Demographics of North Macedonia

Summary

This article is about the demographic features of the population of North Macedonia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The latest population census was held in 2002 due to ethnic issues between Albanians and Macedonians, therefore demographic information may be unreliable as it is based on estimates.[1][2] According to Apostol Simovski, the director of the State Statistical Office, the population of North Macedonia is around 1.5 million.[3]

Demographics of North Macedonia
North Macedonia single age population pyramid 2020.png
North Macedonia population pyramid in 2020
PopulationDecrease 1,832,696 (2021)[4]
Growth rateDecrease -0.32% (2020)[4]
Birth rateDecrease 9.2 per 1,000 (2020)[4]
Death rateNegative increase 12.4 per 1,000 (2020)[4]
Life expectancyIncrease 75.40 years (2020)
 • maleIncrease 73.45 years (2020)
 • femaleIncrease 77.41 years (2020)
Fertility rateIncrease 1.31 live births per woman (2020)[5][4]
Infant mortality rateNegative increase 5.7 per 1,000 (2020)[4]
Net migration rateIncrease −766 (2020)[5]
Age structure
0–14 yearsDecrease 17.1% (2012)
15–64 yearsIncrease 71.0% (2011)
65 and overIncrease 11.9% (2012)
Sex ratio
At birth1.08 male(s)/female (2012)
Under 151.08 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
15–64 years1.02 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
65 and over0.78 male(s)/female (2004 est.)
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Macedonian(s)
adjective: Macedonian
Major ethnicDecrease Macedonians (64.2%) (2002)
Minor ethnicIncrease Albanians (25.2%) (2002)

Decrease Turks 3.86% (2002)

Increase Romani 2.66% (2002)

Decrease Serbs 1.78% (2002)

Increase Bosniaks 0.84% (2002)

Increase Aromanians 0.48% (2002)
Language
OfficialMacedonian, Albanian
SpokenDecrease Macedonian (66.49%) (2002)[6]

Increase Albanian (25.12%) (2002)

Increase Turkish (3.55%) (2002)

Increase Romani (1.90%) (2002)

Decrease Serbian (1.22%) (2002)

Increase Bosnian (0.42%) (2002)

Decrease Aromanian (0.34%) (2002)

Decrease Other (0.95%) (2002)

Total population

  • 2,022,547 (2002)
  • 2,038,514 (2006)
  • 2,057,284 (2010)
  • 2,065,719 (2015)
  • 2,073,702 (2016)
  • 2,084,367 (2017)
  • 1,832,696 (2021)

International statistics and estimates

According to statistics from the European Union, the actual population has been reduced by at least 230,000 people who emigrated into European Union member states between 1998 and 2011.[7] Further Albanian news sources estimated at October 2012 that the real population is closer to the sum of 1,744,237 people who are accounted within all of the health funds of the country.[8][9] According to Bozhidar Dimitrov, the Bulgarian authorities have granted 87,000 to many of those emigrants a Bulgarian passport, as of 2012, which requires that they declare to be ethnic Bulgarians.[10][11] Since Bulgaria's entry into the European Union, and under pressure from fellow European Union members, Bulgaria imposed more stringent rules and measures for the acquisition of a Bulgarian citizenship and passport.

The provisions of the Ohrid agreement to elevate any minority language if the minority in question is above 20% of the population of any municipality into a co-official language for that municipality has created friction within the government, and between officials of different political and ethnic interests, resulting in the indefinite postponement of the census for almost twenty years until it was finally conducted in 2021.[12]

Vital statistics

[13][14]

