Even and odd functions

Summary

In mathematics, an even function is a real function such that for every in its domain. Similarly, an odd function is a function such that for every in its domain.

The sine function and all of its Taylor polynomials are odd functions.
The cosine function and all of its Taylor polynomials are even functions.

They are named for the parity of the powers of the power functions which satisfy each condition: the function is even if n is an even integer, and it is odd if n is an odd integer.

Even functions are those real functions whose graph is self-symmetric with respect to the y-axis, and odd functions are those whose graph is self-symmetric with respect to the origin.

If the domain of a real function is self-symmetric with respect to the origin, then the function can be uniquely decomposed as the sum of an even function and an odd function.

Definition and examples edit

Evenness and oddness are generally considered for real functions, that is real-valued functions of a real variable. However, the concepts may be more generally defined for functions whose domain and codomain both have a notion of additive inverse. This includes abelian groups, all rings, all fields, and all vector spaces. Thus, for example, a real function could be odd or even (or neither), as could a complex-valued function of a vector variable, and so on.

The given examples are real functions, to illustrate the symmetry of their graphs.

Even functions edit

 
  is an example of an even function.

Let f be a real-valued function of a real variable. Then f is even if the following equation holds for all x such that x and −x are in the domain of f:[1]: p. 11 

 
(Eq.1)

or equivalently if the following equation holds for all such x:

 

Geometrically, the graph of an even function is symmetric with respect to the y-axis, meaning that its graph remains unchanged after reflection about the y-axis.

Examples of even functions are:

  • The absolute value  
  •  
  •  
  • cosine  
  • hyperbolic cosine  
  • Gaussian function  

Odd functions edit

 
  is an example of an odd function.

Again, let f be a real-valued function of a real variable. Then f is odd if the following equation holds for all x such that x and −x are in the domain of f:[1]: p. 72 

 
(Eq.2)

or equivalently if the following equation holds for all such x:

 

Geometrically, the graph of an odd function has rotational symmetry with respect to the origin, meaning that its graph remains unchanged after rotation of 180 degrees about the origin.

Examples of odd functions are:

  • The sign function  
  • The identity function  
  •  
  • sine  
  • hyperbolic sine  
  • The error function  
 
  is neither even nor odd.

Basic properties edit

Uniqueness edit

  • If a function is both even and odd, it is equal to 0 everywhere it is defined.
  • If a function is odd, the absolute value of that function is an even function.

Addition and subtraction edit

  • The sum of two even functions is even.
  • The sum of two odd functions is odd.
  • The difference between two odd functions is odd.
  • The difference between two even functions is even.
  • The sum of an even and odd function is not even or odd, unless one of the functions is equal to zero over the given domain.

Multiplication and division edit

  • The product of two even functions is an even function.
    • That implies that product of any number of even functions is an even function as well.
  • The product of two odd functions is an even function.
  • The product of an even function and an odd function is an odd function.
  • The quotient of two even functions is an even function.
  • The quotient of two odd functions is an even function.
  • The quotient of an even function and an odd function is an odd function.

Composition edit

  • The composition of two even functions is even.
  • The composition of two odd functions is odd.
  • The composition of an even function and an odd function is even.
  • The composition of any function with an even function is even (but not vice versa).

Even–odd decomposition edit

Every function may be uniquely decomposed as the sum of an even and an odd function, which are called respectively the even part and the odd part of the function; if one defines

 
(Eq.3)

and

 
(Eq.4)

then   is even,   is odd, and

 

Conversely, if

 

where g is even and h is odd, then   and   since

 

For example, the hyperbolic cosine and the hyperbolic sine may be regarded as the even and odd parts of the exponential function, as the first one is an even function, the second one is odd, and

 .

Further algebraic properties edit

  • Any linear combination of even functions is even, and the even functions form a vector space over the reals. Similarly, any linear combination of odd functions is odd, and the odd functions also form a vector space over the reals. In fact, the vector space of all real functions is the direct sum of the subspaces of even and odd functions. This is a more abstract way of expressing the property in the preceding section.
    • The space of functions can be considered a graded algebra over the real numbers by this property, as well as some of those above.
  • The even functions form a commutative algebra over the reals. However, the odd functions do not form an algebra over the reals, as they are not closed under multiplication.

