List of World Heritage Sites in India

Summary

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) designates World Heritage Sites of outstanding universal value to cultural or natural heritage which have been nominated by countries which are signatories to the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.[1] Cultural heritage consists of monuments (such as architectural works, monumental sculptures, or inscriptions), groups of buildings, and sites (including archaeological sites). Natural features (consisting of physical and biological formations), geological and physiographical formations (including habitats of threatened species of animals and plants), and natural sites which are important from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty, are defined as natural heritage.[2] India accepted the convention on 14 November 1977, making its sites eligible for inclusion on the list.[3]

As of 2022, there are 40 World Heritage Sites located in India. Out of these, 32 are cultural, 7 are natural, and one, the Khangchendzonga National Park, is of mixed type. India has the sixth largest number of sites in the world. The first sites to be listed were the Ajanta Caves, Ellora Caves, Agra Fort, and Taj Mahal, all of which were inscribed in the 1983 session of the World Heritage Committee. The most recent site listed was Dholavira, in 2021.[4] At different times, two sites were listed as endangered: the Manas Wildlife Sanctuary was listed between 1992 and 2011 due to poaching and activities of the Bodo militias,[5] and the monuments at Hampi were listed between 1999 and 2006 due to risks from increased traffic and new constructions in surroundings.[6] One site is transnational, The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier is shared with six other countries.[7] In addition, India has 49 sites on its tentative list.[3]


World Heritage SitesEdit

UNESCO lists sites under ten criteria; each entry must meet at least one of the criteria. Criteria i through vi are cultural, whereas vii through x are natural.[8]