Source: State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia[15]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Female fertile population (15–49 years)
1950 1,229,000 49,560 18,023 31,537 40.3 14.7 25.7 5.70 294,932
1951 1,262,000 45,329 20,747 24,582 35.9 16.4 19.5 5.14 301,090
1952 1,280,000 51,054 17,978 33,076 39.9 14.0 25.8 5.64 307,247
1953 1,310,000 49,665 19,312 30,353 37.9 14.7 23.2 5.26 313,405
1954 1,338,000 50,984 16,722 34,262 38.1 12.5 25.6 5.27 317,457
1955 1,355,000 49,093 17,919 31,174 36.2 13.2 23.0 4.95 321,510
1956 1,357,000 47,486 15,386 32,100 35.0 11.3 23.7 4.63 325,560
1957 1,364,000 46,107 17,341 28,766 33.8 12.7 21.1 4.21 341,923
1958 1,375,000 44,619 13,917 30,702 32.5 10.1 22.3 4.27 324,023
1959 1,382,000 44,638 14,998 29,640 32.3 10.9 21.4 4.21 326,696
1960 1,391,927 44,059 14,007 30,052 31.7 10.1 21.6 4.11 330,667
1961 1,408,302 42,182 13,141 29,041 30.0 9.3 20.6 3.87 334,636
1962 1,427,771 40,615 16,155 24,460 28.4 11.3 17.1 3.68 339,207
1963 1,449,932 41,284 13,229 28,055 28.5 9.1 19.3 3.70 346,814
1964 1,473,996 42,897 13,286 29,611 29.1 9.0 20.1 3.79 355,915
1965 1,499,729 42,433 12,758 29,675 28.3 8.5 19.8 3.67 364,762
1966 1,525,841 41,434 12,307 29,127 27.2 8.1 19.1 3.55 374,067
1967 1,550,453 40,763 12,523 28,240 26.3 8.1 18.2 3.44 385,649
1968 1,575,714 40,123 12,461 27,662 25.5 7.9 17.6 3.35 385,966
1969 1,602,993 40,342 13,111 27,231 25.2 8.2 17.0 3.24 407,438
1970 1,629,061 37,862 12,430 25,432 23.2 7.6 15.6 2.98 414,465
1971 1,654,076 37,904 12,447 25,457 22.9 7.5 15.4 2.93 421,227
1972 1,679,456 38,187 13,096 25,091 22.7 7.8 14.9 2.85 433,883
1973 1,704,602 37,478 12,217 25,261 22.0 7.2 14.8 2.72 441,859
1974 1,729,935 38,382 12,143 26,239 22.2 7.0 15.2 2.70 449,167
1975 1,756,335 39,579 12,629 26,950 22.5 7.2 15.3 2.70 459,158
1976 1,783,518 39,809 12,377 27,432 22.3 6.9 15.4 2.68 460,429
1977 1,810,148 38,932 12,899 26,033 21.5 7.1 14.4 2.54 471,192
1978 1,836,270 38,790 12,577 26,213 21.1 6.8 14.3 2.49 477,743
1979 1,863,728 39,407 12,653 26,754 21.1 6.8 14.4 2.49 485,716
1980 1,891,319 39,784 13,542 26,242 21.0 7.2 13.9 2.46 493,690
1981 1,916,713 39,488 13,383 26,105 20.6 7.0 13.6 2.48 491,236
1982 1,941,914 39,789 13,510 26,279 20.5 7.0 13.5 2.45 494,341
1983 1,967,556 39,210 14,391 24,819 19.9 7.3 12.6 2.40 506,960
1984 1,992,424 38,861 14,066 24,795 19.5 7.1 12.4 2.35 510,613
1985 2,016,942 38,722 14,408 24,314 19.2 7.1 12.1 2.32 516,227
1986 2,041,064 38,234 14,438 23,796 18.7 7.1 11.7 2.27 521,106
1987 2,065,005 38,572 14,644 23,928 18.7 7.1 11.6 2.27 529,021
1988 2,088,651 37,879 14,565 23,314 18.1 7.0 11.2 2.22 530,321
1989 2,070,912 35,927 14,592 21,335 17.3 7.0 10.3 2.09 538,168
1990 2,053,172 35,401 14,643 20,758 17.2 7.1 10.1 2.06 547,749
1991 2,035,433 34,830 14,789 20,041 17.1 7.3 9.8 2.30 512,254
1992 2,017,694 33,238 16,022 17,216 16.5 7.9 8.5 2.20 507,710
1993 1,999,955 32,374 15,591 16,783 16.2 7.8 8.4 2.15 503,163
1994[16] 1,982,215 31,421 15,771 15,650 15.9 8.0 7.9 2.14 498,620
1995 1,964,476 29,886 16,338 13,548 15.2 8.3 6.9 2.07 505,335
1996 1,981,543 28,946 16,063 12,883 14.6 8.1 6.5 1.94 511,960
1997 1,996,869 26,830 16,596 10,234 13.4 8.3 5.1 1.73 517,392
1998 2,007,523 26,639 16,870 9,769 13.3 8.4 4.9 1.72 520,862
1999 2,017,142 24,963 16,789 8,174 12.4 8.3 4.1 1.63 523,687
2000 2,026,350 26,168 17,253 8,915 12.9 8.5 4.4 1.74 526,563
2001 2,034,882 24,183 16,919 7,264 11.9 8.3 3.6 1.54 529,374
2002 2,020,157 24,154 17,962 6,192 12.0 8.9 3.1 1.57 526,937
2003 2,026,773 23,596 18,006 5,590 13.3 8.9 4.4 1.50 524,156
2004 2,032,544 23,361 17,944 5,417 11.5 8.8 2.7 1.52 525,682
2005 2,036,855 22,482 18,406 4,076 11.0 9.0 2.0 1.46 526,456
2006 2,040,228 22,585 18,630 3,955 11.1 9.1 1.9 1.46 527,410
2007 2,043,559 22,688 19,594 3,094 11.1 9.6 1.5 1.46 528,413
2008 2,046,898 22,945 18,982 3,963 11.2 9.3 1.9 1.47 528,842
2009 2,050,671 23,684 19,060 4,624 11.5 9.3 2.3 1.52 528,674
2010 2,055,004 24,296 19,113 5,183 11.8 9.3 2.5 1.56 527,743
2011 2,058,539 22,770 19,465 3,305 11.1 9.5 1.6 1.46 526,437
2012 2,061,044 23,568 20,134 3,434 11.4 9.8 1.7 1.51 525,092
2013 2,064,032 23,138 19,208 3,930 11.2 9.3 1.9 1.49 523,099
2014 2,067,471 23,596 19,718 3,878 11.4 9.5 1.9 1.53 520,072
2015 2,070,226 23,075 20,461 2,614 11.1 9.9 1.3 1.50 516,830
2016 2,072,490 23,002 20,421 2,581 11.1 9.9 1.2 1.51 513,990
2017 2,074,502 21,754 20,318 1,436 10.5 9.8 0.7 1.44 510,786
2018[17] 2,076,217 21,333 19,727 1,606 10.3 9.5 0.8 1.43 507,275
2019[18][19] 2,076,694 19,845 20,446 -601 9.6 9.8 -0.3 1.34 503,623
2020[20][21] 2,072,531 19,031 25,755 -6,724 9.2 12.4 -3.2 1.31 499,777
Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Female fertile population (15–49 years)
Total 1950-2019 2,461,593 1,113,567 1,348,026 1360.1 615.3 744.8
Average 1950-2019 1,809,849 35,166 15,908 19,258 19.4 8.8 10.6 2.50 457,738

