The Habsburg monarchy (German: Habsburgermonarchie, pronounced[ˈhaːpsbʊʁɡɐmonaʁˌçiː]ⓘ), also known as Habsburg Empire (German: Habsburgerreich[ˈhaːpsbʊʁɡɐˌʁaɪç]ⓘ), was the collection of empires, kingdoms, duchies, counties and other polities that were ruled by the House of Habsburg and, following the partition of the dynasty, especially by its Austrian branch. From the 18th century it is also referred to as the Danubian monarchy (German: Donaumonarchie[ˈdoːnaʊmonaʁˌçiː]ⓘ) or the Austrian monarchy.
In historiography, the terms "Austria" or "Austrians" are frequently used as shorthand for the Habsburg monarchy since the 18th century. From 1438 to 1806, the rulers of the House of Habsburg almost continuously reigned as Holy Roman Emperors. However, the realms of the Holy Roman Empire were mostly self-governing and are thus not considered to have been part of the Habsburg monarchy. Hence, the Habsburg monarchy (of the Austrian branch) is often called "Austria" by metonymy. Around 1700, the Latin term monarchia austriaca came into use as a term of convenience. Within the empire alone, the vast possessions included the original Hereditary Lands, the Erblande, from before 1526; the Lands of the Bohemian Crown; the formerly Spanish Austrian Netherlands from 1714 until 1794; and some fiefs in Imperial Italy. Outside the empire, they encompassed all the Kingdom of Hungary as well as conquests made at the expense of the Ottoman Empire. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was in Prague.
At this point, the Habsburg possessions were so vast that Charles V was constantly travelling throughout his dominions and therefore needed deputies and regents, such as Isabella of Portugal in Spain and Margaret of Austria in the Low Countries, to govern his various realms. At the Diet of Worms in 1521, Emperor Charles V came to terms with his younger brother Ferdinand. According to the Habsburgcompact of Worms (1521), confirmed a year later in Brussels, Ferdinand was made Archduke, as a regent of Charles V in the Austrian hereditary lands.
Charles V divided the House in 1556 by ceding Austria along with the Imperial crown to Ferdinand (as decided at the Imperial election, 1531), and the Spanish Empire to his son Philip. The Spanish branch (which also held the Netherlands, the Kingdom of Portugal between 1580 and 1640, and the Mezzogiorno of Italy) became extinct in 1700. The Austrian branch (which also ruled the Holy Roman Empire, Hungary and Bohemia) was itself divided between different branches of the family from 1564 until 1665, but thereafter it remained a single personal union. It became extinct in the male line in 1740, but through the marriage of Queen Maria Theresa with Francis of Lorraine, the dynasty continued as the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.
Habsburg monarchy (German Habsburgermonarchie): this is an unofficial umbrella term, very frequently used, but was not an official name.
Austrian monarchy (Latin: monarchia austriaca) came into use around 1700 as a term of convenience for the Habsburg territories.
"Danubian monarchy" (German: Donaumonarchie) was an unofficial name often used contemporaneously.
Austrian Empire (German: Kaisertum Österreich): This was the official name of the new Habsburg empire created in 1804, after the end of the Holy Roman Empire. The English word empire refers to a territory ruled by an emperor, and not to a "widespreading domain".
Austria-Hungary (German: Österreich-Ungarn), 1867–1918: This name was commonly used in international relations, although the official name was Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie).
Crownlands or crown lands (Kronländer) (1849–1918): This is the name of all the individual parts of the Austrian Empire (1849–1867), and then of Austria-Hungary from 1867 on. The Kingdom of Hungary (more exactly the Lands of the Hungarian Crown) was not considered a "crownland" anymore after the establishment of Austria-Hungary in 1867, so that the "crownlands" became identical with what was called the Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council (Die im Reichsrate vertretenen Königreiche und Länder).
The Hungarian parts of the empire were called "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" or "Lands of Holy (St.) Stephen's Crown" (Länder der Heiligen Stephans Krone). The Bohemian (Czech) Lands were called "Lands of the St. Wenceslaus' Crown" (Länder der Wenzels-Krone).
Names of some smaller territories:
The Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg finally became Austrian in 1816 after the Napoleonic wars; before that it was ruled by the prince-archbishops of Salzburg as a sovereign territory.
The territories ruled by the Austrian monarchy changed over the centuries, but the core always consisted of four blocs:
The Hereditary Lands, which covered most of the modern states of Austria and Slovenia, as well as territories in northeastern Italy and (before 1797) southwestern Germany. To these were added in 1779 the Inn Quarter of Bavaria and in 1803 the Prince-Bishoprics of Trent and Brixen. The Napoleonic Wars caused disruptions where many parts of the Hereditary lands were lost, but all these, along with the former Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg, which had previously been temporarily annexed between 1805 and 1809, were recovered at the Congress of Vienna 1815, with the exception of Further Austria. The Hereditary provinces included:
Vorarlberg (actually a collection of provinces, only united in the 19th century)
The Vorlande, a group of territories in Breisgau and elsewhere in southwestern Germany lost in 1801 (although the Alsatian territories (Sundgau) which had formed a part of it had been lost as early as 1648)
The Kingdom of Hungary – two-thirds of the former territory that was administered by the medieval Kingdom of Hungary was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and the Princes of vassal Ottoman Transylvania, while the Habsburg administration was restricted to the western and northern territories of the former kingdom, which remained to be officially referred as the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1699, at the end of the Ottoman-Habsburg wars, one part of the territories that were administered by the former medieval Kingdom of Hungary came under Habsburg administration, with some other areas being acquired in 1718 (some of the territories that were part of medieval kingdom, notably those in the south of the Sava and Danube rivers, remained under Ottoman administration).
The boundaries of some of these territories varied over the period indicated, and others were ruled by a subordinate (secundogeniture) Habsburg line. The Habsburgs also held the title of Holy Roman Emperor between 1438 and 1740, and again from 1745 to 1806.
Within the early modern Habsburg monarchy, each entity was governed according to its own particular customs. Until the mid 17th century, not all of the provinces were even necessarily ruled by the same person—junior members of the family often ruled portions of the Hereditary Lands as private apanages. Serious attempts at centralization began under Maria Theresa and especially her son Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor in the mid to late 18th century, but many of these were abandoned following large scale resistance to Joseph's more radical reform attempts, although a more cautious policy of centralization continued during the revolutionary period and the Metternichian period that followed.
Another attempt at centralization began in 1849 following the suppression of the various revolutions of 1848. For the first time, ministers tried to transform the monarchy into a centralized bureaucratic state ruled from Vienna. The Kingdom of Hungary was placed under martial law, being divided into a series of military districts, the centralized neo-absolutism tried to as well to nullify Hungary's constitution and Diet. Following the Habsburg defeats in the Second Italian War of Independence (1859) and Austro-Prussian War (1866), these policies were step by step abandoned.
After experimentation in the early 1860s, the famous Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was arrived at, by which the so-called dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary was set up. In this system, the Kingdom of Hungary ("Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen.") was an equal sovereign with only a personal union and a joint foreign and military policy connecting it to the other Habsburg lands. Although the non-Hungarian Habsburg lands were referred to as "Austria", received their own central parliament (the Reichsrat, or Imperial Council) and ministries, as their official name – the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council". When Bosnia and Herzegovina was annexed (after 30 years of occupation and administration), it was not incorporated into either half of the monarchy. Instead, it was governed by the joint Ministry of Finance.
^https://www.lindipendenzanuova.com/quando-il-13-dicembre-limperatore-francesco-restitui-a-venezia-i-suoi-4-cavalli/ The Austrian flag in Venice during the Habsburg rule.
^ abcLott, Elizabeth S.; Pavlac, Brian A., eds. (2019). "Rudolf I (r. 1273–1291)". The Holy Roman Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-Clio. pp. 266–268. ISBN 978-1-4408-4856-8. LCCN 2018048886.
^Vienna website; "Austro-Hungarian Empire k.u.k. Monarchy dual-monarchic Habsburg Emperors of Austria". Archived from the original on 2011-11-23. Retrieved 2011-09-11.
^Encyclopædia Britannica online article Austria-Hungary; https://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/44386/Austria-Hungary
^A.J.P. Taylor, The Habsburg monarchy, 1809–1918: a history of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary (University of Chicago Press, 1976).
^Giorgio Manacorda (2010) Nota bibliografica in Roth La Marcia di Radetzky, Newton Classici quotation:
Stefan Zweig, l'autore del più famoso libro sull'Impero asburgico, Die Welt von Gestern
Hochedlinger, Michael (2013) . Austria's Wars of Emergence, 1683–1797. Abingdon: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-582-29084-6.
Kotulla, Michael (2008). Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte: Vom Alten Reich bis Weimar (1495–1934) (in German). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-48705-0.
Rady, Martyn (2020). The Habsburgs: The Rise and Fall of a World Power. London: Allen Lane. ISBN 978-0-241-33262-7.
Bérenger, Jean (2013). A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1273–1700. Routledge.
Bérenger, Jean (2014). A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1700–1918. Routledge.
Evans, Robert John Weston (1979). The Making of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1550–1700: An Interpretation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-873085-3.
Evans, Robert John Weston (May 2020). "Remembering the Fall of the Habsburg Monarchy One Hundred Years on: Three Master Interpretations". Austrian History Yearbook. 51: 269–291. doi:10.1017/S0067237820000181. S2CID 216447628.
Fichtner, Paula Sutter (2003). The Habsburg Monarchy, 1490–1848: Attributes of Empire, Palgrave Macmillan.
Henderson, Nicholas. "Joseph II" History Today (Sept 1955) 5#9 pp. 613–621.
Ingrao, Charles (1979). In Quest and Crisis: Emperor Joseph I and the Habsburg Monarchy. Purdue University Press. ISBN 978-0911198539.
Ingrao, Charles (2000). The Habsburg Monarchy, 1618–1815. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521380096.
Judson, Pieter M. The Habsburg Empire: A New History (2016) excerpt
Kann, Robert A. A History of the Habsburg Empire: 1526–1918 (University of California Press, 1974) online
Lieven, Dominic. Empire: The Russian empire and its rivals (Yale University Press, 2002), comparisons with Russian, British, & Ottoman empires.
McCagg, Jr., William O (1989). A History of the Habsburg Jews, 1670–1918 (Indiana University Press.
Mitchell, A. Wess (2018). The Grand Strategy of the Habsburg Empire. Princeton University Press.
Oakes, Elizabeth and Eric Roman (2003). Austria-Hungary and the Successor States: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present.
Sked, Alan (1989). The Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, 1815–1918. Longman.
Stone, Norman. "The Last Days of the Habsburg Monarchy", History Today (Aug 1968), Vol. 18 Issue 8, pp. 551–560; online
Steed, Henry Wickham; et al. (1914). A short history of Austria-Hungary and Poland. Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. p. 145.
Taylor, A. J. P. (1964). The Habsburg monarchy, 1809–1918: a history of the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary (2nd ed.). Penguin Books.
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