From Antiquity to Modernity
Jordan is a land saturated with history. It has been home to a portion of humankind's most punctual settlements and towns, and relics of a considerable lot of the world's incredible civic establishments can in any case be seen today. As the junction of the Middle East, the grounds of Jordan and Palestine have filled in as an essential nexus associating Asia, Africa, and Europe. Subsequently, since the beginning of human advancement, Jordan's geology has given it a significant task to carry out as a conductor for exchange and interchanges, associating east and west, north and south. Flag of Jordan, Jordan keeps on assuming this part even today.
Because of its central location, the land of Jordan is a geographic prize that changed hands many times throughout antiquity. Parts of Jordan were included in the dominions of ancient Iraq, including the Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian and Mesopotamian Empires. From the west, Pharaonic Egypt extended its power and culture into Jordan, while the nomadic Nabateans built their empire in Jordan after migrating from the south. Finally, Jordan was incorporated into the classical civilizations of Greece, Rome and Persia, the relics of which are scattered across the Jordanian landscape. Since the mid-seventh century AD, the land of Jordan has remained almost continuously in the hands of various Arab and Islamic dynasties.
During the Paleolithic time frame (c. 500,000-17,000 BC), the occupants of Jordan chased wild creatures and scrounge for wild plants, presumably following the development of creatures looking for field and living close to wellsprings of water. The environment during this period was extensively wetter than today, and thusly enormous regions of current desert were open fields ideal for a chasing and assembling means system. Proof has likewise been found of Paleolithic inhabitation almost a huge breadth of water at Azraq. Paleolithic man in Jordan left no proof of engineering, and no human skeleton from this period has yet been found. Be that as it may, archeologists have uncovered apparatuses from this period, for example, rock and basalt hand-tomahawks, blades and scratching carries out. Old man additionally left pieces of information to the idea of his reality starting in Paleolithic occasions and proceeding through the Neolithic and Chalcolithic times.
It was during the Epipaleolithic period (c. 17,000-8500 BC), also known as the Mesolithic period or Middle Stone Age, that the nomadic hunter-gatherers began to settle. They domesticated animals such as gazelles and dogs, while supplementing their diet by cultivating wild grains. Architectural remains have been found from the Epipaleolithic period which indicate the construction of small circular enclosures and hut foundations. Evidence exists of Epipaleolithic settlements around Beidha in southern Jordan, as well as in the Jordan Valley, the eastern desert region, and at Jericho in the West Bank.
Rise of the City-States
By around 3200 BC, Jordan had built up a moderately metropolitan character. Numerous settlements were set up during the Early Bronze Age (c. 3200-1950 BC) in different pieces of Jordan, both in the Jordan Valley and on higher ground. Large numbers of the towns worked during this time included guarded fortresses to shield the occupants from ravaging itinerant clans actually possessing the area. Water was diverted starting with one spot then onto the next and safety measures were even taken against seismic tremors and floods.
Interesting changes took place in burial customs during this period. At Bab al-Hara, a well-preserved site in Wadi Araba, archeologists have discovered over 20,000 shat tombs with multiple chambers. These tombs are thought to have contained the remains of 200,000 corpses. There are also charnel houses of mud-brick containing human bones, pots, jewelry and weapons. The hundreds of dolmens scattered throughout the mountains of Jordan are dated to the late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze ages. It is possible that the dolmens are evidence of new peoples from the north bringing with them different burial traditions.
The seven slopes of Amman are a charming combination of old and current. Sounding horns offer path to the delightful call to supplication which echoes from the impressive minarets which beauty the city. Glimmering white houses, kebab slows down and bistros are sprinkled with clamoring markets – referred to in Arabic as souqs – and the remaining parts of developments and ages long past. Dusk is maybe the best ideal opportunity to appreciate Amman, as the white structures of the city appear to gleam in the blurring warmth of the day. The best appeal of Amman, nonetheless, is found in the accommodation of its occupants. Guests of Amman – and the remainder of Jordan, so far as that is concerned – are consistently shocked by the veritable warmth with which they are welcomed.
Amman has served as the modern and ancient capital of Jordan. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, with a 1994 excavation uncovering homes and towers believed to have been built during the Stone Age, circa 7000 BC. There are many Biblical references to the city, which by about 1200 BC had become the Ammonite capital of Rabbath-Ammon. The Ammonites fought numerous wars with Saul, David and others, Flag of Jordan.
The history of Amman between the finish of its Biblical references (around 585 BC) and the hour of the Ptolemies is muddled. We do realize that the city was renamed Philadelphia after the Ptolemaic ruler Philadelphus in the third century BC. The city later went under Seleucid and furthermore Nabatean rule, however the Roman general Pompey's extension of Syria in 64 BC and capture of Jerusalem one year later established the frameworks for the Decapolis League, a free coalition of ten free city-states under by and large loyalty to Rome. Philadelphia was essential for the Decapolis, as were other Hellenized urban areas in Jordan including Gerasa (Jerash), Gadara (Umm Qais), Pella and Arvila (Irbid).