Kosmos 1514

Summary

Kosmos 1514 / Bion 6
Искусственный спутник Земли «Космос-1514» («Бион-6») (14748760935).jpg
Kosmos 1514 (Bion 6) spacecraft
NamesBion 6
Biocosmos 6
Biokosmos 6
Mission typeBioscience
OperatorInstitute of Biomedical Problems
COSPAR ID1983-121A [1]
SATCAT no.14549
Mission duration5 days
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeBion
ManufacturerTsSKB
Launch mass5,700 kg (12,600 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date14 December 1983,
07:00:00 UTC
RocketSoyuz-U 11A511U
s/n Yu15000-371
Launch sitePlesetsk, Site 41/1
ContractorTsSKB
End of mission
Recovered bySoviet Space Forces
Landing date19 December 1983, 04:48 UTC
Landing site52°42′N 62°48′E / 52.700°N 62.800°E / 52.700; 62.800 (Bion 6 spashdown)
Rudny, Kazakhstan,
Soviet Union
Orbital parameters
Reference systemGeocentric orbit [2]
RegimeLow Earth orbit
Perigee altitude226 km (140 mi)
Apogee altitude288 km (179 mi)
Inclination82.30°
Period89.30 minutes
← Bion 5
Bion 7 →
 

Kosmos 1514 or Bion 6 (in Russian: Космос 1514, Бион 6) was a biomedical spaceflight research mission that was launched on 12 December 1983. It was part of the Bion satellite program.

Mission

The first Soviet Union orbital flight of a non-human primate was accomplished on the Kosmos 1514 mission. Two monkeys flew on the mission, together with several pregnant rats. More than 60 experiments were performed by investigators from Bulgaria, Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia, France, the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. This was the first time the Soviet space agency flew monkeys in space, coming 34 years after the U.S. first put a monkey into space, and 22 years after the Soviet Union started putting humans into space.[3]

United States scientists conducted three experiments on the primates and another experiment on the rat subjects. The mission differed markedly from earlier Cosmos flights, both in terms of Soviet scientific goals and in the degree of cooperation required between the United States and the Soviet Union. The two countries had to interact at a high level because much of the U.S. experiment hardware had to be integrated with the Soviet spacecraft and instrumentation systems.[4]

Two Rhesus monkeys were flown into orbit implanted with sensors to permit monitoring of carotid artery blood flow. Additionally eighteen pregnant white rats were sent to be used for studies of the effects of microgravity and radiation. The rats subsequently produced normal litters.[1]

Experiments focused on the effect of weightlessness on various physiological parameters. A study of circadian rhythms was concerned with the synchronization of primate motor activity, body temperature and skin temperature rhythms to a fixed light/dark cycle and to each other. Blood pressure and flow were monitored, to evaluate short and long-term changes in these parameters. Changes in calcium metabolism were studied in order to determine the effect of weightlessness on the skeleton. The two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), Abrek and Bion, flown onboard were about three years of age and each weighed approximately 4 kilograms. Height was a constraint in selecting animals for flight. This was because a Soviet vestibular experiment required that the flight restraint couches oscillate vertically within the animal capsules. The monkeys were conditioned to sit in the restraint couches and perform tasks for food rewards. Tasks included pressing a lever with their feet and tracking a moving light with their eyes. Monkeys were also trained to eat and drink from food and juice dispensers. Monkeys in the flight and control groups were implanted with blood pressure and flow cuffs and sensors to measure several physiological parameters.[4]

A neuroontogeny experiment was conducted to investigate space flight effects on the sensory development of rats that spent part of their prenatal gestation period in space. Ten pregnant female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were flown. Ground control groups contained the same number of rats. At the start of the flight or control experiments, the rats were at gestation day 13 of their 21-day cycle.[4]

The mission ended after five days, on 19 December 1983.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Display: Bion 6 1983-121A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 17 January 2021. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ "Trajectory: Bion 6 1983-121A". NASA. 14 May 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2021. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ [1] Archived 27 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b c "Mission: Cosmos 1514". NASA. Retrieved 17 January 2021. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

Bibliography

  • Kozlov, D. I. (1996), Mashnostroenie, ed.; Konstruirovanie avtomaticheskikh kosmicheskikh apparatov, Moscow, ISBN
  • Melnik, T. G. (1997), Nauka, ed.; Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Sili, Moscow, ISBN
  • "Bion' nuzhen lyudyam", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, (6): 35, 1996

External links

  • Cosmos 1514 NASA