Analytic properties edit

A function's being odd or even does not imply differentiability, or even continuity. For example, the Dirichlet function is even, but is nowhere continuous.

In the following, properties involving derivatives, Fourier series, Taylor series are considered, and these concepts are thus supposed to be defined for the considered functions.

Basic analytic properties edit

  • The derivative of an even function is odd.
  • The derivative of an odd function is even.
  • The integral of an odd function from −A to +A is zero (where A is finite, and the function has no vertical asymptotes between −A and A). For an odd function that is integrable over a symmetric interval, e.g.  , the result of the integral over that interval is zero; that is[2]
     .
  • The integral of an even function from −A to +A is twice the integral from 0 to +A (where A is finite, and the function has no vertical asymptotes between −A and A. This also holds true when A is infinite, but only if the integral converges); that is
     .

Series edit

Harmonics edit

In signal processing, harmonic distortion occurs when a sine wave signal is sent through a memory-less nonlinear system, that is, a system whose output at time t only depends on the input at time t and does not depend on the input at any previous times. Such a system is described by a response function  . The type of harmonics produced depend on the response function f:[3]

  • When the response function is even, the resulting signal will consist of only even harmonics of the input sine wave;  
    • The fundamental is also an odd harmonic, so will not be present.
    • A simple example is a full-wave rectifier.
    • The   component represents the DC offset, due to the one-sided nature of even-symmetric transfer functions.
  • When it is odd, the resulting signal will consist of only odd harmonics of the input sine wave;  
  • When it is asymmetric, the resulting signal may contain either even or odd harmonics;  
    • Simple examples are a half-wave rectifier, and clipping in an asymmetrical class-A amplifier.

Note that this does not hold true for more complex waveforms. A sawtooth wave contains both even and odd harmonics, for instance. After even-symmetric full-wave rectification, it becomes a triangle wave, which, other than the DC offset, contains only odd harmonics.

Generalizations edit

Multivariate functions edit

Even symmetry:

A function   is called even symmetric if:

 

Odd symmetry:

A function   is called odd symmetric if:

 

Complex-valued functions edit

The definitions for even and odd symmetry for complex-valued functions of a real argument are similar to the real case but involve complex conjugation.

Even symmetry:

A complex-valued function of a real argument   is called even symmetric if:

 

Odd symmetry:

A complex-valued function of a real argument   is called odd symmetric if:

 

Finite length sequences edit

The definitions of odd and even symmetry are extended to N-point sequences (i.e. functions of the form  ) as follows:[4]: p. 411 

Even symmetry:

A N-point sequence is called even symmetric if

 

Such a sequence is often called a palindromic sequence; see also Palindromic polynomial.

Odd symmetry:

A N-point sequence is called odd symmetric if

 

Such a sequence is sometimes called an anti-palindromic sequence; see also Antipalindromic polynomial.

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b Gel'Fand, I. M.; Glagoleva, E. G.; Shnol, E. E. (1990). Functions and Graphs. Birkhäuser. ISBN 0-8176-3532-7.
  2. ^ W., Weisstein, Eric. "Odd Function". mathworld.wolfram.com.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Berners, Dave (October 2005). "Ask the Doctors: Tube vs. Solid-State Harmonics". UA WebZine. Universal Audio. Retrieved 2016-09-22. To summarize, if the function f(x) is odd, a cosine input will produce no even harmonics. If the function f(x) is even, a cosine input will produce no odd harmonics (but may contain a DC component). If the function is neither odd nor even, all harmonics may be present in the output.
  4. ^ Proakis, John G.; Manolakis, Dimitri G. (1996), Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms and Applications (3 ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall International, ISBN 9780133942897, sAcfAQAAIAAJ

References edit

  • Gelfand, I. M.; Glagoleva, E. G.; Shnol, E. E. (2002) [1969], Functions and Graphs, Mineola, N.Y: Dover Publications