* Transnational site
World Heritage Sites
Site Image Location (state) Year listed UNESCO data Description
Ajanta Caves   Maharashtra 1983 242; i, ii, iii, vi (cultural) The caves at Ajanta represent a collection of Buddhist art from two periods. First monuments date to 2nd and 1st centuries BCE and were created by the followers of Theravada Buddhism. Further monuments were added in the 5th and 6th centuries CE, during the Vakataka dynasty, by the followers of Mahayana Buddhism. The monuments are masterpieces of Buddhist art and exhibited strong influence in India and in the broader region, especially in Java.[9]
Ellora Caves   Maharashtra 1983 243; i, iii, vi (cultural) Ellora Caves comprise 34 temples and monasteries that were cut into a 2 km (1.2 mi) long basalt cliff between the 7th and 11th centuries. As they were built by followers of Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism, they illustrate religious tolerance of the period when they were constructed. The largest temple is the Kailasa Temple (pictured), that is elaborately decorated with sculptures and paintings.[10]
Agra Fort   Uttar Pradesh 1983 251; iii (cultural) Agra Fort is a 16th century Mughal imperial fortress in Agra. It got it its present layout under the Emperor Akbar. The complex contains several palaces (Jahangiri Mahal pictured), audience halls, and two mosques. Stylistically, it is one of the high points of the Indo-Islamic architecture, with influences of Persian and Timurid architecture.[11][12]
Taj Mahal   Uttar Pradesh 1983 252; i (cultural) Taj Mahal is the finest example of the Indo-Islamic architecture. It was built in Agra on the bank of the Yamuna river as a mausoleum of Mumtaz Mahal, the Persian wife of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, between 1631 and 1648. It was designed by Ustad Ahmad Lahori and built in white marble with inlay with precious and semi precious stones. The tomb is surrounded by four free-standing minarets. The complex also includes the main gate, a mosque, a gueshouse, and surrounding gardens.[13]
Sun Temple, Konârak   Odisha 1984 246; i, iii, vi (cultural) The Hindu temple was built in the 13th century and is one of the finest examples of the Kalinga architecture. It represents the chariot of the solar deity Surya: on the outer sides, it has 24 wheels, carved of stone and richly decorated, and it is pulled by six horses. Other decorative motifs include lions, musicians, dancers, and erotic scenes.[14]
Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram   Tamil Nadu 1984 249; i, ii, iii, vi (cultural) The monuments around the town of Mamallapuram were built in the 7th and 8th centuries, under the Pallava dynasty. There are different types of monuments: the rathas, which are chariot-shaped temples (Dharmaraja Ratha pictured), the mandapas (rock-cut temples), rock reliefs, including the giant Descent of the Ganges, and other temples and archaeological remains. The artistic expression of the monuments was influential in the broader region, including Cambodia, Vietnam, and Java.[15]
Kaziranga National Park   Assam 1985 337; ix, x (natural) Kaziranga is located in the floodplains of the Brahmaputra River. It is one of the best wildlife sanctuaries in the world, home to world's largest population of the Indian rhinoceros (pictured), as well as tiger, Asian elephant, wild water buffalo, and the Ganges river dolphin. The wetlands are important for migratory bird species.[16]
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary   Assam 1985 338; vii, ix, x (natural) The sanctuary along the Manas River covers grasslands on floodplains and forests, both in lowlands and in hills. The area is a biodiversity hotspot and home to several endangered species, including the Indian rhinoceros, Asian elephant, tiger, sloth bear, pygmy hog, Gee's golden langur, and the Bengal florican (pictured). The forests are constantly being renewed after floods and changes of the river courses. Between 1992 and 2011, the site was listed as endangered due to poaching and activities of the Bodo militias.[17][5]
Keoladeo National Park   Rajasthan 1985 340; x (natural) Initially a duck-hunting reserve for Maharajas, Keoladeo is a man-made and man-maintained wetland. It is important both for migratory and resident birds, especially waterbirds. Over 350 species of birds have been recorded, including 15 species of herons, Siberian crane, and greater spotted eagle. It is also protected under the Ramsar Convention.[18]
Churches and Convents of Goa   Goa 1986 234; ii, iv, vi (cultural) Old Goa was the capital of Portuguese India, a colony that lasted for 450 years until 1961. The site comprises seven churches and convents that were built in the 16th and 17th centuries in Gothic, Manueline, Mannerist, and Baroque styles, but were also adapted to suit the local techniques and resources. They were influential in spreading of architectural influences to countries in Asia where Catholic missions were being established. The Basilica of Bom Jesus, where Saint Francis Xavier is buried, is pictured.[19]
Khajuraho Group of Monuments   Madhya Pradesh 1986 240; i, iii (cultural) This site comprises 23 temples, both Hindu and Jain, that were built in the 10th and 11th centuries, during the Chandela dynasty. The temples are built in the Nagara style. They are richly decorated with stone carvings and scupltures that depict sacred and secular motifs, including depictions of domestic life, musicians, dancers, and amorous couples. A detail from the Lakshmana Temple is pictured.[20]
Group of Monuments at Hampi   Karnataka 1986 241bis; i, iii, iv (cultural) Hampi was the capital of the Vijayanagara Empire until the abandonment after the sacking and pillaging by the Deccan sultanates in 1565. For about 200 years, it was a prosperous multi-cultural city that left several monuments in the Dravidian as well in the Indo-Islamic style. The remains include religious and secular buildings and defensive structures. The Virupaksha Temple is pictured. A minor boundary modification of the site took place in 2012. Between 1999 and 2006, the site was listed as endangered due to risks posed by increased traffic and new constructions.[21][6]
Fatehpur Sikri   Uttar Pradesh 1986 255; ii, iii, iv (cultural) For about a decade in the second half of the 16th century, Fatehpur Sikri was the capital of the Mughal Empire under Emperor Akbar, until the capital was moved to Lahore in 1585 and the city was mostly abandoned. The site comprises a large collection of monuments and temples in the Mughal style, such as the Jama Masjid (the gate to the mosque, the Buland Darwaza, pictured), the Panch Mahal palace, and the Tomb of Salim Chishti.[22]
Group of Monuments at Pattadakal   Karnataka 1987 239rev; iii, iv (cultural) This site comprises nine Hindu and one Jain temple that were built in the 7th and 8th centuries under the Chalukya dynasty. They were constructed in the Badami Chalukya style that blends influences from northern and southern India. The Temple of Virupaksha is pictured.[23]
