ECTFE (ethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) is an alternating copolymer of ethylene and chlorotrifluoroethylene. It is a semi-crystalline fluoropolymer (a partly fluorinated polymer), with chemical corrosion resistance properties.

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  • InChI=1S/C2F4.C2H4/c3-1(4)2(5)6;1-2/h;1-2H2 checkY
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Physical and chemical properties edit

ECTFE (ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene) is a polymer known for its chemical resistance, making it suitable for various industrial applications. It is resistant to acids at high concentrations/temperatures, caustic media, oxidizing agents, and many solvents, similar to PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene).[1][2] One of the key properties of ECTFE is its permeation resistance to large molecules, which is generally slow and not significant in practical applications. Small molecules, however, may permeate through the polymer matrix. In lining or coating applications using ECTFE, permeability of certain small molecules determines the lifetime of anti-corrosion protection. Small molecules such as H2O, O2, Cl2, H2S, HCl, HF, HBr, N2, H2, and CH3OH are relatively mobile in the polymer matrix and lead to measurable effects.[3][4] This permeation resistance is particularly critical in lining and coating applications, where the material is used to protect underlying layers, such as fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) or steel, from corrosive substances. The polymer's resistance to permeation is attributed to the presence of chlorine atoms in the polymer chain, which occupies free volume and restricts the movement of small molecules through the material.

ECTFE finds applications in various industries due to its favorable chemical resistance properties, providing durable and reliable protection in harsh environments.

ECTFE has a continuous usage temperature range between –76°C and +150°C (–105°F to +300°F). It has strong impact resistance and a Young's modulus in the range of 1700 MPa,[5] allowing for self-standing items and pressure piping systems. The polymer maintains high impact strength in cryogenic applications.[6]

In terms of fire resistance, ECTFE shows a limiting oxygen index of 52%.[7] This value places it between the fully fluorinated polymers PTFE, PFA, and FEP with a limiting oxygen index of 95% and other partially fluorinated polymers like PVDF with a limiting oxygen index of 44% or ETFE with a limiting oxygen index of 30%.

ECTFE acts as an electrical insulator, with high resistivity and a low dielectric constant as well as a low dissipation factor, allowing its use for wire and cable primary and secondary jacketing. ECTFE has good ultraviolet (UV) resistance, in particular against UV-A and UV-B. Films made of the polymer can be transparent.[8][9]

Applications edit

ECTFE is applied in several ways:

  • By electrostatic powder coating on metal surfaces
  • By rotolining on metal surfaces rotolining grade Halar 6012F[10]
  • By sheet lining on metal surface or on FRP (glass fiber, carbon fibers, etc.)
  • By extrusion or injection molding of self-standing items, in particular pressure pipes
  • By rotomolding of self-standing items like tanks or other shapes (rotomolding grade)[10]
  • As a protective film using an adequate adhesive

ECTFE powder is most commonly used in electrostatic powder coating.[11] Such coatings have a typical thickness of 0.8 mm but can be applied up to 2 mm with a special grade for high build up.[12][full citation needed][13][failed verification]

Extrusion of ECTFE fabric-backed sheets and subsequent fabrication into vessels, pipes or valves is done in the chemical industry.[14][15][16] Thick sheets are compression molded and can be manufactured to 50 mm in thickness. They are used in the semiconductor industry for wet benches or machining other parts.

The most common application of ECTFE is for corrosion protection, for which it is used in industries including:

ECTFE has been widely used in the semiconductor industry for wet tool and tubing systems for lithographic chemicals.[25][26]

It is also used in the pharmaceutical industry.[27][28][29]

ECTFE is used for primary and secondary jacketing in specialty cables like data cables or self-regulating heating cables, applications where good fire resistance and electrical properties are key properties. It is also used for braiding in that field.[30][31]

ECTFE in the form of a monofilament fiber is used in flue gas treatment and in certain chemical processes.

Unlike PTFE, ECTFE can be crimped,[32] which allows its production in the form of nonwoven fibers with high surface area and porosity.[33] Even though such material has low chemical reactivity, ECTFE in general has somewhat lower chemical resistance compared to PTFE.[citation needed]

ECTFE is used for manufacturing gaskets to store liquid oxygen and other propellants for aerospace applications.[34]

See also edit

  • BS 4994 ECTFE as a thermoplastic lining for dual laminate chemical process plant equipment
  • RTP-1 ECTFE as a thermoplastic lining for dual laminate ASME stamped vessels