Current vital statistics

[22]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January - September 2020 13,927 15,584 -1,657
January - September 2021 13,565 21,630 -8,065
Difference Decrease -362 (-2,60%) Negative increase +6,046 (+38.80%) Decrease -6,408

Marriages and divorces

Vital statistics, marriages and divorces by decade

Births and fertility rates

Ethnic groups

The process of industrialization and urbanization after the Second World War that caused the population growth to decrease involved the ethnic Macedonians to a greater extent than Muslims. Rates of increase were very high among rural Muslims: Turks and Torbesh (Macedonian Muslims) had rates 2.5 times those of the Macedonian majority, while Roma had rates 3 times as high. In 1994, Macedonians had a TFR of 2.07, while the TFR of others were: Albanian (2.10), Turkish (3.55), Roma (4.01), Serb (2.07), Vlachs (1.88) and Others (3.05). The TFR by religions was: Christian (2.17, with 2.20 for Catholics and 2.06 for Orthodox), Islam (4.02) and others (2.16).[24]

However, it is unlikely that this high minority TFR has continued since then in North Macedonia, as Balkan fertility elsewhere (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo) has dropped sharply toward the European average. A more recent survey[25] pegs Muslim fertility in North Macedonia at 1.7, versus 1.5 for non-Muslims.