Elephanta Caves   Maharashtra 1987 244rev; i, iii (cultural) The cave complex, located on the Elephanta Island in Mumbai Harbour, was constructed mainly in the 5th and 6th centuries, with remains of human occupation dating back to the 2nd century BCE. The temples are dedicated to Shiva. The caves are decorated with stone carvings, some of them colossal. A statue of Trimurti Shiva, flanked by the dvarapalas, is pictured.[24]
Great Living Chola Temples   Tamil Nadu 1987 250bis; ii, iii (cultural) This site comprises three Hindu temples built in the 11th and 12th centuries under the Chola dynasty. They represent some of the best examples of Dravidian architecture of the Chola period. They are made of stone and decorated with stone and bronze sculptures. Initially, only the Brihadisvara Temple (picture) was listed as a World Heritage Site, two other temples, the Brihadisvara Temple and the Airavatesvara Temple were added in 2004 and the site was renamed to the current name.[25][26]
Sundarbans National Park   West Bengal 1987 452; ix, x (natural) The national park covers the Indian part of the Sundarbans, the delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. It is the world's largest and richest mangrove forest, with about 78 recorded mangrove species. It is a biodiversity hotspot, home to a large population of Bengal tigers (one pictured), as well as an important habitat for the Irrawaddy dolphin and Ganges river dolphin, several species of birds and sea turtles.[27]
Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks   Uttarakhand 1988 335bis; viii, x (natural) This site comprises two properties in West Himalayas, the Valley of Flowers National Park (pictured) and the Nanda Devi National Park. There are different types of high-altitude habitats, from high mountain peaks (Nanda Devi, at 7,817 m (25,646 ft) is India's second highest mountain) to alpine meadows. In addition to numerous mountain plant species, teh area is home to the Asiatic black bear, snow leopard, brown bear, and bharal. Nanda Devi NP was originally listed alone in 1988, the Valley of Flowers NP was added in 2005.[28][29]
Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi   Madhya Pradesh 1989 524; i, ii, iii, iv, vi (cultural) Sanchi is one of the oldest extant Buddhist sanctuaries and was instrumental in the spread of the religion through the Indian subcontinent. It became important under Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire in the 3rd century BCE. The remains of a pillar from the period are preserved. Stupas (Stupa 1 pictured), palaces, temples, and monasteries are preserved in different states of conservation, mostly dating to the 2nd and 1st centuries BCE. The city declined in importance in the 12th century.[30]
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi   Delhi 1993 232bis; ii, iv (cultural) The tomb of the Mughal emperor Humayun was constructed in the 1560s and represents the first example of a garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent, introducing the elements of Persian gardens. The monumental double-domed mausoleum represents a leap in Mughal architecture and is an architectural predecessor of the Taj Mahal. The complex includes several smaller tombs from the period. A minor boundary modification took place in 2016.[31]
Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi   Delhi 1993 233; iv (cultural) The complex comprises several early Islamic India monuments from the 13th and 14th centuries, when the Delhi Sultanate established power in the country. They include the Qutb Minar, a 72.5 m (238 ft)-high minaret (pictured), the Alai Darwaza gateway, the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque where several stone pillars from previous Hindu temples were repurposed, the Iron pillar, and several tombs and other monuments.[32]
Mountain Railways of India   West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh 1999 944ter; ii, iv (cultural) This site comprises three mountain raiways that were built in the late 19th and early 20th century to provide access to towns in highlands. They represent a technology transfer in a colonial setting, the construction involved building bridges and tunnels in order to cross difficult terrains. The railways provided support for further human settlement of the areas they linked to and are still fully operational. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway was initially listed alone in 1999. The Nilgiri Mountain Railway was added in 2005 and the Kalka–Shimla railway (pictured) in 2008.[33]
Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya   Bihar 2002 1056rev; i, ii, iii, iv, vi (cultural) The Buddhist temple complex marks the site where Buddha is said to have attained enlightenment under the Bodhi Tree. The present temple dates to the 5th and 6th centuries CE (during the Gupta period) and was built upon a previous structure commissioned by emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century BCE. The temple is 50 m (160 ft) high and made of brick. It had substantial influence on the development of architecture in the following centuries. After centuries of abandonment and neglect, the temple was extensively restored in the 19th century.[34]
Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka   Madhya Pradesh 2003 925; iii, v (cultural) This site comprises five clusters of rock shelters in the foothills of the Vindhya Range. They contain rock paintings from the hunter-gatherer societies of the Mesolithic to the historical period. The nearby villages still maintain some cultural practices similar to those depicted in the paintings.[35]
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus)   Maharashtra 2004 945rev; ii, iv (cultural) The historic terminal train station in Mumbai was built in the late 19th century. It was designed by Frederick William Stevens in the Victorian Gothic style, drawing influences from Italian Gothic architecture and combining them with influences from Indian traditional buildings. It symbolized the wealth of Mumbai as a major commercial port within the British Commonwealth.[36]
Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park   Gujarat 2004 1101; ii, iv, v, vi (cultural) The site contains remains from several periods, from the Chalcolithic to the remains of Champaner, a short-lived capital of the Gujarat Sultanate in the 16th century. Important buildings include the Hindu temple Kalika Mata, Jama Mosque (pictured) which features both Hindu and Muslim architectural elements, and the remains of water-managing systems, fortifications, and 14th-century temples.[37]
Red Fort Complex   Delhi 2007 231rev; ii, iii, vi (cultural) The Red Fort was built under Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in the mid-17th century. It represents the zenith of Mughal architecture, it blends the elements of the Indo-Persian culture with Timurid elements. Its architecture had strong influence on later palaces and gardens in the region. The Red Fort was also the setting of historical events, it was sacked and partially repurposed by the British, and it was the site where the independence of India was first celebrated. The Delhi Gate is pictured.[38]
