Legislature X of Italy

Summary

The Legislature X of Italy (Italian: X Legislatura della Repubblica Italiana) was the 10th legislature of the Italian Republic, and lasted from 2 July 1987 until 22 April 1992.[1][2] Its composition was the one resulting from the general election of 14 and 15 June 1987. The election was called by President Cossiga on 28 April 1987, when he dissolved the Houses of Parliament.[3]

Legislature X of Italy

X legislatura della Repubblica Italiana
10th legislature
Type
Type
HousesChamber of Deputies
Senate of the Republic
History
Founded2 July 1987 (1987-07-02)
Disbanded22 April 1992 (1992-04-22) (4 years, 295 days)
Preceded byIX Legislature
Succeeded byXI Legislature
Leadership
Giovanni Spadolini, PRI
since 2 July 1987
Nilde Iotti, PCI
since 2 July 1987
Structure
Seats630 (C)
315 (S)
Italian Chamber of Deputies leg 10.svg
Chamber of Deputies political groups
  •   DC (234)
  •   PCIPDS (149)
  •   PSI (100)
  •   MSI (33)
  •   PRI (20)
  •   SI (19)
  •   V (16)
  •   PSDI (12)
  •   PLI (11)
  •   DP (11)
  •   FE (8)
  •   Mixed (16)
Italian Senate groups leg 10.svg
Senate political groups
Elections
Proportional
Proportional
Last general election
14 June 1987
Meeting place
Palazzo Montecitorio, Rome (C)
Palazzo Madama, Rome (S)
Website
storia.camera.it/legislature/leg-repubblica-X
www.senato.it/leg10/home
Constitution
Constitution of Italy

HistoryEdit

Following the general election, christian democrat Giovanni Goria, a protégé of DC party leader Ciriaco De Mita, became Prime Minister at the head of a renewed Pentapartito coalition. At that time Goria was the youngest Prime Minister of Italy since the birth of the republic. Despite the initial credit towards Goria's reformist agenda, he was soon forced to resign in April 1988 after the Parliament refused to pass the government budget. Subsequently De Mita himself was appointed Prime Minister: his short time in office just witnessed the passage of a law in May 1988 that introduced a new benefit for salaried workers called "benefit for the family nucleus", with the amount varying depending on the number of family members and the family income of the previous year.[4]

However in Spring 1989 the so-called "pact of the camper" stipulated between the socialist leader Bettino Craxi and the christian democratic leaders Arnaldo Forlani and Giulio Andreotti – secretly shared in a parking out of Ex Ansaldo factory in Milan, where the Congress of the Italian Socialist Party were taking place – provided a new path that would have started with the fall of the De Mita's government and the formation of a cabinet with a social democrat-led transition, culminating in another Craxi's government, while Andreotti or Forlani would have been elected President of Italy in the 1992 presidential election. As agreed, shortly after De Mita's government fell and on 22 July 1989 Andreotti was sworn in for the third time as Prime Minister. His government was characterized by a turbulent course: Andreotti decided to stay at the head of government, despite the abandonment of many social democratic ministers, after the approval of the norm on TV spots (favorable to private TV channels of Silvio Berlusconi).

In 1990 Andreotti revealed the existence of the Operation Gladio; Gladio was the codename for a clandestine North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) "stay-behind" operation in Italy during the Cold War. Its purpose was to prepare for, and implement, armed resistance in the event of a Warsaw Pact invasion and conquest. Although Gladio specifically refers to the Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind organizations, "Operation Gladio" is used as an informal name for all of them.[5]

During his premiership Andreotti clashed many times with President of the Republic Francesco Cossiga.

GovernmentEdit

Portrait Prime Minister Party Term of office Government Composition
Took office Left office
  Giovanni Goria
(1943–1994)
DC 28 July 1987 13 April 1988 Goria DC  • PSI  • PSDI  • PLI  • PRI
(Pentapartito)
  Ciriaco De Mita
(b.1928)
DC 13 April 1988 22 July 1989 De Mita DC  • PSI  • PSDI  • PLI  • PRI
(Pentapartito)
  Giulio Andreotti
(1919–2013)
DC 22 July 1989 12 April 1991 Andreotti VI DC  • PSI  • PSDI  • PLI  • PRI
(Pentapartito)
12 April 1991 28 June 1992 Andreotti VII DC  • PSI  • PSDI  • PLI
(Quadripartito)

