Dictionary ISBN 978-1-85152-101-2
- "Definition of TREACLE". www.merriam-webster.com.
- theriacus, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus
- θηριακός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
- θηρίον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
- Treacle, on Oxford Dictionaries
- Heriot p 392
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-13. Retrieved 2014-12-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "Gin Brandy Beer and Treacle". www.theoldfoodie.com.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-16. Retrieved 2014-12-13.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- p14, Oxford in English literature: the making, and undoing, of "the English Athens" (1998), John Dougill, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0-472-10784-4.
- Wodehouse, P.G. (3 May 1992). "Comrade Bingo". Jeeves and Wooster. Series 3. Episode 6. Event occurs at 34:13. ITV.
- Heriot, Thomas Hawkins Percy (1920). The manufacture of sugar from the cane and beet. London: Longmans, Green and co.
- Encyclopædia Britannica. 27 (11th ed.). 1911. .
- Old 'Recipes4us' page "Treacle Origin"
- CSR Sugar company of Australia – Treacle
- Sugar Australia website – refiner and marketer for CSR limited.