The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur   Rajasthan 2010 1338; iii, vi (cultural) The Jantar Mantar in Jaipur is India's most significant historic astronomical observatory. It dates from the early 18th century, from the late Mughal period. There are about 20 astronomical instruments that were designed and built for naked eye observations of positions of stars and planets. It also served as a meeting point of different scientific cultures.[39]
Western Ghats   Karnataka, Maharashtra, Kerala, Tamil Nadu 2012 1342rev; ix, x (natural) The Western Ghats is a mountain range that runs along the eastern coast of the Indian subcontinent. They are covered with montane forests. The area is a biodiversity hotspot and home to endangered species such as the lion-tailed macaque, Nilgiri tahr, and Nilgiri langur (pictured). In the terms of evolutionary history, the area is important in view of the breakup of Gondwana in the early Jurassic period, after which India was an isolated landmass until the collision with the Eurasian Plate. The World Heritage Site comprises 39 individual properties.[40]
Hill Forts of Rajasthan   Rajasthan 2013 247rev; ii, iii (cultural) This site comprises six forts, the Chittor Fort, Kumbhalgarh Fort, Ranthambore Fort, Gagron Fort, Amber Fort (pictured), and the Jaisalmer Fort, that were constructed between the 8th and 18th centuries by Rajput kingdoms. They are eclectic in style, with elements of the Sultanate and Mughal architecture, and were influential on the later styles of the Maratha Empire. They are situated in different settings, for example, Ranthambore is in a forest and Jaisalmer in a desert.[41]
Rani-ki-Vav (the Queen’s Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat   Gujarat 2014 922; i, iv (cultural) Rani-ki-Vav is one of the finest examples of a stepwell, an elaborate type of well where ground water is accessed through several levels of stairs. It was constructed in the 11th century, during the Chaulukya dynasty, on the banks of the Saraswati River in the city of Patan. It consists of seven levels, each of which is decorated with stone carvings and sculptures, depicting religious and secular themes and literary works. After the change in the river course in the 13th century, it was no longer in use and got covered with silt, which allowed for its preservation.[42]
Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area   Himachal Pradesh 2014 1406rev; x (natural) The national park covers habitats from alpine peaks of the Himalayas above 6,000 m (20,000 ft) to alpine meadows and riverine forests below 2,000 m (6,600 ft). In total, there are 25 types of forests recorded, and they have rich floral and faunal assemblies, including numerous species of birds, mammals, reptiles, and insects. It is home to endangeres species such as the western tragopan and musk deer.[43]
Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda, Bihar   Bihar 2016 1502; iv, vi (cultural) Nalanda Mahavihara was a Buddhist ancient higher-learning institution established in the 5th century and lasting until the sacking in the 13th century, though some archaeological remains also date back to the 3rd century BCE. The remains include shrines and stupas, viharas (residential and educational buildings), and art works in different materials. Both the architectural solutions and educational approaches were influential in other similar institutions in the broader region.[44]
Khangchendzonga National Park   Sikkim 2016 1513; iii, vi, vii, x (mixed) The national park is located around Mount Khangchendzonga, the world's third highest mountain (8,586 m (28,169 ft)). It is a sacred mountain in Tibetan Buddhism, where the area is considered a beyul, a sacred hidden land. It is home to ethnically very diverse Sikkimese communities. From the natural perspective, the area comprises various habitats, from high mountains with glaciers to old-growth forests, and is rich both in animal and plant species.[45]
The Architectural Work of Le Corbusier, an Outstanding Contribution to the Modern Movement*   Chandigarh 2016 1321rev; i, ii, vi (cultural) This transnational site (shared with Argentina, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, and Japan) encompasses 17 works of Franco-Swiss architect Le Corbusier. Le Corbusier was an important representative of the 20th-century Modernist movement, which introduced new architectural techniques to meet the needs of the changing society. The Chandigarh Capitol Complex is listed in India. It is the central part of the city of Chandigarh and is designed in line with the principles of a radiant city. The Palace of Assembly is pictured.[7]
Historic City of Ahmadabad   Gujarat 2017 1551; ii, v (cultural) The city of Ahmedabad was founded by Ahmad Shah I in 1411, to serve as the capital of the Gujarat Sultanate. It was the meeting place of many religions (Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Judaism), which resulted in a unique urban fabric. The architecture is based on timber, and the typical neighbourhoods are called pols, densely packed traditional houses with gated streets (example pictured). Important buildings form the Sultanate period include the Bhadra Fort, city walls, and numerous mosques including the famous Sidi Saiyyed Mosque, tombs, and shrines.[46]
Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai   Maharashtra 2018 1480; ii, iv (cultural) This site comprises two assemblies of buildings in Mumbai from the British Empire era. Public buildings in the Victorian Gothic style from the second half of the 19th century adapted Gothic Revival elements for Indian climate, introducing features such as balconies and verandas. The Bombay High Court building is pictured. The Art Deco buildings date to the early 20th century and include cinema halls and apartment buildings. See also Art Deco in Mumbai.[47]
Jaipur City, Rajasthan   Rajasthan 2019 1605; ii, iv, vi (cultural) Jaipur was funded by the Rajput ruler Jai Singh II in 1727. The city was built with a grid plan, which was inspired both by ancient Hindu and Western ideals, in a departure from the medieval architecture of the region. It was a strong trade centre and home to craftsmen and artists. Important buildings and sites include the Hawa Mahal palace (pictured), Govind Dev Ji Temple, City Palace, and Jantar Mantar, which is listed as a separate World Heritage Site.[48]
Kakatiya Rudreshwara (Ramappa) Temple, Telangana   Telangana 2021 1570; i, iii (cultural) The Hindu temple, dedicated to Shiva, was constructed in the first half of the 13th century under the Kakatiya dynasty. It is decorated with stone carvings and sculptures in granite and dolerite that depict regional dance customs. In line with Hindu practices, the temple is constructed in a way that it blends harmonically with the environment.[49].
Dholavira: a Harappan City   Gujarat 2021 1645; iii, iv (cultural) Dholavira was one of the centres of the Harappan Civilisation from the 3rd to mid-2nd millennium BCE, in the Bronze Age. The remains include a walled city and a cemetery, and there are remains of buildings and of water management systems. The location of the city was chosen because of nearby sources of precious minerals. The city had trade connections with other cities in the region and as far as Mesopotamia. The site was rediscovered in 1968.[50]