Population of North Macedonia according to ethnic group 1948–2002[26]
Ethnic
group
census 1948 census 1953 census 1961 census 1971 census 1981 census 1991 census 19941 census 2002
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Macedonians 789,648 68.5 860,699 66.0 1,000,854 71.2 1,142,375 69.3 1,281,195 67.0 1,328,187 65.3 1,295,964 66.6 1,297,981 64.2
Albanians 197,389 17.1 162,524 12.5 183,108 13.0 279,871 17.0 377,726 19.8 441,987 21.7 441,104 22.7 509,083 25.2
Turks 95,940 8.3 203,938 15.6 131,481 9.4 108,552 6.6 86,691 4.5 77,080 3.8 78,019 4.0 77,959 3.9
Romani 19,500 1.7 20,462 1.6 20,606 1.5 24,505 1.5 43,223 2.3 52,103 2.6 43,707 2.2 53,879 2.7
Serbs 29,721 2.6 35,112 2.7 42,728 3.0 46,465 2.8 44,613 2.3 42,775 2.1 40,228 2.1 35,939 1.8
Bosniaks 1,560 0.1 1,591 0.1 3,002 0.2 1,248 0.1 39,555 2.1 31,356 1.5 6,829 0.3 17,018 0.8
Muslims 15,418 0.8 2,553 0.1
Aromanians 9,511 0.8 8,668 0.7 8,046 0.6 7,190 0.4 6,392 0.3 7,764 0.4 8,601 0.4 9,695 0.5
Croats 2,090 0.2 2,770 0.2 3,801 0.3 3,882 0.2 3,349 0.2 2,878 0.1 2,248 0.1 2,686 0.1
Montenegrins 2,348 0.2 2,526 0.2 3,414 0.2 3,246 0.2 3,940 0.2 3,225 0.1 2,318 0.1 2,003 0.1
Bulgarians 889 0.1 920 0.1 3,087 0.2 3,334 0.2 1,984 0.1 1,370 0.1 1,682 0.1 1,417 0.1
Yugoslavs 1,260 0.1 3,652 0.2 14,240 0.7
other/unspecified 4,390 0.4 5,304 0.4 4,616 0.3 22,988 1.4 6,228 0.3 45,239 2.2 9,814 0.5 14,8872 0.7
Total 1,152,986 1,304,514 1,406,003 1,647,308 1,909,136 2,033,964 1,945,932 2,022,547
1 Since 1994 residents who were permanently living abroad were no longer included

2 Ashkali: 3,713 or 0.184%, Greeks: 422 or 0.021%, Russians: 368 or 0.018%, Slovenes: 365 or 0.018%, Poles: 162 or 0.008%, Ukrainians: 136 or 0.007%, Germans: 88 or 0.004%, Czechs: 60 or 0.005%, Slovaks: 60 or 0.005%, Jews: 53 or 0.003%, Italians: 46 or 0.002%, Austrians: 35 or 0.002%, Rusyns: 24 or 0.001%, Regionally affiliated: 829 or 0.041%, Non-declared: 404 or 0.02%, Others: 5332 or 0.264%

In 2017, 21,754 children were born in North Macedonia. The ethnic affiliation of these newborns was: 11,260 (51.76%) Macedonian; 7,404 (34.03%) Albanian; 940 (4.32%) Turkish; 1,276 (5.87%) Roma; 40 (0.18%) Vlach; 129 (0.59%) Serbian; 213 (0.98%) Bosniaks; 492 (2,26%) other ethnic affiliation and unknown.[27][28] In the school year 2016/2017 there were 192 715 students in elementary schools from which 104,756 (55%) were Macedonian, and 60,971 (32%) were Albanian, and in High schools there were 72 482 students from which 43,658 (60.1%) were Macedonian and 22 419 (30.9%) were Albanians. Furthermore, in 1999 Albanians accounted for 34.6% of newborns and 26.1% of students who finished high school in 2016, which was regulated by the Ministry of Education.

Newborns in North Macedonia according to ethnic group
Ethnic group 1994[29] 2002[30] 2012[31] 2015[32] 2017[27] 2018[33] 2019[34] 2020[35]
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Macedonians 16,704 49.88 13,639 49.13 11,995 50.90 12,308 53.34 11,260 51.76 10,862 50.92 10,039 50.59 9,648 50.70
Albanians 12,010 35.86 10,118 36.45 8,035 34.09 7,604 32.95 7,404 34.04 7,546 35.37 7,047 35.51 6,884 36.17
Romani 1,378 4.12 1,678 6.04 1,552 6.59 1,271 5.51 1,276 5.87 1,298 6.08 1,272 6.41 1,166 6.13
Turks 1,616 4.83 1,202 4.33 1,092 4.63 1,098 4.76 940 4.32 973 4.56 877 4.42 756 3.97
Bosniaks 251 1.07 248 1.07 213 0.98 221 1.04 196 0.99 185 0.97
Serbs 403 1.20 168 0.61 125 0.53 112 0.49 129 0.59 125 0.59 118 0.59 80 0.42
Vlach (Aromanians) 25 0.07 23 0.08 37 0.16 23 0.10 40 0.18 14 0.07 28 0.14 14 0.07
other/unspecified 1,351 4.03 933 3.36 481 2.04 411 1.78 492 2.26 294 1.38 268 1.35 298 1.57
Total 33,487 27,761 23,568 23,075 21,754 21,333 19,845 19,031

Languages

Religions

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Age structure

  • 0–14 years: 19.5% (male 210,078; female 203,106)
  • 15–64 years: 67.8% (male 707,298; female 696,830)
  • 65 years and over: 12.7% (male 97,437; female 124,661) (2004 est)

Sex ratio

  • at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
  • under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
  • 15–64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
  • 65 years and over: 0.78 male(s)/female
  • total population: 1 male(s)/female (2004 est.)

