Coherence length

Summary

In physics, coherence length is the propagation distance over which a coherent wave (e.g. an electromagnetic wave) maintains a specified degree of coherence. Wave interference is strong when the paths taken by all of the interfering waves differ by less than the coherence length. A wave with a longer coherence length is closer to a perfect sinusoidal wave. Coherence length is important in holography and telecommunications engineering.

This article focuses on the coherence of classical electromagnetic fields. In quantum mechanics, there is a mathematically analogous concept of the quantum coherence length of a wave function.

Formulas

In radio-band systems, the coherence length is approximated by

where is the speed of light in a vacuum, is the refractive index of the medium, and is the bandwidth of the source or is the signal wavelength and is the width of the range of wavelengths in the signal.

In optical communications, assuming that the source has a Gaussian emission spectrum, the coherence length is given by [1]

where is the central wavelength of the source, is the refractive index of the medium, and is the (FWHM) spectral width of the source. If the source has a Gaussian spectrum with FWHM spectral width , then a path offset of ± will reduce the fringe visibility to 50%.

Coherence length is usually applied to the optical regime.

The expression above is a frequently used approximation. Due to ambiguities in the definition of spectral width of a source, however, the following definition of coherence length has been suggested:

The coherence length can be measured using a Michelson interferometer and is the optical path length difference of a self-interfering laser beam which corresponds to a fringe visibility,[2] where the fringe visibility is defined as

where is the fringe intensity.

In long-distance transmission systems, the coherence length may be reduced by propagation factors such as dispersion, scattering, and diffraction.

Lasers

Multimode helium–neon lasers have a typical coherence length of 20 cm, while the coherence length of single-mode lasers can exceed 100 m. Semiconductor lasers reach some 100 m, but small, inexpensive semiconductor lasers have shorter lengths, with one source[3] claiming 20 cm. Singlemode fiber lasers with linewidths of a few kHz can have coherence lengths exceeding 100 km. Similar coherence lengths can be reached with optical frequency combs due to the narrow linewidth of each tooth. Non-zero visibility is present only for short intervals of pulses repeated after cavity length distances up to this long coherence length.

Other light sources

Tolansky's 'An introduction to Interferometry' has a chapter on Sources which quotes a line width of around 0.052 Angstroms for each of the Sodium D lines in an uncooled low-pressure sodium lamp, corresponding to a coherence length of around 67 mm for each line by itself. Cooling the low pressure sodium discharge to liquid nitrogen temperatures increases the individual D line coherence length by a factor of 6. A very narrow-band interference filter would be required to isolate an individual D line.

See also

References

  1. ^ Akcay, C.; Parrein, P.; Rolland, J.P. (2002). "Estimation of longitudinal resolution in optical coherence imaging". Applied Optics. 41 (25): 5256–5262. doi:10.1364/ao.41.005256. PMID 12211551. equation 8
  2. ^ Ackermann, Gerhard K. (2007). Holography: A Practical Approach. Wiley-VCH. ISBN 978-3-527-40663-0.
  3. ^ "Sam's Laser FAQ - Diode Lasers". www.repairfaq.org. Retrieved 2017-02-06.