Tentative listEdit

In addition to sites inscribed on the World Heritage List, member states can maintain a list of tentative sites that they may consider for nomination. Nominations for the World Heritage List are only accepted if the site was previously listed on the tentative list.[51] As of 2022, India lists 49 properties on its tentative list.[3]

Tentative sites
Site Image Location (state) Year listed UNESCO criteria Description
Temples at Bishnupur, West Bengal   West Bengal 1988 (cultural) The temples date to the 17th century. They were built in brick and laterite stone. They have characteristic sloping roofs. The Jor Bangle temple, from 1655, is pictured.[52]
Mattancherry Palace, Ernakulam, Kerala   Kerala 1988 (cultural) The palace was built by the Portuguese for the local rulers around 1555. It is a two-storey building with several halls, and features a ceiling decorated with carvings in the coronation hall.[53]
Group of Monuments at Mandu, Madhya Pradesh   Madhya Pradesh 1988 (cultural) This nomination comprises monuments dating from the 11th to the 16th centuries. They include rock-cut tombs and temples, mosques, palaces, and pavilions. The Jahaz Mahal palace is pictured.[54]
Ancient Buddhist Site, Sarnath, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh   Uttar Pradesh 1988 (cultural) This nomination comprises two groups of monuments. The first group includes Buddhist temples, stupas (Dhamek Stupa pictured), and monasteries, as well as the remains of an pillar of Ashoka. They date from the 3rd century BCE to the 12th century CE. The second group is represented by the Chaukhandi Stupa, built in 1588.[55]
Sri Harimandir Sahib, Amritsar, Punjab   Punjab 2004 iii, iv, vi (cultural) Sri Harimandir Sahib, also known as the Golden Temple, is the spiritual centre of Sikhism. The temple complex was rebuilt several times. The architectural layout of the complex reflects the spiritual concepts of the religion. The main temple building is richly decorated with floral patterns, either painted or as marble inlay.[56]
River Island of Majuli in midstream of Brahmaputra River in Assam   Assam 2004 ii, iii, v, vi (cultural) Majuli is a large river island in the Brahmaputra River. There are over 200 villages in the island, inhabited by people from various ethnic origins. A characteristic concept of the region are the satras, institutional centres for cultural activities that also serve as democratic mediators for dispute resolution.[57]
Namdapha National Park   Arunachal Pradesh 2006 vii, ix, x (natural) The national park covers an extensive wilderness area which is mostly covered in forests and sparsely explored. It is located in the Eastern Himalayas. The highest peak is Dapha Bum, at 4,571 m (14,997 ft).[58]
Wild Ass Sanctuary, Little Rann of Kutch   Gujarat 2006 x (natural) Little Rann of Kutch is a salt marsh with sparse vegetation, mostly with xerophytic species. It is home to the last wild population of the Indian wild ass (two specimens pictured). It is also an important nesting area for birds.[59]
Neora Valley National Park   West Bengal 2009 vii, x (natural) The area is covered by virgin forest and is a biodiversity hotspot. The valley spans from lowlands to altitudes around 3,200 m (10,500 ft), which results in a variety of habitats. It is home to several bird species and mammals, including the red panda and two species of pangolin.[60]
Desert National Park   Rajasthan 2009 vii, viii, x (natural) The national park covers a part of the Thar Desert. It is home to several endemic species, such as the Indian hairy-footed gerbil and the Rajasthan toad-headed lizard. It is also home to two endangered species of vultures. There are fossil beds in the park, dating to the Jurassic period.[61]
Silk Road Sites in India   Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Puducherry, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh 2010 ii, iii, vi (cultural) This nomination comprises 12 sites connected to the ancient Silk Road, a network of trade routes connecting China with the west. There were at least three corridors in India. In addition to the movement of goods, they were important in spreading of Buddhism and Greco-Buddhist culture. Sites in the nomination include the Roman trade port at Arikamedu and the early Buddhist site of Vaishali (the Relic Stupa pictured).[62]
Santiniketan   West Bengal 2010 ii, iii, vi (cultural) Santiniketan was founded as an ashram by Debendranath Tagore in the second half of the 19th century and then developed into a university town of Visva-Bharati University. It is connected to the life and philosophy of Debendranath's son Rabindranath Tagore, the leading figure of the Bengali Renaissance. The prayer hall is pictured.[63]
The Qutb Shahi Monuments of Hyderabad Golconda Fort, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Charminar   Telangana 2010 i, ii, iii, iv (cultural) This nomination comprises the monuments of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, a sultanate that ruled in the 16th and 17th century, in Hyderabad and its surroundings. The Golconda Fort is a citadel and early capital, Qutb Shahi tombs (two pictured) are mosques and burial places of the sultans, and Charminar, built in 1591, is a monumental gateway with four minarets. These sites illustrate the cosmopolitan nature of the region in that period.[64]