Infant mortality rate

  • total: 11.74 deaths/1,000 live births
  • female: 10.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2004 est.)
  • male: 12.67 deaths/1,000 live births

Life expectancy at birth

  • total population: 74.73 years
  • male: 72.45 years
  • female: 77.2 years (2004 est.)

Total fertility rate

  • 1.50 children born/woman (2015 est.)[38]

HIV/AIDS

  • adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
  • people living with HIV/AIDS: less than 100 (1999 est.)
  • deaths: less than 100 (2001 est.)

Nationality

  • noun: Macedonian/citizen of the Republic of North Macedonia[39]
  • adjective: Macedonian / of North Macedonia[39]

See also

References

  1. ^ "North Macedonia's Postponed Census Mired in Legal Limbo". Balkan Insight. 2021-04-01. Retrieved 2021-08-25.
  2. ^ "North Macedonia Makes Fresh Push for Long Overdue Census". Balkan Insight. 2020-10-09. Retrieved 2021-08-25.
  3. ^ "Wildly Wrong: North Macedonia's Population Mystery". Balkan Insight. 2020-05-14. Retrieved 2021-08-25.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Address by the Director of the State Statistical Office on the completion of the Census 2021".
  5. ^ a b "Индикатори:".
  6. ^ "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in Macedonia 2002" (PDF). Stat.gov.mk. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  7. ^ "Macedonia Population Drained by Emigration, Report Says". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  8. ^ "Fall in the number of population in FYROM". Balkaneu.com. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  9. ^ "Σκόπια: Σημαντική μείωση του πληθυσμού". Echedoros-a.gr. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  10. ^ "Божидар Димитров: 86.000 Македонци извадиле бугарски пасош". 11 January 2013. Archived from the original on 11 January 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  11. ^ "Димитров: 86.000 Македонци досега извадиле бугарски пасош". A1on.mk. 8 January 2013. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  12. ^ Trkanjec, Zeljko (2021-10-04). "North Macedonia 2021 census is over". www.euractiv.com. Retrieved 2021-10-23.
  13. ^ "Latest publications".
  14. ^ "Eurostat database".
  15. ^ "State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia".
  16. ^ "Demographics statistics by regions, 1994-2004" (PDF).
  17. ^ "Statistical Yearbook, 2019".
  18. ^ "Natality in the Republic of North Macedonia, 2019".
  19. ^ "Mortality in the Republic of North Macedonia, 2019".
  20. ^ "Natality in the Republic of North Macedonia, 2020".
  21. ^ "Mortality in the Republic of North Macedonia, 2020".
  22. ^ "Monthly Statistical Bulletin".
  23. ^ "Мarriages and divorces in Republic of North Macedonia, in 2019 - final data" (PDF).
  24. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2010-05-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  25. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-06-17. Retrieved 2013-06-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  26. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-03-09. Retrieved 2011-02-24.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  27. ^ a b "Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia, 2018, p. 83" (PDF). North Macedonia, State Statistical Office. 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  28. ^ "Државен завод за статистика - публикација: Основни и средни училишта на крајот на учебната година". www.stat.gov.mk (in Macedonian). Retrieved 2018-11-24.
  29. ^ "Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia, 1999, p. 21". North Macedonia, State Statistical Office. 1999. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  30. ^ "Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia, 2004, p. 65". North Macedonia, State Statistical Office. 2004. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  31. ^ "Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia, 2014, p. 79" (PDF). North Macedonia, State Statistical Office. 2014. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  32. ^ "Macedonia in Numbers 2016" (PDF).
  33. ^ "Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia, 2019, p. 81" (PDF). North Macedonia, State Statistical Office. 2018. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  34. ^ "North Macedonia in figures, 2020" (PDF).
  35. ^ "North Macedonia in figures, 2021" (PDF).
  36. ^ "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050". Pewforum.org. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  37. ^ "Religions in Republic Of Macedonia - PEW-GRF". Globalreligiousfutures.org. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  38. ^ "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 15 December 2017.
  39. ^ a b Under the terms of the Prespa agreement, the nationality of the country will be called "Macedonian/citizen of the Republic of North Macedonia" in full.

Other sources

  • Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Macedonia 2004 (CD version)

External links

  • Results of the 2002 census
  • CIA World Factbook entry on North Macedonia