CompositionEdit

Chamber of DeputiesEdit

Parliamentary groups in the Chamber of Deputies
Initial composition[6] Final composition[6]
Parliamentary group Seats Parliamentary group Seats Change
Christian Democratic 234 Christian Democratic 234  
Communist 157 Communist GroupPDS 149   8
Italian Socialist Party 94 Italian Socialist Party 100   6
MSI – National Right 34 MSI – National Right 33   1
Republican 21 Republican 20   1
Independent Left 20 Independent Left 19   1
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 17 Italian Democratic Socialist Party 12   5
Green 13 Green 16   3
European Federalist 12 European Federalist 8   4
Italian Liberal Party 11 Italian Liberal Party 11  
Proletarian Democracy 8 DP – Communists 11   3
Mixed 8 Mixed 16   8
Total seats 629 Total seats 629  

SenateEdit

Parliamentary groups in the Senate of the Republic
Initial composition[7] Final composition[7]
Parliamentary group Seats Parliamentary group Seats Change
Christian Democratic 127 Christian Democracy 129   2
Communist 85 Communist – PDS 74   11
Italian Socialist Party 45 Italian Socialist Party 45  
Independent Left 17 Independent Left 15   2
Italian Social Movement – National Right 16 Italian Social Movement – National Right 15   1
Republican 9 Republican 9  
Italian Democratic Socialist Party 7 Italian Democratic Socialist Party 5   2
European Federalist Ecologist 6 European Federalist Ecologist 6  
Communist Refoundation 11   11
Mixed 12 Mixed 14   2
Italian Liberal Party 3 Liberal 3  
South Tyrolean People's Party 2 South Tyrolean People's Party 2  
Progressive Democratic Autonomists 1 Progressive Democratic Autonomists 1  
Sardinian Action Party 1 Sardinian Action Party 1  
Lega Lombarda 1 Lega LombardaLega Nord 1  
Green List 1   1
Proletarian Democracy 1   1
Federation of the Greens 1   1
Housewives – Pensioners 1   1
Non inscrits 2 Non inscrits 4   2
Total seats 324 Total seats 323   1

Senators for LifeEdit

Senator Motivation Appointed by From Till
Cesare Merzagora Merits in the social field President Antonio Segni Previous legislature 1 May 1991 (deceased)
Giuseppe Saragat Former President of Italy ex officio Previous legislature 11 June 1988 (deceased)
Amintore Fanfani Merits in the social field President Giovanni Leone Previous legislature Next legislature
Giovanni Leone Former President of Italy ex officio Previous legislature Next legislature
Leo Valiani Merits in the social field President Sandro Pertini Previous legislature Next legislature
Camilla Ravera Merits in the social field President Sandro Pertini Previous legislature 14 April 1988 (deceased)
Carlo Bo Merits in the literary field President Sandro Pertini Previous legislature Next legislature
Norberto Bobbio Merits in the social and scientific field President Sandro Pertini Previous legislature Next legislature
Sandro Pertini Former President of Italy ex officio Previous legislature 24 February 1990 (deceased)
Giovanni Spadolini Merits in the social field President Francesco Cossiga 2 May 1991 Next legislature
Giovanni Agnelli Merits in the social field President Francesco Cossiga 1 June 1991 Next legislature
Giulio Andreotti Merits in the social field President Francesco Cossiga 1 June 1991 Next legislature
Francesco De Martino Merits in the social field President Francesco Cossiga 1 June 1991 Next legislature
Paolo Emilio Taviani Merits in the social field President Francesco Cossiga 1 June 1991 Next legislature

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "X Legislatura della Repubblica italiana / Legislature / Camera dei deputati – Portale storico". storia.camera.it (in Italian). Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  2. ^ "Senato della Repubblica – 10ª Legislatura". www.senato.it (in Italian). Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  3. ^ "IX Legislatura / Cronologia / Camera dei deputati – Portale storico". storia.camera.it (in Italian). Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  4. ^ European Observatory on Family Policies: National Family Policies in EC-Countries in 1990 by Wilfred Dumon in collaboration with Françoise Bartiaux, Tanja Nuelant, and experts from each of the member states
  5. ^ Haberman, Clyde (16 November 1990). "Evolution in Europe; Italy Discloses its Web of Cold War Guerrillas". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  6. ^ a b "X Legislatura della Repubblica italiana / Legislature / Camera dei deputati – Portale storico". storia.camera.it (in Italian). Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  7. ^ a b "senato.it – Composizione dei gruppi parlamentari nella X Legislatura". www.senato.it (in Italian). Retrieved 1 July 2019.