Mughal Gardens in Kashmir   Jammu and Kashmir 2010 i, ii, iv (cultural) Mughal gardens are gardens built by the Mughals. This style was influenced by the Persian gardens, particularly by the Charbagh layout, with terraces and fountains arranged around a central water channel, reflecting the Islamic concept of paradise. Six gardens are listed in the nomination, Chashme Shahi, Shalimar Bagh (pavillion pictured), Pari Mahal, Verinag, Achabal Gardens, and Nishat Bagh.[65]
Delhi - A Heritage City   Delhi 2012 ii, v, vi (cultural) Delhi, as Lal Kot, was founded in 1060 as a capital of the Tomara dynasty. Later rulers built subsequent cities on the site, Delhi was the capital of the Delhi Sultanate and an intermittent capital of the Mughal Empire. During the British rule, the capital was moved from Calcutta to the newly constructed New Delhi in 1911. The nomination lists the following areas of historical and architectural importance: Mehrauli, Nizamuddin Dargah (the tomb of the Sufi saint Nizamuddin Auliya pictured), Shahjahanabad, and New Delhi.[66]
Monuments and Forts of the Deccan Sultanate   Karnataka, Telangana, Andra Pradesh 2014 ii, iii (cultural) This nomination comprises the monuments of Deccan sultanates, dating between the 14th and 17th centuries, in four cities: Gulbarga, Bidar, Bijapur, and Hyderabad. The architecture of the Deccan sultanates represents interactions between Islamic and Hindu influences. Some of the monuments in the nomination include the Bidar Fort (pictured), Jama Mosque in Gulbarga, and the Qutb Shahi tombs.[67]
Cellular Jail, Andaman Islands   Andaman and Nicobar Islands 2014 iv, vi (cultural) The jail was constructed in 1906 by the British, primarily to exile political prisoners to the remote archipelago. The architecture was based on the panopticon system, with radiating wings that were easy to monitor by a single guard. Jail cells were intended for individuals for confinement. The jail was infamous for brutal treatment of inmates and is important in the history of the Indian independence movement.[68]
Iconic Saree Weaving Clusters of India   Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Assam 2014 iii, v (cultural) Sari, or saree, is a traditional attire of Indian women. Sari weaving required particular adjustments of the weavers' houses to accommodate looms and other devices for silk processing, resulting in a specific vernacular architecture. This nomination comprises eight clusters where sari weaving was and still is a major profession of the villagers. Different styles of saris are pictured.[69]
Apatani Cultural Landscape   Arunachal Pradesh 2014 iii, v (cultural) Apatani people live in the Ziro Valley that is surrounded by high mountains of the Himalayas. They have a distinct culture from other tribes in the region with traditional crafts and festivals. They practice wet rice cultivation and are careful in land management, which allowed sustainable agriculture for several centuries. The resulting cultural landscape reflects the ability of the tribe to make the adverse environment habitable.[70]
Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam   Tamil Nadu 2014 i, ii, iii, v (cultural) The Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple is dedicated to Ranganatha. It is the world's largest operating Hindu temple and is in fact a temple town, with inner enclosures constituting the temple and outer ones being used for settlements. There have been temples at the site for over two millennia, however, the key buildings standing today date to the time of the Vijayanagara Empire, from the 14th to the 16th century. The temple has 21 gopurams which are richly decorated with paintings and sculptures.[71]
Monuments of Srirangapatna Island Town   Karnataka 2014 i, ii, iii, iv (cultural) Srirangapatna, the river island in the Kaveri river, is an important pilgrimage site in South India. It has been continuously inhabited since the 12th century. The monuments in the island date to different historical periods, including the periods of the Hoysala Empire, Vijayanagara Empire, Kingdom of Mysore, and the British Raj. Most of the monuments date from the 16th to the 19th centuries and have elements of Hindu, Indo-Islamic, and British styles. The Gumbaz mausoleum is pictured.[72]
Chilika Lake   Odisha 2014 ix, x (natural) Chilika Lake is a large brackish water lagoon, fed by over 50 rivers and streams. It is and ephemeral formation, with the river sediments being deposited to the Bay of Bengal. Different parts of the lake are freshwater, brackish, and marine ecosystems, and are an important habitat for birds and mammals, including the endangered Irrawaddy dolphin. The lake is rich in fish species that support the local fishermen population.[73]
Padmanabhapuram Palace   Tamil Nadu 2014 iii, iv (cultural) The palace in Padmanabhapuram was constructed in the 16th century, with later additions continuing into the early 19th century, to serve as the seat of the Travancore royal family. It is a masterpiece of traditional timber architecture and is decorated with murals and carvings. Murals depict both the themes from Hindu mythology and secular themes.[74]
Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala   Karnataka 2014 ii, iii, vi (cultural) This nomination comprises two clusters of monuments (in Belur and Halebidu) dating to the time of the Hoysala Empire, between the 11th and 14th centuries. Hoysala architecture combined the elements of the Dravidian architecture with influences from northern India. The temples were built by the followers of Vaishnavism, Shaivism, and Jainism, and they are richly decorated with stone sculptures and carvings. The Chennakeshava Temple in Belur (pictured) is still an important pilgrimage site.[75]
Sites of Saytagrah, India’s non-violent freedom movement   several sites 2014 iv, vi (cultural) Satyagraha, a form of nonviolent resistance or civil resistance, was developed by Mahatma Gandhi in the first half of the 20th century, as a part of the Indian independence movement. The nomination comprises 22 sites across India related to the movement. Several sites are ashrams (Sabarmati Ashram pictured), founded by Gandhi to teach his philosophy. Other sites are related to the independence movement. Satyagraha theory was influential in the Civil rights movement in the United States and in the fight against apartheid in South Africa.[76]
Thembang Fortified Village   Arunachal Pradesh 2014 ii, iii, v (cultural) The village of Thembang is located in the Eastern Himalayas at an altitude above 2,000 m (6,600 ft). It is built as a dzong, a type of fortified monastery also found in the neighbouring Bhutan and Tibet. It is inhabited by the Monpas and was constructed before the 12th century.[77]
Narcondam Island   Andaman and Nicobar Islands 2014 viii, ix, x (natural) Narcondam Island is a volcanic island off the main chain of the Andaman Islands. It is composed mostly of andesite, dacite, and amphibole, types of volcanic rocks and minerals. The island is important in view of evolution of species on isolated islands. It is the only place where the endangered Narcondam hornbill (pictured) is found, and it is also home to several endemic species of the Andaman Islands.[78]
Moidams – the Mound-Burial system of the Ahom Dynasty   Assam 2014 v (cultural) This nomination comprises the tumuli in the town of Charaideo and its surroundings. The town was the capital of the Ahom kingdom (1228–1826), and the tumuli are the burial sites of the royals and of nobility. The tumuli create an undulating landscape, reminiscent of hills, in line with the spiritual beliefs of the Tai-Ahom people.[79]
Ekamra Kshetra – The Temple City, Bhubaneswar   Odisha 2014 i, ii, iii (cultural) Ekamra Kshetra is the name for the old part of the city of Bhubaneswar. It is a holy city and has earned the nickname of "Temple City" due to about 700 temples that once stood here. The temples were built between the 3rd century BCE and 15th century CE. They are built in the Kalinga style, and belong to Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain religions. The Lingaraja Temple is pictured. In addition to the temples, there are also Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves built by Jain worshipers.[80]
The Neolithic Settlement of Burzahom   Jammu and Kashmir 2014 ii, iii, v (cultural) The archaeological site at Burzahom has provided information about different stages of societal development from the 4th to the 2nd millennium BCE. People initially lived in pit-houses and later built houses of mud and brick. There are also remains of megalithic structures. Material remains at the site hint at the interactions with other cultures in the region. A painted pot from 2700 BCE is pictured.[81]
Archaeological remains of a Harappa Port-Town, Lothal   Gujarat 2014 v (cultural) Lothal is the only explored port-town of the Indus Valley Civilisation, or Harappan Civilization, from the Bronze Age. It was occupied from around 2400 BCE to 1600 BCE, when it was likely damaged by tidal flooding. The fortified consisted of a citadel with wide streets and a warehouse, and a port area along the river. Remains found at the site demonstrate trade links with the Persian Gulf region. The remains of drainage channels are pictured.[82]
Mountain Railways of India (Extension)   Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh 2014 ii, iv (cultural) This is a proposed extension of the existing World Heritage Site. It includes the Matheran Hill Railway (pictured) and the Kangra Valley Railway. They were built in the early 20th century, construction involved technical innovation to overcome difficult mountaneous terrain.[83]
Tentative sites
Sr.
No.
Name Image Region Period UNESCO data Description
18 Bahá'í House of Worship at New Delhi   Delhi (New Delhi) December 24, 1986 2014 A Baháʼí House of Worship, also referred to by the name Mashriqu-l-Adhkár (مشرق اﻻذكار), an Arabic phrase meaning "Dawning-place of the remembrance of God", is the designation of a place of worship, or temple, of the Baháʼí Faith. The teachings of the religion envisage Houses of Worship being surrounded by a number of dependencies dedicated to social, humanitarian, educational, and scientific pursuits, although none has yet been built to such an extent.
20 Chettinad, Village Clusters of the Tamil Merchants   Tamil Nadu (Chettinad) mostly 19th century 2014
35 Sites along the Uttarapath, Badshahi Sadak, Sadak-e-Azam, Grand Trunk Road   India Antiquity – present 2015 It is one of Asia's oldest and longest major roads.[84]
36 Evolution of Temple Architecture – Aihole-Badami-Pattadakal  

