Julang-2 (JL-2)
JL-1 and JL-2.PNG
Place of originPeople's Republic of China
Service history
In serviceActive as of 2015[1]
Used byPeople's Liberation Army Navy
Mass42,000 kilograms (93,000 lb)[2]
Length13 metres (43 ft)[2]
Warheadsingle[3] or 1-3 MIRV[4] or 3-8 MIRV nuclear warhead[2]
Blast yield1 megaton of TNT (4.2 PJ) single,[5] or 1-3 MIRV [6] 20/90/150kt MIRV[2]

PropellantSolid-fuel rocket[3]
7,200 km (4,500 mi)[7]
Astro-inertial[5] with Beidou[2]
Type 094 submarine[8]

The JL-2 (Chinese: 巨浪-2; pinyin: Jù Làng Èr; lit. 'Giant Wave 2', NATO reporting name CSS-N-14) is a Chinese second-generation intercontinental-range submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) deployed on the People's Liberation Army Navy's (PLAN) Type 094 submarines. It succeeds the JL-1 SLBM deployed on the Type 092 submarine.[8]

The JL-2 provides China with its first viable sea-based nuclear deterrent.[8]


The JL-2 is a naval variant of the land-based DF-31.[9][10] Their common 2-metre diameter solid fuel rocket motor was successfully tested in late 1983,[9] and research and development efforts were reorganized starting in 1985 to produce both missiles.[10]

The first JL-2 at-sea launch occurred in 2001 from a Type 031 submarine.[9][10] The program was delayed after a failed test in 2004.[9] Successful launches occurred in 2005 and 2008. The missile was successfully fired from a Type 094 submarine, the intended operational platform, for the first time in 2009.[9] A series of test launches occurred in 2012.[11][12] Another test launch occurred in January 2015.[13]

During the development of the missile, it was reported that China was considering modifying the missile to accommodate an anti-satellite warhead to give it a sea-based anti-satellite capability.[14]

Type 094 deterrence patrols with JL-2 missiles began in December 2015.[1]

As of 2017, 48 JL-2 launchers are deployed on submarines.[3]


The JL-2 is a three-stage, solid-fuelled missile,[3] with a maximum range of 7,200 km (4,500 mi).[7] Its payload is a single[3] 1 Megaton warhead[5] or 3-8 MIRVs with yields of 20, 90, or 150kt.[2]

See also



  1. ^ a b Fisher, Richard D. Jr. (16 December 2015). "China advances sea- and land-based nuclear deterrent capabilities". Jane's Defence Weekly. Surrey, UK: Jane's Information Group. 53 (6). ISSN 0265-3818.
  2. ^ a b c d e f https://missilethreat.csis.org/missile/jl-2/ CSIS Missile Threat - JL-2
  3. ^ a b c d e National Air and Space Intelligence Center (2017: 33)
  4. ^ "Chinese Navy has now six Type 094A Jin-class nuclear powered ballistic missile submarines".
  5. ^ a b c Rahmat, Ridzwan (25 March 2014). "PACOM chief says China will deploy long-range nuclear missiles on subs this year". janes.com. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  6. ^ "Chinese Navy has now six Type 094A Jin-class nuclear powered ballistic missile submarines".
  7. ^ a b United States Department of Defense (2018: 38)
  8. ^ a b c United States Department of Defense (2018: 29)
  9. ^ a b c d e "JL-2 (CSS-NX-14)". Globalsecurity.org. 20 April 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  10. ^ a b c Lewis, Jeffrey (25 June 2005). "JL-2 SLBM Flight Test". armscontrolwonk.com. Retrieved 26 January 2015.
  11. ^ United States Department of Defense (May 2013). Annual Report To Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People's Republic of China 2013 (PDF) (Report). p. 31. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 January 2015. Retrieved 24 January 2015.
  12. ^ Gertz, Bill (21 August 2012). "Ready To Launch: China conducts rare flight test of new submarine-launched missile". The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  13. ^ Gertz, Bill (18 February 2015). "China conducts JL-2 sub missile test". The Washington Times. Retrieved 10 March 2015.
  14. ^ Gertz, Bill (18 January 2008). "Submarine ASAT". Washington Post.[dead link]


External links

  • CSIS Missile Threat - Ju Lang-2
  • JL-2 from Mark Wade's Encyclopedia Astronautica