References edit

  1. ^ "Halar ECTFE - Precision Fiber Engineering | Atkins & Pearce". Atkins & Pearce. Archived from the original on 2019-07-30. Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  2. ^ "Halar ECFTE Fluoropolymer Chemical Resistance Data" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
  3. ^ Hansen, Charles M (2001-09-01). "Water transport and condensation in fluoropolymer films". Progress in Organic Coatings. 42 (3): 167–178. doi:10.1016/S0300-9440(01)00168-0. ISSN 0300-9440 – via Elsevier Science Direct.
  4. ^ Polymer Handbook, J. Brandrup (Editor), E. H. Immergut (Editor), E. A. Grulke (Editor), Publication Date: May 29, 2003 ISBN 978-0471479369
  5. ^ "Halar ECTFE". Solvay S.A. Archived from the original on 2014-07-07. Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  6. ^ Drobny, Jiri (2006). Fluoroplastics. iSmithers Rapra Publishing. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-84735-007-7.
  7. ^ "Halar 901 Technical Data Sheet" (PDF). Solvay. 2022-05-23. Retrieved 2023-06-25.
  8. ^ "Ajedium Films". Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  9. ^ "HALAR thin gauge films Data Sheet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  10. ^ a b "Halar 6012F Technical Data Sheet". Solvay. 2014-11-18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  11. ^ Halar, ECTFE, coating applied by Kersten Kunststof(f)coating. YouTube. 15 May 2011. Archived from the original on 2021-12-22.
  12. ^ "Oberflächenbeschichtungen – Kunststoffbeschichtungen – Korrosionsschutz und Antihaft :: Hüni GmbH & Co. KG". (in German). Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  13. ^ "Adelhelm Kunststoffbeschichtungen, Lohnbeschichter für Antihaft, Antihaftung, Korrosionsschutz, Chemikalienschutz, adcoat, PFA, FEP, PTFE, Medizintechnik". Archived from the original on 2014-02-08. Retrieved 2013-12-13.
  14. ^ "ECTFE Semi Finished Products : Product Catalogue - AGRU". AGRU. Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  15. ^ "SIMONA, Category: Product group E-CTFE". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  16. ^ "Symalit ECTFE - Quadrant". Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2013-12-13.
  17. ^ "Lining Limits Corrosive Reach of Bleach". Industrial Equipment News. 22 November 2008. Archived from the original on 2023-02-01. Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  18. ^ Argasinski, J. Karol; Bennett, David (2011). "Halar ECTFE in Pulp & Paper Applications". TAPPI. Archived from the original on 2012-05-28. Retrieved 2013-12-13.
  19. ^ "Case Study: E-CTFE-GK – the safe solution for organic solvents" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  20. ^ "SIMONA City: SIMONA E-CTFE-GK in Composite System for Chimney Lining". Archived from the original on 2014-07-15. Retrieved 2013-12-11.
  21. ^ "Concrete protected by AGRU SureGrip - AGRU". AGRU. Archived from the original on 2017-06-09.
  22. ^ "Admor Composites Oy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2013-12-09.
  23. ^ "Fluoropolymer Lining Case Studies - Electro Chemical". Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  24. ^ "Services Offered - Transportation & Logistics - Eldredge Inc". Eldredge Inc. Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  25. ^ "ECTFE Industrial Piping System : Product Catalogue - AGRU". AGRU. Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  26. ^ "LAM ECTFE FM 4910 Listed" (PDF). LAMCORR Division of Laminations, Inc. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2013-12-13.
  27. ^ "Complete ECTFE piping system in vaccine production - AGRU". AGRU. Archived from the original on 2014-01-24. Retrieved 2013-12-11.
  28. ^ "Case Study: Pharmaceutical gas scrubbing" (PDF). ERG Air Pollution Control. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03.
  29. ^ "Plume suppression, reactor off gases, thermal oxidation, chemical and pharmaceutical case studies". ERG Air Pollution Control. Archived from the original on 2018-05-06.
  30. ^ "Braid Halar (HT) Self Extinguishing 11mm ethylene chlorotriflouroethylene (ECTFE) copolymer monofilament, Nominal 1/8 (3.17mm), Expands 3/32-1/4 (2.38-6.35mm), Colour Black with White tracer". DTL Connectors Online. Archived from the original on 2013-12-14. Retrieved 2013-12-10.
  31. ^ "Flexo - Halar". Retrieved 2023-06-27.
  32. ^ "ECTFE - Introduction". Retrieved 2023-04-17.
  33. ^ Ursino, C.; Ounifi, I.; Di Nicolò, E.; Cheng, X. Q.; Shao, L.; Zhang, Y.; Drioli, E.; Criscuoli, A.; Figoli, A. (2021-03-15). "Development of non-woven fabric-based ECTFE membranes for direct contact membrane distillation application". Desalination. 500: 114879. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2020.114879. ISSN 0011-9164. S2CID 230599516 – via Elsevier Science Direct.
  34. ^ "Understanding ECTFE Industrial Coatings". Toefco. 2014-10-01. Retrieved 2022-07-11.