   

Karnataka (Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal) 5th to 8th centuries 2015
37 Cold Desert Cultural Landscape of India  
 
 
 
 
Ladakh
Himachal Pradesh (Spiti)
2015 Much of this desert is over an altitude of 3,000 m (9,800 ft).[85][86]
38 Keibul Lamjao Conservation Area   Manipur 1977 2016 Keibul Lamjao Conservation Area comprises Keibul Lamjao National Park and Loktak Lake and Pumlen Pat. Loktak Lake is famous for Phumdis, a series of floating islands.[87] Keibul Lamjao National Park is rich amalgam of aquatic, wetland and terrestrial ecosystem.[88]
39 Garo Hills Conservation Area Meghalaya 2018 The Garo Hills Conservation Area (GHCA)[89]
40 The historic ensemble of Orchha   Madhya Pradesh 16th century 2019 Orchha was built by King Rudra Pratap Singh of Bundela dynasty in the 16th century. The ancient town is famous for inception of Bundeli architectural style including Chaturbhuj Temple, Orchha fort complex, Raja Mahal among others.[90]
41 Iconic Riverfront of the Historic City of Varanasi   Uttar Pradesh 2021 The Ganga river with its riverfront ghats in Varanasi, a total of 88 in number are groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape are of outstanding universal value from the point of view of history, art or science.[91]
42 Temples of Kanchipuram  

 

Tamil Nadu 6th - 7th centuries CE 2021 The temple town of Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu, is dotted with ancient temples that are architectural marvels and a visual treat. This historical city once had 1,000 temples, of which only 126 (108 Shaiva and 18 Vaishnava) now remain. Its rich legacy has been the endowment of the Pallava dynasty, which made the region its capital between the 6th and 7th centuries and lavished upon its architectural gems that are a fine example of Dravidian styles.[92]
43 Hire Benkal, Megalithic Site   Karnataka Neolithic Age 2021 The 2,800-years-old megalithic site of Hire Benkal in Karnataka is one of the largest prehistoric megalithic settlements where some funerary monuments are still intact. The site has extremely valuable collection of Neolithic monuments.[93]
44 Bhedaghat- Lametaghat in Narmada Valley   Madhya Pradesh 2021 Bhedaghat, often referred to as the Grand Canyon of India, is a town in the Jabalpur district, around 25 km from Jabalpur. It is known for its marble rocks and their various morphological forms on either side of the Narmada river which flows through the gorge. It has also been observed that the magical marble mountains assume different colours and even shapes of animals and other living forms as one moves through them.[94]
45 Satpura Tiger Reserve[95]   Madhya Pradesh 2021
46 Serial Nomination of Maratha Military Architecture in Maharashtra  

 

Maharashtra 17th century CE 2021 There are 12 forts in Maharashtra dating back to the era of the 17th-century Maratha king Chhatrapati Shivaji. They are namely Shivneri (the birthplace of Shivaji); Raigad (the capital fort rebuilt for the coronation of the Maratha king), Torna (the first fort of the Maratha empire), Rajgad, Salher-Mulher, Panhala, Pratapgad, Lohagad, Sindhudurg, Padmadurga (Kasa), Vijaydurg and Kolaba.[96]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit